Antibodies tell us the state of health of our cells in the presence of invading pathogens and infections/viruses. We must ensure a healthy immune system and lymphatic system (cleans our blood from toxins).

Pathologies of antibodies

Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies The presence of anti-thyroid antibodies is associated with an increased risk of unexplained subfertility (odds ratio 1.5 and 95% confidence interval 1.1–2.0), miscarriage (odds ratio 3.73, 95% confidence interval 1.8–7.6), recurrent miscarriage (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.5–3.5), preterm birth (odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.1–3.5) and maternal Postpartum thyroiditis (odds ratio 11.5, 95% confidence interval 5.6–24).

Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies are associated with the absence of distant metastases in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer.
( (Jamshid Farahati et al)

Walter de Gruyter: 2011 Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: 2011Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine)

IgA Decreased or absent IgA, termed selective IgA deficiency, can be a clinically significant immunodeficiency.

Neisseria gonorrhœae (which causes gonorrhea), Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae type B all releases a protease which destroys IgA.

IgA nephropathy is caused by IgA deposits in the kidneys. It is not yet known why IgA deposits occur in this chronic disease. Some theories suggest an abnormality of the immune system results in these deposits.

Celiac disease involves IgA pathology due to the presence of IgA antiendomysial antibodies.

IgD Binds to basophils and mast cells and activate these cells to produce antimicrobial factors to participate in respiratory immune defense
IgE Responsible in pathological processes of allergy and asthma
IgG Binds many kinds of pathogens—representing viruses, bacteria, and fungi—IgG protects the body from infection
IgM In patient’s serum indicates recent infection, or in a neonate’s serum indicates intrauterine infection (e.g., congenital rubella).

The development of anti-donor IgM after organ transplantation is not associated with graft rejection but it may have a protective effect

Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies are associated with the absence of distant metastases in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer.

The production of antibodies in Graves’ Disease is thought to arise by activation of CD4+ T-cells, followed by B-cell recruitment into the thyroid. These B-cells produce antibodies specific to the thyroid antigens.  In Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, activated CD4+ T-cells produce interferon-γ, causing the thyroid cells to display MHC class II molecules.  This expands the autoreactive T-cell repertoire and prolongs the inflammatory response.

Anti-thyroid autoantibodies (or simply anti-thyroid antibodies) are autoantibodies targeted against one or more components of the thyroid. The most clinically relevant anti-thyroid autoantibodies are anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO antibodies), thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs) and thyroglobulin antibodies. TRAbs are subdivided into activating, blocking and neutral antibodies, depending on their effect on the TSH receptor.

Anti-sodium/Iodide (Anti–Na+/I) symporter antibodies are a more recent discovery and their clinical relevance is still unknown. Graves’ Disease and Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis are commonly associated with the presence of anti-thyroid autoantibodies.

Although there is overlap, anti-TPO antibodies are most commonly associated with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis and activating TRAbs are most commonly associated with Graves’ Disease. Thyroid microsomal antibodies were a group of anti-thyroid antibodies, they were renamed after the identification of their target antigen.


Connie’s comments: Being happy, strong immune system, proper hygiene and healthy pregnancy ensures a strong immune system.