Direct Thrombin Inhibitors’ Potential Efficacy in Alzheimer’s Disease
RAMI, B. K.
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE AND OTHER DEMENTIAS27(8):564-567, 20121533-3175
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease with no available disease-modifying drugs.
However, it has been postulated that neurovascular damage is a primary occurrence in this disease.
Neurovascular damage is the result of the presence of cardiovascular risk factor generating hypoxia, oxidative stress, and metabolic changes that activate the endothelial cells of the brain microvasculature in order to respond to the stress by the development of angiogenesis.
This endothelial activation could lead to a secretion of many proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors, such as thrombin.
Heparin and related oligosaccharides have been shown to be efficient in the improvement of symptoms of AD.
Their efficacy may be limited by their nonselective inhibitory effect of thrombin’s activity.
Direct thrombin inhibitors, such as dabigatran, might be efficient in the treatment of patients with AD because of their high selectivity for thrombin’s activity inhibition while having a safer side effects profile than heparin.
Connie’s comments: Take supplements of Zinc, Vit D, Vit C and calcium and magnesium for synergy and eat whole foods rich in these vitamins and minerals. Avoid allergy causing foods: corn, dairy, meat and others.
Hypotensive Syndromes Are Not Associated With Cognitive Impairment in Geriatric Patients
SCHOON, Y., LAGRO, J., VERHOEVEN, Y., RIKKERT, M. O., CLAASSEN, J.
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE AND OTHER DEMENTIAS28(1):47-53, 20131533-3175
To investigate the association of the hypotensive syndromes orthostatic hypotension (OH), postprandial hypotension (PPH), and carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) with cognitive impairment (mild cognitive impairment/dementia).
Continuous measurements of blood pressure (Finapres) were performed during active standing, meal test, and carotid sinus massage, among 184 elderly patients presenting with falls.
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia were diagnosed following a multidisciplinary assessment. The study design was a retrospective cohort study. The OH, PPH, and CSH were observed in 104 (58%), 108 (64%), and 78 (51%) patients, respectively.
A total of 79 (43%) patients were cognitively impaired (MCI impairment n = 44; dementia n = 35). The prevalence of cognitive impairment varied little across the hypotensive syndromes (32%-43%) and was similar in patients with and without hypotensive syndromes (P = .59).
In this geriatric population with a high prevalence of both hypotensive syndromes and cognitive impairment, patients with one or more hypotensive syndromes were not likely to have cognitive impairment.
Plasma Viscosity: Is a Biomarker for the Differential Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease and Vascular Dementia?
ARAS, S., TEK, I., VARLI, M., YALCIN, A., CENGIZ, O. K., ATMIS, V., ATLI, T.
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE AND OTHER DEMENTIAS28(1):62-68, 20131533-3175
In this study, the importance of plasma viscosity (PV) as a biomarker in differential diagnosis of dementia subtypes especially Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) was investigated.
Our study recruited 45 patients with AD, 35 patients with VaD, and control participants. Individuals with inflammatory disease, infection, heart, liver, renal failure, and with high erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels were excluded from the study.
The cases underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment. The PV measurements were performed with Brookfield DV-II viscometer.
The PV levels of the dementia group were significantly higher than the control group . When the dementia group was analyzed by itself, patients with VaD had higher PV levels than the patients with AD.
The PV is a biomarker to be used in diagnosis as well as in differentiating between the 2 most common forms of dementia which are AD and VaD.
Connie’s comments: Take supplements of Zinc, Vit D, Vit C and calcium and magnesium for synergy and eat whole foods rich in these vitamins and minerals. Eat ginger, garlic and onions and less on red meats (if not grass fed).
Histone Deacetylases Enzyme, Copper, and IL-8 Levels in Patients With Alzheimer’s Disease
ALSADANY, M. A., SHEHATA, H. H., MOHAMAD, M. I., MAHFOUZ, R. G.
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE AND OTHER DEMENTIAS28(1):54-61, 20131533-3175
Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of cognitive abilities.
Epigenetic modification, oxidative stress, and inflammation play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease.
We aimed to detect noninvasive peripheral biomarkers with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis and progression of AD.
A total of 25 elderly patients with AD and 25 healthy control participants were selected and subjected to cognitive assessment and laboratory measures including histone deacetylases (HDACs), copper, and interleukin 8 (IL-8) levels.
The levels of HDACs, copper, and IL-8 were significantly higher in patients with AD (P < .001) and had a significant negative effect on all cognitive assessment tests. Receiver–operating curve (ROC) analysis revealed that HDACs and copper levels had higher sensitivity and specificity.
Plasma levels of HDACs and copper may be used as peripheral biomarkers in diagnosis of AD, while IL-8 level could be a useful biomarker in following AD progression.
Connie’s comments: Take supplements of Zinc, Vit D, Vit C and calcium and magnesium for synergy and eat whole foods rich in these vitamins and minerals. Do not take copper and iron supplements.
Potential Blood Biomarker for Disease Severity in the Taiwanese Population With Alzheimer’s Disease
HUANG, C.-W., WANG, S.-J., WU, S.-J., YANG, C.-C., HUANG, M.-W., LIN, C.-H., CHENG, I. H.
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE AND OTHER DEMENTIAS28(1):75-83, 20131533-3175
The identification of blood biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) could contribute for improvement in early diagnosis.
To define AD biomarkers, we compared serum/plasma levels of amyloid β (Aβ), tau, cytokines, and biometals between AD and non-AD groups.
Cognitive impairment was assessed by Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Clinical Dementia Rating scales. Plasma concentrations of total Aβ, Aβ42, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 were quantified by immunoassays. Serum biometal concentrations were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry.
We found that serum zinc (Zn) was lower in patients with AD. After controlling for age, the MMSE score correlated with both TNF-α and total Aβ levels in the AD group, while the MMSE score correlated with iron only in the non-AD group.
Our finding that blood Zn, TNF-α, and total Aβ are possible biomarkers for AD diagnosis and prognosis validates the pervious publication on potential biomarker in the Taiwanese population.
Connie’s comments: Take supplements of Zinc, Vit D, Vit C and calcium and magnesium for synergy and eat whole foods rich in these vitamins and minerals.