It’s old blood, not old bones, that makes fracture healing difficult among the elderly
Why do vampires from Dracula to Angel seem to crave the blood of the young and beautiful? The undead may be onto something. Young blood, it seems, has special healing properties that have been lost in older blood.
A recent finding by scientists from the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, and Duke University challenges long-held ideas about why our bones have a harder time healing as we age. Their research discovered that old mouse bones mend like youthful bones do when they’re exposed to young blood after a fracture.
“The traditional concept is that as you get older, your bone cells kind of wear out so they can’t heal as well, and we thought we’d find that during this study as well,” explains study co-author Benjamin Alman, of the Hospital for Sick Children. “But it turns out that it’s not the bone cells, it’s the blood cells. As you get older, the blood cells change the way they behave when you have an injury, and as a result the cells that heal bone aren’t able to work as efficiently.”
When a bone is fractured, significant bleeding occurs at the site. Inflammatory blood cells help spur the process by which new bone cells heal the break over time. Alman and colleagues found that the blood cells of older mice don’t drive this healing the way younger blood cells do, but they also wanted to see how those older bones would heal when exposed to young blood.
The researchers paired lab mice, one old and one young, and subjected them to bone fractures, but that wasn’t all they had in common. The living animals’ circulatory systems were also joined together by a 150-year-old surgical technique known as parabiosis. Scientists removed a layer of skin from each mouse and stitched the exposed surfaces together. As the animals healed their capillaries joined, enabling their two hearts to pump the same blood throughout the two bodies as a single system. Parabiosis, which has been gaining new popularity in aging research, allowed Alman and colleagues to see what impacts the circulating factors of the younger mouse’s blood had when introduced into the body of an older mouse.
The experiment, published this week in Nature Communications, suggests that young blood cells secrete some as-yet-unknown molecule, likely a protein or possibly some other chemical, that speeds up the healing of fractured bone. The molecule apparently does so by regulating levels of beta-catenin in bone cells known as osteoblasts. Keeping beta-catenin at the proper levels appears crucial for the formation of new high-density bone.
This ability is greatly diminished in older animals’ blood because it no longer secretes the molecule, whose exact chemical nature remains a mystery at this point. “My guess is that there are a number of proteins (and enzymes) involved that are made differently as we get older, and that they are responsible for the difficulty in healing bone,” Alman says.
The findings could prove good news for aging humans, but healing our bones won’t require the type of transfusions used in the experiment—nor will it borrow the synthesized “True Blood” variety that may soon enter clinical trials. Sharing human blood in this manner raises a number of red flags ranging from practicality to possible medical complications.
Instead, the critical next step is identifying the exact chemical nature of the molecule produced by young blood cells that older cells can no longer secrete. Pinpointing it could drive development of future drugs that would help enable older bone cells to work like they did in youth, by either spurring older blood to function more like younger blood does, or by simply delivering the proteins that the blood once did, enabling bone cells to do their healing work.
“It’s not the cells responsible for making new bone that have changed,” Alman says. “[Bone cells] still have that ability to act like they are young again.”
“If they could never behave like young cells again, and they were too worn out to produce bone the way they should, it would be really hard to change that,” he adds. “But these results show that this is a solvable problem. Now it’s a matter of figuring out how best to make it work.”
Read more: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/vampire-healing-young-blood-can-mend-old-broken-bones-180955336/#SidhaJXyzwOdlbXu.99
Symptoms of Enzyme Deficiencies
Although you may be eating healthy foods and exercising, other factors can overrun your body’s ability to produce a high enough enzyme level to maintain good health. Some of these factors include environmental stressors, such as air or electromagnetic pollution; emotional stress, such as job loss, loss of a loved one, or a chronic relationship conflict; lack of raw foods in the diet; other lifestyle stress, such as frequent business travel, lack of sleep, or job and family demands. All of these conditions either inhibit the body’s ability to produce enzymes, or put the body into stress because normal levels of enzymes are being used up and not sufficiently replaced.
Here are some indicators to look for that may point to a enzyme deficiency.
Protease digests protein. Protease deficiency creates alkaline excesses in the blood. This is not because protease itself is acidic; it is not. Acidity is created through the digestion of protein with protease. Some people may be vegetarian not by choice, but because they are protease deficient and cannot digest protein. Since acidity comes from the digestion of protein with protease, protease-deficient people may have an alkaline excess which can produce anxiety states.
Protein is also required to carry protein-bound calcium in the blood. Insufficient protein-bound calcium lays the foundation for arthritis and other calcium deficient diseases. Why? When the blood cannot carry calcium because it lacks protein, it withdraws the necessary calcium from the bones to maintain homeostasis. This situation is aggravated in people who take calcium carbonate supplements, such as Tums or other antacids, because this adds to the alkaline stress on the blood. The blood cannot carry ionic calcium as efficiently because ionic calcium requires a certain level of acidity to be present.
Overly alkaline people have a multitude of calcium metabolism problems, such as osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, gouty arthritis, degenerative disc problems, bone spurs and related disorders such as sciatica and ligament problems.
Because 46% of digested protein is converted to glucose upon demand, inadequate protein digestion leads to hypoglycemia (hypoglycemia also has other causes such as hypothyroidism and vitamin deficiency). Symptoms include moodiness, mood swings and irritability among many others.
Because water follows protein in the body, inadequate protein in the blood also means inadequate hydration. Where does the water go? Into the tissues after the protein! This causes tissue swelling (edema ). Water is forced into the capillaries and into the tissues by the pressure of blood being pumped around the body. By a reverse process, which depends on the water-drawing power of the proteins in the blood, it is reabsorbed in the capillaries from the tissues. These two mechanisms need to remain in balance.
Protein maldigestion leads to a toxic colon. People in this category often have problems in the area of the descending colon (lower right quadrant of the abdomen). This includes developing appendicitis and even more serious problems such as mucous colitis and even colon cancer.
Another of the most common results of protein maldigestion is chronic ear infections and fluid in the ears, especially in children. This is a protease-calcium deficiency. To drain fluids from the middle ear, you must increase protease in the blood. Protease will pull water out of the middle ear, and also the ankles, hands and feet during PMS, and put it back into the blood.
Protease is also involved in the immune system via its action on bacterial debris, certain viruses, and its ability to break down circulating immune complexes. Protease has an ability to digest unwanted debris in the blood and should be considered your friendly blood cleanser. Protease deficient people are immune compromised, making them susceptible to bacterial, viral and yeast infections, and a general decrease in immunity.
Protease deficient women are predisposed to PMS. The only people who cannot tolerate protease are those who suffer from ulcers, gastritis or hiatus hernias. The already damaged mucosal tissue cannot handle the extra acidity from the digested protein.
Amylase digests carbohydrates or polysaccharides into smaller disaccharide units, eventually converting them into monosaccharides such as glucose. People who can’t digest fats often eat sugar and carbohydrates to make up for the lack of fat in their diet. If their diet is excessive in carbohydrates, they develop an amylase deficiency and symptoms arising from it.
Amylase not only digests carbohydrates, but also dead white blood cells (pus). For example, when you are low in amylase you are a candidate for abscesses (areas with pus but not bacteria). If you have a toothache and are being treated with antibiotics, but it doesn’t go away, chances are you may have an abscess.
Amylase is involved in anti-inflammatory reactions such as those caused by the release of histamine and similar substances. The inflammatory response usually occurs in organs which are in contact with the outside world such as the lungs and skin.
Therefore, an amylase deficiency can include skin problems such as psoriasis, eczema, hives, insect bites, allergic bee and bug stings. atopic dermatitis, and all types of herpes. Lung problems, including asthma and emphysema, require amylase plus other enzyme formulas depending on the particular condition.
Carbohydrate digestion requires phosphorus. If excess refined carbohydrates are consumed, a phosphorus deficiency will result.
Phosphorus deficiencies include: thick blood, tendency towards gastritis (inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract) and stiff joints, especially in the morning. Adequate phosphorus prevents the deposit of calcium oxalate and calcium carbonate in the joints. If phosphorus is deficient due to excess consumption of sugar, joint pain results from deposits of oxalates and carbonates. Phosphorus deficiency is often accompanied by thick blood and high blood pressure. Please do not feel you can run out and get a phosphorus supplement to solve this problem. The only way the calcium and phosphorus can be balanced is by getting them both from the foods in which they originate in a natural, balanced proportion, digested with sufficient amylase.
Since lipase digests fat and fat-soluble vitamins, lipase deficient people can be expected to have a tendency towards high cholesterol, high triglycerides, difficulty losing weight and diabetes, or a tendency towards glucosuria (sugar in the urine without symptoms of diabetes), which can lead to heart disease.
Because lipase requires the co-enzyme chloride, lipase deficient people have a tendency towards hyphochlorhydria (low chlorides in our electrolyte balance). This can be easily remedied with lipase, but often nutritionists recommend using betaine HCL, which places acidic stress on the blood, leading to an inability to provide the alkalinity required to activate the body’s pancreatic enzymes. Lipase requires a high pH for its activation among food enzymes. That is why fats are the hardest of all foods to digest.
Fat intolerant people can be helped by taking a lipase supplement, but ONLY if the fat intolerant person minimizes fat consumption.
Lipase deficient people have decreased cell permeability, meaning nutrients cannot get in and the waste cannot get out of the cell. For example, diabetics are lipase deficient and cannot get glucose into their cells, and wastes or unwanted substances cannot get out. People with “hidden viruses” that are often diagnosed with “Chronic Fatigue Syndrome” also fall into this category. Lipase modulates cell permeability so that nutrients can enter and wastes can exit. Of course, waste-eating enzymes (such as protease) must be taken to help cleanse the blood of the unwanted debris.
A common symptom of lipase deficiency is muscle spasms. This is not the “muscle cramp” (tetany) resulting from low ionized blood calcium. It commonly occurs as trigger point pain in the muscles across the upper shoulders, but it can occur in other muscles, such as those in the neck or anywhere in the small or large intestines including the muscles of the rectal tissues. If chronic muscle spasms keep you going back to a chiropractor, osteopath or acupuncturist for repeated adjustments or therapy, try adding some lipase to your diet. It may help you hold your adjustments.
People with “spastic colon” may be lipase deficient. They are given toxic muscle relaxant drugs to control the symptoms, but what they really need is a simple food enzyme called lipase.
The condition of vertigo, or labrynthis, also called Meniere’s Disease (dizziness aggravated by movement such as walking or driving), can result from lipase deficiency. A nutritionist saw this condition develop suddenly in a young man after the typical American fat challenge test–a meal which consisted of a fried fish sandwich with tartar sauce, double cheeseburger plus a bag of french fries. The dizziness was accompanied by severe nausea and vomiting which was aggravated by movement. This condition lasted several days. Lipase can relieve a condition like this, often within minutes.
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The condition of menopause is often associated with lipase deficiency because lipase addresses the gonadal tissue. However, PMS is more often associated with protease deficiency.
CELLULASE DEFICIENCY (raw foods )
Our body makes no cellulase at all, whereas our pancreas produces enzymes similar to protease, amylase and lipase. They are similar, but not identical, because ONLY FOOD ENZYMES WORK IN THE STOMACH. Pancreatic enzymes work in the duodenum when it is at the right alkaline pH (during the third part of digestion).
Because our bodies do not make cellulase, this food enzyme is essential. We must eat it on a daily basis. Remember, ONLY RAW FOODS contain cellulase. Of all the enzymes, this deficiency carries with it the most categories of problems.
Cellulase deficiency is a malabsorption syndrome (impaired absorption of nutrients, vitamins, or minerals from the diet by the lining of the small intestine) with its many symptoms of lower abdominal gas, pain, bloating and problems associated with the small intestine and pancreas.
Other conditions associated with cellulose deficiency include nervous system conditions such as Bell’s Palsy, Tic and facial neuralgia, all of which respond remarkably well to cellulase. Certain toxic conditions, such as chemicals, drugs and toxic metals, including silver amalgam fillings (mercury in the teeth) are greatly alleviated with cellulase. This also includes acute food allergies. People who have malabsorption syndrome and cellulose deficiency have a tendency toward sugar and/or gluten intolerance.
This condition is evident when people cannot split the sucrose disaccharide into its twin partners, two units of glucose. Glucose is a primary brain food so expect mental and emotional problems in people who cannot get glucose into the brain. These symptoms include the whole gamut from depression and moodiness to panic attacks, manic and schizophrenic behavior and severe mood swings, which often lead to the prescribing of toxic behavior-modifying drugs.
Seizures, cranial problems and headaches in sucrose intolerant people have been observed, not to mention the symptoms of B-vitamin deficiency resulting from the use of refined white sugar. One researcher has observed almost a universal intolerance syndrome among childhood asthmatics. Whether from genetic intolerance or over consumption, the symptoms are the same.
Do not be fooled by thinking that refined white sugar is the only culprit and that other synthetic sugars are okay. Many people do not think that such synthetic sugars as corn syrup, fructose, Nutrasweet, saccharin, Sorbital and Mannitol are harmful, yet severe health problems have occurred from one or all of these as well.
People who are intolerant of lactose also have classic symptoms which include abdominal cramps and diarrhea. Other allergic symptoms have been recorded, not the least of which was asthma, from the ingestion of lactose-containing products. You should know that the FDA allows the addition of lactose as a food additive without labeling. Do not think that your children are safe if they are lactose intolerant just because they do not drink milk.