Coconut Wine tuba is even ingested in Sri Lanka and Myanmar. Production of coconut wine has indeed contributed to the endangered status of some palm species such as the Chilean wine palm (Jubaea chilensis).
Coconut Wine Tuba in the Philippines
In the Philippines, coconut wine tuba refers both to the freshly collected sweetish sap and the one by having the red lauan-tree tan bark colorant.
In Leyte, the coconut wine tuba is matured for up to one to 2 years such that an echoing ring is made when a glass container is tapped explanation required; this variation of tuba is called bahalina.
Coconut Wine Tuba Tapping
Coconut Wine Tuba – Palm TreeThe sap is extracted and collected by a tapper. Commonly the sap is compiled from the cut flower of the palm tree. A compartment is fastened to the flower stump to collect the sap. The white liquid that at first gathers has a tendency to be extremely sweet and non-alcoholic before it is fermented. An alternate technique is the felling of the whole tree. Where this is practiced, a fire is occasionally lit at the cut end to help with the assortment of sap.
Coconut wine tapping is mentioned in the novel Things Fall Apart by the Nigerian writer Chinua Achebe and is central to the plot of the groundbreaking novel The Palm Wine Drinkard by Nigerian author Amos Tutuola.
In parts of India, the unfermented sap is called neera (padaneer in Tamil Nadu) and is cooled, saved and circulated by semi-government agencies. A little lime is included in the sap to prevent it from fermenting. Neera is said to consist of lots of nutrients featuring potash.
Coconut sap starts fermenting immediately after assortment, due to natural yeasts in the air (typically spurred by residual yeast left in the gathering container). Within two days, fermentation yields a fragrant wine of up to 4 % liquor content, mildly intoxicating and sweet.
The coconut wine tuba may be enabled to ferment longer, up to a day, to yield a stronger, more sour and acidic taste, which some folks favor. Longer fermentation creates vinegar instead of stronger wine, known as Lambanog.
In Africa, the sap is use to create coconut wine tuba and is most frequently taken from wild datepalms such as the silver date palm (Phoenix sylvestris), the palmyra, and the jaggery palm (Caryota urens), or from oil palm such as the African Oil Palm (Elaeis guineense) or from Raffia palms, kithul palms, or nipa palms.
In India and South Asia, coconut palms and Palmyra palms such as the Arecaceae and Borassus are favored. In southern Africa, palm wine (ubusulu) is produced in Maputaland, an area in the south of Mozambique between the Lobombo mountains and the Indian Ocean.
It is mainly produced from the lala palm (Hyphaene coriacea) by cutting the stem and compiling the sap.
In part of central and western Democratic Republic of the Congo, palm wine is called malafu. There are four types of coconut wine tuba in the central and southern DRC. From the oil palm comes ngasi, dibondo comes from the raffia palm, cocoti from the coconut palm, and mahusufrom a short palm which grows in the savannah areas of western Bandundu and Kasai provinces.
In Tuvalu, the procedure of making toddy can plainly be viewed by having tapped palm trees that line Funafuti International Airport.
In some areas of India, coconut wine tuba is evaporated to create the unrefined sugar called jaggery.
Coconut Wine Tuba Distillation – Lambanog
Local Distillation of Burukutu in Ghana
Coconut wine tuba might be distilled to generate a stronger refreshment which is Lambanog goes by different names baseding on the region (e.g., arrack, village gin, charayam, and nation whiskey). Throughout Nigeria, this is typically called ogogoro. In parts of southern Ghana distilled coconut wine is called akpeteshi or burukutu.
In Togo it is called sodabe, in the Philippines it is called lambanog, while in Tunisia it is called Lagmi.
Social role of Coconut Wine
In India, coconut wine or toddy is served as either neera or padaneer (a sweet, non-alcoholic beverage stemmed from fresh sap) or kallu (a sour drink made from fermented sap, yet not as tough as wine). Kallu is in most cases drunk soon after fermentation by the end of day, as it becomes more sour and acidic day by day. The drink, like vinegar in taste, is thought of to have a short-lived shelf life. explanation needed Nonetheless, it could be refrigerated to extend its life.
In Karnataka, India, coconut wine is in most cases offered at toddy shops (known as Kalitha Gadang in Tulu, Kallu Dukanam in Telugu, Kallu Angadi in Kannada or “Liquor Shop” in English).
In Tamil Nadu, this beverage is currently outlawed, though the legality fluctuates with politics. In the absence of legal toddy, moonshine distillers of arrack often offer methanol-contaminated liquor, which are able to have lethal effects. To discourage this practice, authorities have definitely pushed for inexpensive “Indian Made Foreign Liquor” (IMFL), much to the dismay of toddy tappers.
Fermented Palm Juice
Fresh nipah palm (Nypa fruticans) sap and neera (sap obtained from by tapping the unopened spadix of the coconut palm are popular beverages in the region.
For Muslim consumers, palm juice (fresh saps) are consumed within 2 days after tapping as it is highly susceptible to spontaneous fermentation to produce
alcohols and acetic acids. Fermented palm saps can also be used to produce alcohol, vinegar or alcoholic beverage such as palm wine. The fermented beverage
is called “panam culloo” in Sri Lanka, “tuba”, “soom” in the Philippines, “nuoudua” in Vietnam, “arak” in Indonesia, and “tuak” (tuack) or toddy in Malaysia, India and Bangladesh. (Lee and Fujio, 1999). Palm wine is obtained by the natural fermentation of palm sap and collected through the tapping of unopened inflorescence. Palm wine has mild alcoholic flavor, sweet in taste, vigorous effervescence and milky white in color as it contained suspension of numerous bacteria and yeast. Palm wine from coconut flower juice is most popular among Southeast Asia regions. A community survey on the non-Muslim Balinese village in Indonesia showed approximately 40% excessive consumption of locally produced palm wine in 1990 (WHO, 2004).
What are the recommended safe limits of alcohol?
- Men should drink no more than 21 units of alcohol per week, no more than four units in any one day, and have at least two alcohol-free days a week.
- Women should drink no more than 14 units of alcohol per week, no more than three units in any one day, and have at least two alcohol-free days a week.
- Pregnant women. Advice from the Department of Health states that … “pregnant women or women trying to conceive should not drink alcohol at all. If they do choose to drink, to minimize the risk to the baby, they should not drink more than 1-2 units of alcohol once or twice a week and should not get drunk”.
- Seniors should always eat protein rich food with their wine and not taken during morning medication time.
Contents of palm wine
The following are found in palm wine
- Amino acid
- Vitamin C
- Vitamin B1,B2 B3 and B6
Health benefits of Tuba, Palm Wine
1 Palm wine improves eyesight
Palm wine helps in maintaining good eye health. This is because it contains the antioxidant Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) which is also found in other fruits and vegetables. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) also helps in improving our vision. This is why some school of thought argue that our grandparents in the village have better eyesight than us because palm wine is their beverage.
2 Reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases
Research has showed that drinking moderate amounts of palm wine has been associated with a reduced risk of developing cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure. This study was conducted by Lingberg and Ezra in 2008. Palm wine contains potassium which has been proven by research to improve heart health and bring down hypertension. However drinking it in excess has adverse effects like destroying the liver.
3 Palm wine can help fight against cancer
Palm wine contains vitamin B2, also known as riboflavin. Riboflavin is an antioxidant which helps in the fight against some cancer causing agents called free radicals.
4 Palm wine helps in maintaining a healthy hair, skin and nails
The Iron and vitamin B complex found in palm wine are needed for a healthy skin, hair and nail. Iron is very essential for the development, growth and functioning of some cells in our body. This property of palm wine makes it helpful in promoting wound healing by repairing our tissues and promoting the growth of healthy cells.
5 Palm wine promotes lactation
Palm wine is being used by many natural healers in Cameroon, Nigeria, Ghana and other parts of Africa to help a lactating mother when she has limited breast milk production. Research is needed to investigate the property of palm wine that makes it stimulate the production of breast milk.