Are brain and gut serotonin pools & biosynthesis cycles independent from each other? by Connie b. Dellobuono
Answer by Connie b. Dellobuono:
SNA efferents from gut to brain and SNA afferents from brain to gut. This interaction between microbiota and GBA appears to be bidirectional, namely through signaling from gut-microbiota to brain and from brain to gut-microbiota by means of neural, endocrine, immune, and humoral links. This interaction determines most mental health issues such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Anxiety.
Microbiome gut-brain axis structure is explained in:
The central nervous system and in particular hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis (in dashed line) can be activated in response to environmental factors, such as emotion or stress. HPA is finalized to cortisol release and is driven by a complex interaction between amygdala (AMG), hippocampus (HIPP), and hypothalamus (HYP), constituting the limbic system. HYP secretion of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) stimulates adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion from pituitary gland that, in turn, leads to cortisol release from the adrenal glands. In parallel, central nervous system communicate along both afferent and efferent autonomic pathways (SNA) with different intestinal targets such as enteric nervous system (ENS), muscle layers and gut mucosa, modulating motility, immunity, permeability and secretion of mucus. The enteric microbiota has a bidirectional communication with these intestinal targets, modulating gastrointestinal functions and being itself modulated by brain-gut interactions