PQQ can clean your clogged arteries.
PQQ has been found in all plant foods analyzed to date. PQQ-rich foods include parsley, green peppers, kiwi fruit, papaya, fermented soybeans (Natto) and tofu. These foods contain about 2-3 mcg per 100 grams. Green tea provides about the same amount per 4 oz serving.
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) has been reported as a promising agent that might contribute to tumor cell apoptosis and death, yet little is known on its mechanisms. In current study, the effect of PQQ on cell proliferation and mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis were examined in 3 solid tumor cell lines (A549, Neuro-2A and HCC-LM3). PQQ treatment at low to medium dosage exhibited potent anti-tumor activity on A549 and Neuro-2A cells, while had comparably minimal impact on the viabilities of 2 human normal cell lines (HRPTEpiC and HUVEC).
The apoptosis of the 3 tumor cell lines induced by PQQ were increased in a concentration-dependent manner, which might be attributed to the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), decline in ATP levels and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), in conjunction with down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein expression, up-regulation of activated caspase-3, and disturbed phosphorylated MAPK protein levels. PQQ induced tumor cells apoptosis was significantly alleviated by pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. The present work highlights the potential capability of PQQ as an anti-tumor agent with low toxicity towards normal cells through activating mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis pathways, and warrants its development for cancer therapy.
Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Resists Denervation-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy by Activating PGC-1α and Integrating Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Complexes
Pyrroloquinoline quinone stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis through cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and increased PGC-1alpha expression.