Consumption of caffeine and caffeinated beverages and foods was not statistically significantly associated with overall risk of breast cancer. The multivariable relative risks (RRs) of breast cancer were 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84–1.22) for caffeine (top vs. bottom quintile), 1.08 (95% CI, 0.89–1.30) for coffee (≥4 cups/day vs. almost never), and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.85–1.25) for tea (≥2 cups/day vs. almost never). However, among women with benign breast disease, a borderline significant positive association with breast cancer risk was observed for the highest quintile of caffeine (RR = 1.32; 95% CI, 0.99–1.76) and for the highest category of coffee (≥4 cups/day) (RR = 1.35; 95% CI, 1.01–1.80); tests for interaction were marginally significant. Caffeine consumption was also significantly positively associated with risk of developing ER−PR−breast cancer (RR = 1.68; 95% CI, 1.01–2.81) and breast tumors of >2 cm in size (RR = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.18–2.72).
37 published articles, involving 59,018 breast cancer cases and 966,263 participants, were included in the meta-analysis. No significant association was found between breast cancer risk and coffee (RR=0.97, P=0.09), decaffeinated coffee (RR=0.98, P=0.55) and caffeine (RR=0.99, P=0.73), respectively. And the association was still not significant when combining coffee and caffeine (coffee/caffeine) (RR=0.97, P=0.09). However, an inverse association of coffee/caffeine with breast cancer risk was found for postmenopausal women (RR=0.94, P=0.02), and a strong and significant association of coffee with breast cancer risk was found for BRCA1 mutation carriers (RR=0.69, P<0.01). A linear dose-response relationship was found for breast cancer risk with coffee and caffeine, and the risk of breast cancer decreased by 2% (P=0.05) for every 2 cups/day increment in coffee intake, and 1% (P=0.52) for every 200mg/day increment in caffeine intake, respectively.
Findings from this meta-analysis suggested that coffee/caffeine might be weakly associated with breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women, and the association for BRCA1 mutation carriers deserves further investigation.
Several prospective epidemiologic studies over the past 4 y concluded that ingestion of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee can reduce the risk of diabetes. This finding is at odds with the results of trials in humans showing that glucose tolerance is reduced shortly after ingestion of caffeine or caffeinated coffee and suggesting that coffee consumption could increase the risk of diabetes. This review discusses epidemiologic and laboratory studies of the effects of coffee and its constituents, with a focus on diabetes risk. Weight loss may be an explanatory factor, because one prospective epidemiologic study found that consumption of coffee was followed by lower diabetes risk but only in participants who had lost weight. A second such study found that both caffeine and coffee intakes were modestly and inversely associated with weight gain. It is possible that caffeine and other constituents of coffee, such as chlorogenic acid and quinides, are involved in causing weight loss. Caffeine and caffeinated coffee have been shown to acutely increase blood pressure and thereby to pose a health threat to persons with cardiovascular disease risk. One short-term study found that ground decaffeinated coffee did not increase blood pressure. Decaffeinated coffee, therefore, may be the type of coffee that can safely help persons decrease diabetes risk. However, the ability of decaffeinated coffee to achieve these effects is based on a limited number of studies, and the underlying biological mechanisms have yet to be elucidated.