Fingerprinting Psychiatric Illness

Research into mood and psychotic disorders has advanced to the extent where biochemical hypotheses explaining the aetiology of a particular illness may be individualised to more accurately target one or more underlying pathology in a specific patient.

Diagnosis of mood and psychotic disorders depend solely on relatively subjective assessment of symptoms and psychometric evaluations, upon which a decision is made to prescribe one or more standardised treatment regimen. Treatment response in turn is evaluated on the same principles. All this in spite of decades’ worth of research efforts aimed at understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of these disorders.

Research into mood (depression, bipolar disorder) and psychotic disorders has advanced to the extent where biochemical hypotheses explaining the aetiology of a particular illness may be individualised to more accurately target one or more underlying pathology in a specific patient or subgroup of patients, hence achieving more effective disease modifying therapy. A “one-size fits all” paradigm is no longer a viable approach. Rather a customized regime based on individual biological abnormalities would pave the way toward more effective treatment.

Image shows a red fingerprint.

In reviewing the clinical and preclinical literature, this paper discusses the most highly regarded pathophysiologic processes in mood and psychotic disorders by exploring various biomarkers relating to neuroanatomy, neuro-circuitry, neuronal growth and resilience as well as markers associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. A brief overview of prominent markers in the fields of genetics and proteomics also offers additional insight. Scrutinizing prominent and more equivocal biological markers of mood and psychotic disorders aids to address the urgent need to identify neurobiological targets of a disease as well as its associated biomarkers that will improve the current classification, diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. Ultimately, this knowledge will inform on the development of biomarker panels that in turn will customize treatment regimens for better therapeutic outcomes. The identified biomarkers should accurately reflect pathophysiologic processes in these disorders that will enable practitioners to stratify patients on a biological basis into more homogeneous clinically distinct subgroups, allowing the prescribing of target-specific therapy.

ABOUT THIS PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH

Source: Faizan ul Haq – Bentham Science Publishers
Image Source: The image is credited to Sarel J. Brand, Marisa Moller and Brian H Harvey, Bentham Science Publishers.
Original Research: Abstract for “A Review of Biomarkers in Mood and Psychotic Disorders: A Dissection of Clinical vs. Preclinical Correlates” by Sarel J. Brand, Marisa Moller and Brian H. Harvey in Current Neuropharmacology. Published online February 2016 doi:10.2174/1570159X13666150307004545


Abstract

A Review of Biomarkers in Mood and Psychotic Disorders: A Dissection of Clinical vs. Preclinical Correlates

Despite significant research efforts aimed at understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of mood (depression, bipolar disorder) and psychotic disorders, the diagnosis and evaluation of treatment of these disorders are still based solely on relatively subjective assessment of symptoms as well as psychometric evaluations. Therefore, biological markers aimed at improving the current classification of psychotic and mood-related disorders, and that will enable patients to be stratified on a biological basis into more homogeneous clinically distinct subgroups, are urgently needed. The attainment of this goal can be facilitated by identifying biomarkers that accurately reflect pathophysiologic processes in these disorders. This review postulates that the field of psychotic and mood disorder research has advanced sufficiently to develop biochemical hypotheses of the etiopathology of the particular illness and to target the same for more effective disease modifying therapy. This implies that a “one-size fits all” paradigm in the treatment of psychotic and mood disorders is not a viable approach, but that a customized regime based on individual biological abnormalities would pave the way forward to more effective treatment. In reviewing the clinical and preclinical literature, this paper discusses the most highly regarded pathophysiologic processes in mood and psychotic disorders, thereby providing a scaffold for the selection of suitable biomarkers for future studies in this field, to develope biomarker panels, as well as to improve diagnosis and to customize treatment regimens for better therapeutic outcomes.

“A Review of Biomarkers in Mood and Psychotic Disorders: A Dissection of Clinical vs. Preclinical Correlates” by Sarel J. Brand, Marisa Moller and Brian H. Harvey in Current Neuropharmacology. Published online February 2016 doi:10.2174/1570159X13666150307004545

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connie dello buono

Health educator, author and enterpreneur motherhealth@gmail.com or conniedbuono@gmail.com ; cell 408-854-1883 Helping families in the bay area by providing compassionate and live-in caregivers for homebound bay area seniors. Blogs at www.clubalthea.com Currently writing a self help and self cure ebook to help transform others in their journey to wellness, Healing within, transform inside and out. This is a compilation of topics Connie answered at quora.com and posts in this site.

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