Two types of people

  • Tightly coupled: Only needs to eat less to arrive at required energy level
  • Loosely coupled: Needs to eat more to arrive at required energy level

Sun energy and glucose for energy production

Nucleus is energy limited


Mitochondrial DNA crosstalk: 10% changes in mtDNA has a greater effect in epigenetic expression



Haplogroup U and H


Male bias mito DNA unique

male bias mito DNA unique.JPG

mtDNA background variation

mtDNA background variation.JPG

Human migration and Mitochondrial DNA Variation

Human migration.JPG

Selective mutation by Altitude

amino acid sub.JPG

Phenotypes of mitochondrial DNA depends on Context

al pk.JPG

Background and context are both important in mitochondrial DNA mutation

Nucleus normal, Parkinson type mutation , this is an Energetic Disease


Reactive Oxygen Species Toxicity


Nutrition and Stress in Hypoactive Heteroplasmic Species, Learning Disability