Summary: While looks play a factor in who we find attractive, the sound of their voice and the way they smell also play big roles, a new study reports.
Voice and scent play an underappreciated role in understanding attractiveness.
Attractiveness isn’t just a matter of good looks, but also the right voice and scent, highlights a mini review in Frontiers in Psychology.
“Recently, most reviews have focused on visual attractiveness — for example, face or body attractiveness,” says Agata Groyecka, lead author of the review and a researcher at the University of Wroclaw in Poland. “However, literature about other senses and their role in social relations has grown rapidly and should not be neglected.”
Whether by an off-putting body odor or a grating voice, it’s easy to understand how the nose and ears are just as important as the eyes in noticing how attractive someone is. It’s not particularly surprising that attractiveness spans more than just physical appearance, but most research has focused on looks, neglecting vocal and olfactory factors.
“Perceiving others through all three channels gives a more reliable and broader variety of information about them,” says Groyecka.
Groyecka and her collaborators recently combed through over 30 years of literature to provide a brief overview of the few studies that have looked into the role of voice and scent. While not extensive, this research field has already given insight into the quantity and variety of information that can be gathered by these other senses — which it turns out can be quite a lot.
Some findings are relatively intuitive, such as people guessing gender and age based on voice alone. But listeners have also proven to be skilled at detecting an unexpected range of characteristics from a voice, including the dominance, cooperativeness, emotional state, and even the body size of the speaker.
Even more surprisingly, other studies have shown that people can correctly deduce very similar types of information based on scent alone. Recent brain imaging studies also suggest that combinations — sight and smell, for example — appear to be synergistic, producing even stronger reactions than would be expected from summing the individual responses.
Perceived attractiveness impacts day-to-day life in a variety of ways, influencing not only romantic relationships, but also friendships and professional interactions. Without incorporating such information, psychological studies of everyday decision making and social communication can’t capture the whole picture. Groyecka’s review also highlights a variety of proposed evolutionary explanations for these multisensory aspects of attraction, such as the utility of having traits that can be detected both from a distance (voice and looks), as well as up close (scent).
“I hope that this review will inspire researchers to further explore the role of audition and olfaction in social relations,” says Groyecka.
Source: Joseph Paul Forgas – Frontiers
Image Source: NeuroscienceNews.com image is in the public domain.
Original Research: Full open access research for “Attractiveness Is Multimodal: Beauty Is Also in the Nose and Ear of the Beholder” by Agata Groyecka, Katarzyna Pisanski, Agnieszka Sorokowska, Jan Havlíček, Maciej Karwowski, David Puts, S. Craig Roberts, and Piotr Sorokowski in Frontiers in Psychology. Published online May 18 2017 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00778
Attractiveness Is Multimodal: Beauty Is Also in the Nose and Ear of the Beholder
Attractiveness plays a central role in human non-verbal communication and has been broadly examined in diverse subfields of contemporary psychology.
Researchers have garnered compelling evidence in support of the evolutionary functions of physical attractiveness and its role in our daily lives, while at the same time, having largely ignored the significant contribution of non-visual modalities and the relationships among them.
Acoustic and olfactory cues can, separately or in combination, strongly influence the perceived attractiveness of an individual and therefore attitudes and actions toward that person. Here, we discuss the relative importance of visual, auditory and olfactory traits in judgments of attractiveness, and review neural and behavioral studies that support the highly complex and multimodal nature of person perception.
Further, we discuss three alternative evolutionary hypotheses aimed at explaining the function of multiple indices of attractiveness. In this review, we provide several lines of evidence supporting the importance of the voice, body odor, and facial and body appearance in the perception of attractiveness and mate preferences, and therefore the critical need to incorporate cross-modal perception and multisensory integration into future research on human physical attractiveness.
“Attractiveness Is Multimodal: Beauty Is Also in the Nose and Ear of the Beholder” by Agata Groyecka, Katarzyna Pisanski, Agnieszka Sorokowska, Jan Havlíček, Maciej Karwowski, David Puts, S. Craig Roberts, and Piotr Sorokowski in Frontiers in Psychology. Published online May 18 2017 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00778