Psychological and Behavioral Interventions for Insomnia Disorder

Treatment Definition
Table adapted from: Morgenthaler T, Kramer M, Alessi C, et al.; American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Practice parameters for the psychological and behavioral treatment of insomnia: an update. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine report. Sleep. 2006 Nov;29(11):1415-9. PMID: 17162987; and Buysse DJ. Insomnia. JAMA. 2013 Feb 20;309(7):706-16. PMID: 23423416.
Sleep Hygiene Education Education of patients about health and environmental factors to improve sleep (e.g., avoiding/ limiting caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol; maintaining a regular sleep schedule; avoiding napping; exercising regularly; maintaining a quiet and dark bedroom).
Stimulus Control Therapy to change behaviors associated with bed or the bedroom and to establish consistent sleep patterns (e.g., using the bedroom for sleep only; going to bed only when tired).
Sleep Restriction Interventions to limit time in bed to sleep time and to gradually increase time in bed as sleep efficiency improves.
Relaxation Training Training to reduce somatic tension and to control bedtime thoughts that impair sleep.
Brief Behavioral Therapy (BBT) Therapy that combines stimulus control and sleep restriction strategies.
Multicomponent Behavioral Therapy (MBT) Therapy combining various behavioral interventions but not cognitive therapy.
Cognitive  Therapy Interventions to change patients’ thinking about sleep by identifying, challenging, and replacing dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes (e.g., challenging notions about requisite amounts of sleep and about how sleep is out of their control; thought journaling).
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) Multimodal combination of treatments, including cognitive therapy, behavioral interventions (sleep restriction, stimulus control, or both), and education (sleep hygiene).