As a caregiver for seniors with kidney failures, I inspect their refrigerators and kitchen cabinets to see their eating habits. I noticed moldy foods in the refrigerator and an attitude of saving everything to save money.

Do avoid moldy foods, 4 day old rice and other foods as they are toxins to your cells especially your kidneys.


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Fungi have a wide geographical distribution. A countless number of fungal species have been identified. Fungi produce a spectacular array of toxins for counteracting predators or minimizing competition from other organisms. Based on the phylogenetics, fungal toxins can be categorized into (1) mycotoxins formed by hyphae of common molds; and (2) mushroom toxins formed in the fruiting bodies of higher fungi. Based on their molecular structure, fungal toxins can be divided into two groups: nonpeptidic toxins and toxic peptidic toxins. Examples of nonpeptidic toxins include orellanine, gyromitrin, and coprine from mushrooms1,4,7 and other toxins from molds comprising aflaxonin produced by Aspergillus niger,5 ergot alkaloids from Clarviceps spp,6 zearalenone from Fusariumspecies,13 and trichothecenes from a variety of molds.16 In this chapter, toxic peptides such as amatoxins and phallotoixns from higher fungi (mushroom) and some depsipeptides from phytopathogenic fungi (molds) are discussed.