Moderate exercise combined with dietary vitamins C and E counteracts oxidative stress in the kidney and lens of streptozotocin-induced diabetic-rat.
Oxidative stress has a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetes-induced cataract formation and nephropathy.
Daily moderate exercise and vitamins C and E (VCE) supplementation can be beneficial to diabetes due to reducing blood glucose and free radical production.
The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of moderate exercise with vitamin VCE on lipid peroxidation (LP) and antioxidative systems in the kidneys and lens of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Forty female Wistar rats were used.
They were randomly divided into four groups. The first and second groups were used as control and diabetic groups. The third group was the diabetic-exercise group. VCE-supplemented feed was given to diabetic-exercise rats constituting the fourth group. Animals in the exercised groups were moderately exercised daily on a treadmill for three weeks (five days a week).
Diabetes was induced on day zero of exercise. Body weights in the four groups were recorded weekly. Lens and kidney samples were taken from all animals on day 20.
Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), reduced glutathione (GSH), vitamin E, and beta-carotene levels in kidney and lens, albumin in plasma, and body weight were significantly lower in the diabetic group than in the control group, whereas there was a significant increase in LP of kidney and lens as well as plasma glucose, urea, and creatinine levels in the diabetic group.
The decrease in antioxidant enzymes, vitamins, and albumin and the increase in LP and glucose levels in diabetic rats were significantly improved with exercise and VCE supplementation. In the diabetic animals, the decreased beta-carotene and vitamins A levels in kidney did not improve through exercise only, although their levels were increased by exercise plus VCE supplementation.
In conclusion, these data demonstrate that lipid peroxidation increases in the lens and kidney of diabetic animals and this could be due to decreases in antioxidant vitamins and enzymes.
However, dietary VCE with moderate exercise may strengthen the antioxidant defense system through the reduction of ROS and blood glucose levels.
The VCE supplementations with exercise may play a role in preventing the development of diabetic nephropathy and cataract formation in diabetic animals.
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Effects of antioxidant supplementation on insulin sensitivity, endothelial adhesion molecules, and oxidative stress in normal-weight and overweight young adults.
The objective of the study was to determine whether short-term antioxidant (AOX) supplementation affects insulin sensitivity, endothelial adhesion molecule levels, and oxidative stress in overweight young adults.
A randomized, double-blind, controlled study tested the effects of AOXs on measures of insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment [HOMA]) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index), endothelial adhesion molecules (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular adhesion molecule, and endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1), adiponectin, and oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxides) in overweight and normal-weight individuals (N = 48, 18-30 years).
Participants received either AOX (vitamin E, 800 IU; vitamin C, 500 mg; beta-carotene, 10 mg) or placebo for 8 weeks. The HOMA values were initially higher in the overweight subjects and were lowered with AOX by week 8 (15% reduction, P = .02). Adiponectin increased in both AOX groups.
Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 decreased in overweight AOX-treated groups by 6% and 13%, respectively (P < .05). Plasma lipid hydroperoxides were reduced by 0.31 and 0.70 nmol/mL in the normal-weight and overweight AOX-treated groups, respectively, by week 8 (P < .05).
Antioxidant supplementation moderately lowers HOMA and endothelial adhesion molecule levels in overweight young adults.
A potential mechanism to explain this finding is the reduction in oxidative stress by AOX.
Long-term studies are needed to determine whether AOXs are effective in suppressing diabetes or vascular activation over time.
Antioxidant supplementation lowers exercise-induced oxidative stress in young overweight adults.
To determine whether antioxidant (AOX) supplementation attenuates post-exercise oxidative stress and contributors to oxidative stress (inflammation, blood lipids) in overweight young adults.
RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES:
This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Overweight (BMI, 33.2 +/- 1.9 kg/m(2)) and comparative normal-weight (BMI, 21.9 +/- 0.5 kg/m(2)) adults 18 to 30 years old (total N = 48) were enrolled. Participants received either daily antioxidant (AOX) treatment (800 IU of vitamin E, 500 mg of vitamin C, 10 mg of beta-carotene) or placebo (PL) for 8 weeks for a total of four groups. All participants completed a standardized 30-minute cycle exercise bout at baseline and 8 weeks. Exercise-induced changes in lipid hydroperoxide (DeltaPEROX), C-reactive protein (DeltaCRP), interleukin-6 (DeltaIL-6), cholesterol subfractions, triglycerides, total AOX status (DeltaTAS), and adiponectin were assessed.
Exercise-induced DeltaPEROX was lower in the overweight-AOX group (0.09 nM/kg per min) compared with PL-treated overweight and normal-weight groups (0.98, 0.53 nM/kg per min) by 8 weeks (p < 0.05). Adiponectin was increased in both overweight and normal-weight AOX groups (22.1% vs. 3.1%; p < 0.05) but reduced in PL groups. DeltaIL-6, Deltatotal cholesterol, and Deltalow-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations during exercise were lower in the AOX-treated groups compared with PL groups (all p < 0.05). After controlling for BMI, the Deltatotal cholesterol, Deltalow-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, Deltaadiponectin, and DeltaTAS explained 59.1% of the variance of the regression model of the DeltaPEROX by 8 weeks (total model R(2) = 0.600; p = 0.015).
AOX lowers exercise-induced oxidative stress in overweight adults. Inflammatory and lipid markers may also be attenuated with AOX. Further studies are needed to determine whether AOX may be used in cardiovascular disease prevention in the overweight population.
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