Haloperidol (Oral route)
Oral route(Tablet)Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with atypical antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death compared to placebo. Although the causes of death in clinical trials were varied, most of the deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (eg, heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (eg, pneumonia) in nature. Observational studies suggest that antipsychotic drugs may increase mortality. It is unclear from these studies to what extent the mortality findings may be attributed to the antipsychotic drug as opposed to patient characteristics. Haloperidol is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis .
Uses of This Medicine:
Haloperidol is used to treat nervous, emotional, and mental conditions (eg, schizophrenia). It is also used to control the symptoms of Tourette’s disorder. This medicine should not be used to treat behavior problems in older adult patients who have dementia.
Haloperidol is also used to treat severe behavioral problems (eg, aggressive, impulsive behavior) or hyperactivity in children who have already been treated with psychotherapy or other medicines that did not work well.
This medicine is available only with your doctor’s prescription.
Before Using This Medicine:
In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For this medicine, the following should be considered:
Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.
Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of haloperidol in children younger than 3 years of age. Safety and efficacy have not been established.
Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of haloperidol in the elderly. However, elderly women are more likely to have a side effect called tardive dyskinesia, and elderly patients are more likely to have age-related heart or lung problems, which may require an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving haloperidol.
The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of this medicine. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:
- Angina (severe chest pain) or
- Breast cancer, history of or
- Encephalopathy or
- Heart or blood vessel disease, severe or
- Hyperprolactinemia (high prolactin in the blood) or
- Hypotension (low blood pressure) or
- Lung or breathing problems (eg, bronchopneumonia) or
- Mania or
- Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, history of or
- Seizures, history of—Use with caution. May make these conditions worse.
- Central nervous system depression, severe or
- Coma or
- Dementia in elderly or
- Parkinson’s disease—Should not be used in patients with these conditions.
- Heart rhythm problems (eg, familial long QT-syndrome), history of or
- Hypokalemia (low potassium in the blood) or
- Hypomagnesemia (low magnesium in the blood) or
- Thyroid problems—May increase risk for more serious side effects.
Dopamine agonists play an important role in the regulation of the central nervous-cardiovascular, renal, and hormonal systems through stimulation of dopaminergic (DA1 and DA2) and alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. Several studies have shown that in fat and diabetic mice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the interaction of the dopaminergic and endocrine systems by determining the effect of the dopaminergic antagonist, metoclopramide, and dopamine on insulin secretion and cardiovascular response by blockade and activation of dopamine receptors in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. Healthy subjects (n =15) and subjects with type 2 diabetes (n = 15) of both genders, aged 18 to 60 years, were recruited into this study. A comparative experimental design of 90 minutes was performed in which placebo (0.9% saline) was infused intravenously for the first 30 minutes followed by metoclopramide (7.5 microg/kg/min), a dopamine receptor antagonist for 30 minutes, and then metoclopramide (7.5 microg/kg/min) plus dopamine (0.5-3 microg/kg/min) for 30 minutes.
The following clinical and biochemical parameters were measured at the beginning and then every 30 minutes of the experimental period (30′, 60′ and 90′): systolic-diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, serum glucose, insulin, triacylglycerides, and total cholesterol. Baseline glycosylated hemoglobin was measured and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance was calculated from insulin and glucose levels. Twelve-lead electrocardiograms were also obtained at these points.
Dopamine infusion induced an increase in serum insulin, systolic blood pressure, and heart rate in healthy subjects but not in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Infusion of metoclopramide induced a hypotensive effect in healthy subjects, which was blunted by inclusion of dopamine in the infusion mixture.
In subjects with diabetes, metoclopramide had no effect on blood pressure, but addition of dopamine raised systolic blood pressure. Neither metoclopramide nor dopamine altered significantly the lipid profile in healthy or diabetic subjects.
Dopaminergic drugs increase serum insulin probably by interacting with dopaminergic receptors, but stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors cannot be ruled out. Stimulation of cardiovascular dopamine receptors also caused modifications of hemodynamic parameters in healthy subjects, but apparently these receptors are attenuated in patients with type 2 diabetes probably as a result of endothelial dysfunction and alterations in the sympathetic nervous system sensitivity.
Connie’s comments: If my father who has diabetes and dementia at 98 falls with a hairline hip fracture, I will not put him on narcotics for a long period of time.