Vitamin B3, Leukemia, aging and cancer

Grass fed beef, bone marrow with veggie soup, peanuts and chicken are some of the food sources of Vitamin B3.  I take Vitamin Bs when I am under stress and these vitamins help me sleep too. Vitamin B3 is a natural product found in our blood. Will sunshine help clean our blood. There are many ways to have a healthy blood: exercise with sunshine, avoidance of alcohol, drugs and environmental toxins (metals,gas), whole foods, sleep, less stress and a positive spirit (calm not full of anxiety).

Connie

Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a pyridinenucleoside form of vitamin B3 that functions as a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or NAD+.

NR was first described in 1944 as a growth factor, termed Factor V, for Haemophilus influenza, a bacterium that lives in and depends on blood. Factor V, purified from blood was shown to exist in three forms: NAD+, NMN and NR. NR was the compound that led to the most rapid growth of this bacterium.[5] Notably, H. influenza cannot grow on nicotinic acidnicotinamidetryptophan or aspartic acid, which were the previously known precursors of NAD+.[6]

In 2000, yeast Sir2 was shown to be an NAD+-dependent protein lysine deacetylase,[7] which led several groups to probe yeast NAD+ metabolism for genes and enzymes that might regulate lifespan. Biosynthesis of NAD+ in yeast was thought to flow exclusively through NAMN (nicotinic acid mononucleotide).[8][9][10][11][12]

When NAD+ synthase (glutamine-hydrolysing) was deleted from yeast cells, NR permitted yeast cells to grow. Thus, these Dartmouth College investigators proceeded to clone yeast and human nicotinamide riboside kinases and demonstrate the conversion of NR to NMN by nicotinamide riboside kinases in vitro and in vivo. They also demonstrated that NR is a natural product, a little-noticed vitamin found in cow’s milk.[13][14]

In the 2010s. dietary supplements containing NR were brought to market by ChromaDex under the brand Niagen, which also originally provided NR to Elysium Health which uses NR as a component of its product, Basis.[15]

References

  1. Jump up^ Bogan, K.L., Brenner, C. (2008). “Nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and nicotinamide riboside: a molecular evaluation of NAD+ precursor vitamins in human nutrition”. Annu. Rev. Nutr28: 115–130. doi:10.1146/annurev.nutr.28.061807.155443.
  2. Jump up^ Chi Y, Sauve AA (November 2013). “Nicotinamide riboside, a trace nutrient in foods, is a vitamin B3 with effects on energy metabolism and neuroprotection”. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care16 (6): 657–61. doi:10.1097/MCO.0b013e32836510c0PMID 24071780.
  3. Jump up to:a b c “Spherix/Chromadex GRAS submission” (PDF). March 8, 2016. See FDA GRAS index page: “GRAS Notice (GRN) No. 635”.
  4. Jump up^ “Nicotinamide Riboside”.
  5. Jump up^ Gingrich, W (1944). “Codehydrogenase I and other pyridinium compounds as V factor for Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae”. J. Bacteriol47: 535–550.
  6. Jump up^ Belenky, P. et. al. (2007). “NAD+ Metabolism in Health and Disease”. Trends in Biochemical Sciences32: 12–19. doi:10.1016/j.tibs.2006.11.006PMID 17161604.
  7. Jump up^ Imai, S.; et al. (2000). “Transcriptional silencing and longevity protein Sir2 is an NAD-dependent histone deacetylase”. Nature403 (6771): 795–800.
  8. Jump up^ Panozzo, C.; et al. (2002). “Aerobic and anaerobic NAD+ metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae”. FEBS Lett517: 97–102. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(02)02585-1.
  9. Jump up^ Sandmeier; et al. (2002). “Telomeric and rDNA silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are dependent on a nuclear NAD Salvage Pathway”. Genetics160: 877–889.
  10. Jump up^ Bitterman; et al. (2002). “Inhibition of silencing and accelerated aging by nicotinamide, a putative negative regulator of yeast Sir2 and human SIRT1”. J. Biol. Chem277: 45099–45107. doi:10.1074/jbc.m205670200PMID 12297502.
  11. Jump up^ Anderson; et al. (2003). “Nicotinamide and PNC1 govern lifespan extension by calorie restriction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae”Nature423: 181–185. doi:10.1038/nature01578PMC 4802858Freely accessiblePMID 12736687.
  12. Jump up^ Gallo; et al. (2004). “Nicotinamide clearance by pnc1 directly regulates sir2-mediated silencing and longevity”. Mol. Cell. Biol24: 1301–1312. doi:10.1128/mcb.24.3.1301-1312.2004.
  13. Jump up^ Bieganowki, P. & Brenner, C. (2004). “Discoveries of Nicotinamide Riboside as a Nutrient and Conserved NRK Genes Establish a Preiss-Handler Independent Route to NAD+ in Fungi and Humans”. Cell117: 495–502. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(04)00416-7PMID 15137942.
  14. Jump up^ Hautkooper, R.H.; et al. (2012). “Sirtuins as regulators of metabolism and healthspan”. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol13: 225–238. doi:10.1038/nrm3293.
  15. Jump up^ Zhang, Sarah (July 6, 2016). “The weird business behind a trendy “anti-aging” pill”Wired.

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