What constitutes a traumatic event for a child? How important is the family in helping children through upsetting and destabilizing experiences? Can young people thrive despite a trauma in their past? All these questions and more are on the minds of parents and politicians as we read about the separation of migrant families.
This week on childmind.org, we discuss the harmful effects of separating children from their parents. And we’re rounding up our best resources on our growing understanding of the life-long effects of trauma, which includes not only disturbing events but chronic abuse, neglect and exposure to violence. We also explore how traumatic experiences can affect kids in school, treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and what families and communities can do for their children in any upsetting situation, anywhere.
Harold S. Koplewicz, MD, President
Separating Families and Creating Trauma

Separating Families and Creating Trauma

Witnessing the widespread traumatization of children at the Mexican border.
Helping Children Cope

Helping Children Cope After a Traumatic Event

A guide assembled by mental health experts who specialize in crisis situations.
Signs of Trauma in Children

Signs of Trauma in Children

What to watch for in the weeks and months after an upsetting event.
How Trauma Affects Kids in School

How Trauma Affects Kids in School

Exposure to neglect, abuse or violence causes learning and behavior problems.
Best Treatment for PTSD in Children

What’s the Best Treatment for PTSD in Children?

Trauma-focused CBT has four stages.
Acute Stress Disorder and PTSD

A Look at Acute Stress Disorder and PTSD

After an upsetting or traumatic event, children can respond in a variety of unhealthy ways. 


Imagine that you are in your car, waiting for the traffic signal to change. The next thing you know you are a witness to a horrific car accident that left many people injured and some to lose their life. How would you react? Most likely you would be shocked by this horrific event and traumatized emotionally. This happened to one of our patients, Miles.

How PTSD Affects Your Brain

After the experience, Miles developed post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is a condition that develops in some individuals who are exposed to or involved in an extremely traumatic event that involves actual or threatened death or serious injury. The individual’s response to the traumatic event involves intense fear, helplessness, or horror. Those affected by PTSD continue to re-experience the event long afterward and avoid stimuli associated with the traumatic event. This then causes the unbalancing of the PFC-limbic system relationship and gives rise to a busy brain. Making the individual’s capacity to cope with these traumatic events absolutely overwhelming.

Like Miles, we may have difficulty processing the memories and emotional impact. No wonder. The shock and trauma of such an event are thankfully outside the realm of normal experiences. However, people like Miles who have PTSD continually re-experience the trauma as if the past were still alive in the present. Including having nightmares about the accident every night and triggered re-experiences of the accident whenever he saw a car similar to the one that caused the horrible accident.

We all need to feel safe. When we experience traumas, we lose that background feeling of safety. You’ve no doubt heard a lot about the fight-or-flight response, activated by protective circuitry that strives to keep us safe. Miles’s danger detector, his stress response alarm system, was on constant fight-or-flight high alert.

It’s important to remember in dangerous situations, the thinking brain can be turned off while the primitive limbic areas take over. Like Miles, most traumatized individuals have fight-or-flight reactions that continue long after the danger has passed. It is as if the traumatic past is acutely alive in the present. Their feeling of danger never abates. This is why I say that the emotional traumas in PTSD are “branded in the brain.”

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Trauma Response

Stress and Resilience Program

Free mental health services for NYC public school students exposed to trauma
Parents Guide to Developmental Milestones

Parents Guide to Developmental Milestones

Recursos en Español

Recursos en Español

Read childmind.orgarticles in Spanish 
Symptom Checker

Symptom Checker

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