Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol
Bile begins its life in the liver and spends a significant amount of time somewhere between the liver, gallbladder, and gastrointestinal tract, specifically the intestines. Liver cells manufacture bile before it undergoes modification in the bile duct epithelium, and then it is transported to the gallbladder for storage and, ultimately, use. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol with the aid of several different enzymes.
Soup of Sulfur rich bile acids will help balance bile production:
Mix these root crops to pinch of organic chicken broth powder: rutabaga, kale, carrot, parsnip, onion, garlic and a tsp of apple cider vinegar or lemon juice added in the last boiling.
Short-chain fatty acids : The gut microbiota can ferment complex dietary residues that are resistant to digestion by enteric enzymes.
This process provides energy for the microbiota but culminates in the release of short-chain fatty acids including butyrate, which are utilized for the metabolic needs of the colon and the body.
Butyrate has a remarkable array of colonic health-promoting and antineoplastic properties:
- It is the preferred energy source for colonocytes,
- It maintains mucosal integrity and it suppresses inflammation and carcinogenesis through effects on immunity, gene expression and epigenetic modulation.
Note: Protein residues and fat-stimulated bile acids are also metabolized by the microbiota to inflammatory and/or carcinogenic metabolites, which increase the risk of neoplastic progression.
The makeup of bile is largely water, at about 95%. The remaining five percent is made up of bile acids, bilirubin, amino acids, enzymes, steroid hormones including estrogen, glutathione, cholesterol, vitamins (especially vitamin D and some of the B vitamins), porphyrins, insulin, and other items, including toxins such as heavy metals, xenobiotics, medications and drugs, and environmental toxins targeted for excretion. There are also electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, sulfate, and bicarbonate. As you excrete more bile acid, bile flow is stimulated. There is also a circadian rhythm to the synthesis and circulation of bile acids.
In total, there are more than 50 species of bile acids in humans, but the main ones include cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). Although bile salts and bile acids are frequently used interchangeably, technically bile acids become bile salts upon conjugation with glycine or taurine. The gut bacteria metabolize bile acids to create secondary bile acids, of which there are more than 400 species. After the gut bacteria metabolize them, cholic acid becomes deoxycholic acid and CDCA becomes lithocholic acid. The amount of bile acids making their way into the colon affects the microbiome makeup. Bile acids are reabsorbed in the small intestine and colon to then come back into circulation as part of the enterohepatic circulation, which is a bidirectional pathway.
Bile acids, a key component of bile, are the main emulsifiers of fat. As such, bile ultimately finds its way into the small intestine for this function. When fat enters your small intestine, you secrete CCK (cholecystokinin), which signals your gallbladder to send bile into the small intestine to aid in digestion and absorption.
Functions of bile acid
Although this may be the function of bile most commonly known, there are actually many, many more. Some of the key functions of bile include:
- Aids the immune system through excreting certain immune system signals, such as IgA and inflammatory cytokines
- Elimination of certain hormones and pheromones
- Endogenous ligand (binder to stimulate a signal) for several receptors, including nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR), vitamin D receptor, and G protein-coupled receptor TGR5
- Excretion of fat-soluble toxins and other waste, including endogenous substrates
- Modulation of metabolic pathways, including lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, and insulin sensitivity
- Regulation of tight junction permeability
- Removal of cholesterol
- Signaling molecule and hormone
With so many different functions, it should come as no surprise that problems in the flow, metabolism, or synthesis of bile and/or bile acids could contribute to a variety of diseases.
Diseases such as colon and liver cancer
Problems with bile may stem from dysfunction in the synthesis of bile, an impairment in the secretion, or problems with the flow of bile. The metabolism of bile may become disturbed through problems stemming from the synthesis or conjugation with cholesterol, problems with the membrane transport, issues with the transport between the organs, or problems with the bacterial degradation of bile during the enterohepatic cycling. There may also be malabsorption of the bile acid, leading to higher concentrations in the colon, which may then negatively impact the function of the mucosal cells in the colon. Furthermore, when the concentration of bile acids is too high, it can be toxic and cause problems. Alterations to bile acids are also associated with disease.
The level of bile acids that reach the colon may contribute to functional bowel diseases. Elevated concentrations may contribute to diarrhea, while lower levels may play a role in constipation. In one study on children with functional constipation, the fecal bile acid profile was normal, but there were some who had the 3-sulfate version of CDCA as the dominant fecal bile acid, which could demonstrate a link for some cases.
Stress and Bile acids
Psychological stress is a risk factor for atherosclerosis, yet the pathophysiological mechanisms involved remain elusive. The transfer of cholesterol from macrophage foam cells to liver and feces (the macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport, m-RCT) is an important antiatherogenic pathway. Because exposure of mice to physical restraint, a model of psychological stress, increases serum levels of corticosterone, and as bile acid homeostasis is disrupted in glucocorticoid-treated animals, we investigated if chronic intermittent restraint stress would modify m-RCT by altering the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. C57Bl/6J mice exposed to intermittent stress for 5 days exhibited increased transit through the large intestine and enhanced fecal bile acid excretion. Of the transcription factors and transporters that regulate bile acid homeostasis, the mRNA expression levels of the hepatic farnesoid X receptor (FXR), the bile salt export pump (BSEP), and the intestinal fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) were reduced, whereas those of the ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), responsible for active bile acid absorption, remained unchanged. Neither did the hepatic expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the key enzyme regulating bile acid synthesis, change in the stressed mice. Evaluation of the functionality of the m-RCT pathway revealed increased fecal excretion of bile acids that had been synthesized from macrophage-derived cholesterol. Overall, our study reveals that chronic intermittent stress in mice accelerates m-RCT specifically by increasing fecal excretion of bile acids. This novel mechanism of m-RCT induction could have antiatherogenic potential under conditions of chronic stress.
Vinegar helps increase bile production
Polyphenols such as chlorogenic acid which is present in high levels in apple cider vinegar could inhibit oxidation of LDLs and improve health by preventing cardiovascular diseases (Laranjinha and others 1994).