Aging is arguably the most universal contributor to the etiologies of metabolic decline and related diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and stroke (1). Insulin resistance (IR) represents a major component of metabolic syndrome (MS) and is commonly observed in older adults (2).
Major impairments include unrestrained hepatic gluconeogenesis, adipose lipogenesis, and defective glycogen synthesis and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Abdominal obesity, which is commonly observed with aging, is a major contributor to IR and MS (3). Many older individuals are abdominally obese, despite a normal BMI, a factor that can decrease the utility of BMI as a predictor of T2DM in older persons.
Aging is also associated with an increase in proinflammatory cytokines, which are known to interfere with insulin action. These cytokines are derived from both the age-associated accrual of visceral fat (VF) and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by increasing numbers of senescent cells (4). Collectively, these age-related alterations in metabolism and body fat distribution are active participants in a vicious cycle that can accelerate the aging process and the onset of disease.
The role of hepatic lipids in hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 …
Health policies that can prevent NAFLD and new treatments that can reverse the …. Hepatic lipidcontent is regulated by the balance between hepatic lipid uptake ….. knockout mice from both diet- and age-associated hepatic insulin resistance.
Insulin, Aging, and the Brain: Mechanisms and Implications – NCBI
Besides regulating peripheral glucose homeostasis, insulin is an important …. glucose uptake by triggering signaling pathways in the liver, muscle, and fat (62). ….. Adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine secreted by adipose tissue (149)
The Critical Role of Metabolic Pathways in Aging | Diabetes
Collectively, these age-related alterations in metabolism and body fat … fatty acids that can reach the liver via portal circulation and interfere with hepatic insulin action. … mitochondrial biogenesis as a strategy to reverse metabolic dysfunction.
Ectopic Fat Accumulation in Distinct Insulin Resistant … – Frontiers
Sep 4, 2018 – More specifically, the regulation of metabolic processes such as glucose uptake and … More globally, age, sex, lifestyle, and (epi)genetics, as well as microbial … Disturbances in Liver and Skeletal Muscle Lipid Uptake … insulin resistant state, reversing thereby glucose intolerance and insulinresistance.
The interaction of hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism in liver …
Alterations in insulin response, β-oxidation, lipid storage and transport, autophagy …. The individual steps in hepatic lipid metabolism are orchestrated by a delicate ….. Interestingly, mitochondrial stress may be partially reversed by treatment with ….. of insulin-like growth factor-I induce mitochondrial protection in aging rats.
Reactive oxygen species‐induced changes in glucose and lipid …
Jan 4, 2019 – Lipid accumulation was increased in liver tissues of aged mice, particularly cholesterol. ….. De novo synthesis of hepatic lipid is regulated independently by insulin and glucose (Koo, …. Gene, Forward/Reverse primers …
Insulin Concentration Modulates Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Mice …
Jun 20, 2012 – As previously reported, IRS-1 was up-regulated at high insulin concentrations, … The same strain, age, and gender of mice were utilized under identical ….. of the insulin deficiency resulted in reversal of liver TG accumulation.
Insulin resistance – Wikipedia
Pancreatic Function, Type 2 Diabetes, and Metabolism in Aging
Mar 2, 2012 – Aging is a risk factor for impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. …. In humans, there is a lower glucose oxidation but higher lipid oxidation rates …. (a) regulation of glucose homeostasis through a decrease in hepatic glucose …… and A. I. Vinik, “Induction of nesidioblastosis will reverse diabetes in Syrian …