Aging is arguably the most universal contributor to the etiologies of metabolic decline and related diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and stroke (1). Insulin resistance (IR) represents a major component of metabolic syndrome (MS) and is commonly observed in older adults (2).

Major impairments include unrestrained hepatic gluconeogenesis, adipose lipogenesis, and defective glycogen synthesis and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Abdominal obesity, which is commonly observed with aging, is a major contributor to IR and MS (3). Many older individuals are abdominally obese, despite a normal BMI, a factor that can decrease the utility of BMI as a predictor of T2DM in older persons.

Aging is also associated with an increase in proinflammatory cytokines, which are known to interfere with insulin action. These cytokines are derived from both the age-associated accrual of visceral fat (VF) and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by increasing numbers of senescent cells (4). Collectively, these age-related alterations in metabolism and body fat distribution are active participants in a vicious cycle that can accelerate the aging process and the onset of disease.

The role of hepatic lipids in hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 …



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Insulin, Aging, and the Brain: Mechanisms and Implications – NCBI



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The Critical Role of Metabolic Pathways in Aging | Diabetes


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Ectopic Fat Accumulation in Distinct Insulin Resistant … – Frontiers



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The interaction of hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism in liver …


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Reactive oxygen species‐induced changes in glucose and lipid …


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Insulin Concentration Modulates Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Mice …



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Insulin resistance – Wikipedia



Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the …. Since insulin is the primary hormonal signal for energy storage into fat cells, which tend to retain their sensitivity in the face …. The liver helps regulate glucose levels by reducing its secretion of glucose in the presence of insulin.

Pancreatic Function, Type 2 Diabetes, and Metabolism in Aging



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