CRISPR Corrects Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Summary: New studies find a drug designed to combat the gene that causes SCA2 could also be beneficial in the fight against ALS. Source: UT Southwestern. Using the new gene-editing enzyme CRISPR-Cpf1, researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have successfully corrected Duchenne muscular dystrophy in human cells and mice in the lab. The UT Southwestern […]

Branched-chain amino acids supplementation for resistance exercise-based muscle damage

Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) supplementation has been considered an interesting nutritional strategy to improve skeletal muscle protein turnover in several conditions. There is evidence that resistance exercise (RE)-derived biochemical markers of muscle soreness (creatine kinase (CK), aldolase, myoglobin), soreness, and functional strength may be modulated by BCAA supplementation to favor muscle adaptation. However, few studies have investigated such effects in well-controlled conditions in humans.
The study proved the potential therapeutic effects of BCAA supplementation on RE-based muscle damage in humans. The main point is that BCAA supplementation may decrease some biochemical markers related with muscle soreness but this does not necessarily reflect on muscle functionality.
CLAUDIA DA LUZ
JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF SPORTS NUTRITION823-, 20111550-2783

About BCAAs

Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are naturally occurring molecules (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) that the body uses to build proteins. The term “branched chain” refers to the molecular structure of these particular amino acids. Muscles have a particularly high content of BCAAs.
For reasons that are not entirely clear, BCAA supplements may improve appetite in cancer patients and slow the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, or Lou Gehrig’s disease, a terrible condition that leads to degeneration of nerves, atrophy of the muscles, and eventual death).
BCAAs have also been proposed as a supplement to boost athletic performance.

Requirements/Sources
Dietary protein usually provides all the BCAAs you need. However, physical stress and injury can increase your need for BCAAs to repair damage, so supplementation may be helpful.
BCAAs are present in all protein-containing foods, but the best sources are red meat and dairy products. Chicken, fish, and eggs are excellent sources as well. Whey protein and egg protein supplements are another way to ensure you’re getting enough BCAAs. Supplements may contain all three BCAAs together or simply individual BCAAs.

Isoleucine: lentils, chickpeas, seeds, almonds, cashews, rye, chicken, eggs, liver and soy protein

Leucine: eggs, nuts, seeds, soy, whey and whole grains

Valine: soy flour, fish and meats, grains, cottage cheese, mushrooms, vegetables and peanuts

Therapeutic Dosages
The typical dosage of BCAAs is 1 g to 5 g daily.

Therapeutic Uses
Preliminary evidence suggests that BCAAs may improve appetite in people undergoing treatment for cancer . There is also some evidence that BCAA supplements may reduce symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, or Lou Gehrig’s disease); however, not all studies have had positive results.
Preliminary evidence from a series of small studies suggests that BCAAs might decrease symptoms of tardive dyskinesia , a movement disorder caused by long-term usage of antipsychotic drugs. BCAAs have also shown a bit of promise for enhancing recovery from traumatic brain injury.
Because of how they are metabolized in the body, BCAAs might be helpful for individuals with severe liver disease (such as cirrhosis ).
BCAAs have also been tried for aiding muscle recovery after bedrest, such as following surgery .
Although there is a little supportive evidence, on balance, current research does not indicate that BCAAs are effective as a for enhancing sports performance . mOne preliminary study hints that BCAAs might aid recovery from long distance running.
BCAAs have also as yet failed to prove effective for muscular dystrophy.

What Is the Scientific Evidence for Branched Chain Amino Acids?

Appetite in Cancer Patients
A double-blind study tested BCAAs on 28 people with cancer who had lost their appetites due to either the disease itself or its treatment. Appetite improved in 55% of those taking BCAAs (4.8 g daily) compared to only 16% of those who took placebo.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s Disease)
A small double-blind study found evidence that BCAAs might help protect muscle strength in people with Lou Gehrig’s disease . Eighteen individuals were given either BCAAs (taken 4 times daily between meals) or placebo and followed for 1 year. The results showed that people taking BCAAs declined much more slowly than those receiving placebo. In the placebo group, 5 of 9 participants lost their ability to walk, 2 died, and another required a respirator. Only 1 of the 9 participants receiving BCAAs became unable to walk during the study period. This study is too small to give conclusive evidence, but it does suggest that BCAAs might be helpful for this disease.
However, other studies found no effect, and one actually found a slight increase in deaths during the study period among those treated with BCAAs compared to placebo.

Muscular Dystrophy
One double-blind, placebo-controlled study found leucine (one of the amino acids in BCAAs) ineffective at the dose of 0.2 g per kilogram body weight (for example, 15 g daily for a 75-kilogram woman) in 96 individuals with muscular dystrophy. Over the course of 1 year, no differences were seen between the effects of leucine and placebo.
Safety Issues
BCAAs are believed to be safe; when taken in excess, they are simply converted into other amino acids. However, like other amino acids, BCAAs may interfere with medications for Parkinson’s disease .
Ref: http://www.med.nyu.edu/content?ChunkIID=21527

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