40 Hospitals with Innovation Centers

As healthcare continues along its perpetual evolution, those in the industry are continually trying to get ahead of the curve and find solutions to the biggest issues facing patient care and delivery today. Increasingly, hospitals and health systems are making a commitment to innovation by establishing their own centers and institutes for innovation.

While innovation in healthcare is often discussed in the context of new tools and technology, it also applies to new ideas, workflows and training techniques. From established departments to organizations with their own separate governing board, below is an updated list of 40 hospitals and health systems with innovation centers.

Note: Innovation centers are presented in alphabetical order. This is not an exhaustive list of all innovation centers. Centers were selected by editorial research. Hospitals cannot pay to be included on this list.

Baystate Health in Springfield, Mass.

At Baystate Health in Springfield, Mass., CIO Joel Vengco launched the system’s health technology innovation center TechSpring in 2013. Many tech startups have partnered with TechSpring for product development, including CarePort Health and Medecision. TechSpring features an adoption accelerator, insight through focus groups and co-working space for individuals or teams working in healthcare or technology.

Boston Children’s Hospital

Boston Children’s Hospital fosters several initiatives to spur innovation. It established the Boston Children’s Innovation Acceleration Program in 2010 as resource for hospital employees to develop ideas. The hospital also opened a Technology & Innovation Development Office, which serves as the commercialization arm for researchers, biomedical innovations and technologies. Boston Children’s hosts the annual global Pediatric Innovation Summit, the only annual event centered on advancing innovation in pediatric care, as well.

Brigham and Women’s

Boston-based Brigham and Women’s launched its Innovation Hubin 2013. The hub, led by Executive Director Lesley Solomon, supports Brigham clinicians, scientists and employees in bringing their innovative ideas to fruition. Called iHub, the center hosts an annual Clinical Innovation Day, which unites clinicians, scientists and business leaders to share ideas for patient care improvements. iHub also hosts hackathons, codeathons and idea labs, where clinicians and scientists brainstorm ideas for a particular theme in healthcare in just 90 minutes.

Children’s Hospital Los Angeles

Children’s Hospital Los Angeles bases its pediatric research in its Center for Innovation. The Center also oversees the Consortium for Technology and Innovation in Pediatrics, an accelerator that received a $1.5 million grant from the FDA and houses more than 30 active technologies. CHLA also partners with the University of Southern California in an initiative to support development of technology solutions for pediatric patients.

Cleveland Clinic

Cleveland Clinic founded Cleveland Clinic Innovations in 2000.Since then, the commercialization arm has worked with 71 companies to move their innovation from thought to product. CCI has been involved with more than 500 licenses and 700 issued patents. It also developed the Global Cardiovascular Innovation Center Incubator, a facility to house startup companies focused on cardiovascular disease. Thomas Graham, MD, has served as CIO of CCI since 2010.

Columbus (Ohio) Regional Hospital

Columbus (Ohio) Regional Hospital opened its Innovation Center in 2011. The center combines technology development and clinical simulation in a central location. The Innovation Center’s Lean/Six Sigma and clinical simulation and education teams use tools in design, Lean and Six Sigma to collaborate, test and adopt best practices. The center’s simulation lab allows for rapid prototyping and testing of new ideas before they are used in patient care or in the community.

Detroit Medical Center developed The Center for Quality and Innovationat DMC’s Children’s Hospital of Michigan. The center has been responsible for a wealth of pediatric innovations that include: implanting the first mechanical heart pump ever received by a child in Michigan; helping develop the Genesis Stent, a life-saving device that opens blood vessels within children, eliminating the need for open-heart surgery; and identifying an infant cooling technique to reduce the incidence of disability and death in infants who failed to receive enough oxygen during birth.

Mountain View, Calif.-based El Camino Hospital’s Fogarty Institute of Innovation serves as an incubator for early stage innovators, and offers laboratory and engineering space for innovators and physicians to collaborate on ideas and developments. Thomas J. Fogarty, MD, inventor of the balloon catheter and recipient of the Presidential National Medal of Technology and Innovation in 2014, founded the institute in 2007. Since then, the institute has worked with 20 medical device startups, five of which have spun off.

The Innovation Lab at Orlando-based Florida Hospital functions as an incubator to foster and test ideas to improve the system’s healthcare services. Karen Tilstra cofounded the lab in October 2011, and she continues to serve as its director. In 2013, the lab received the Des Cummings Innovation Award, which is presented each year to a Florida Hospital organization for their efforts in advancing healthcare innovation.

Hartford (Conn.) Hospital, home to the state’s first medical simulation center, has since developed The Center for Education, Simulation and Innovation. The CESI facility offers a fully comprehensive range of robotic and high-tech training capabilities used to develop clinical techniques and educate medical school students. The center contains robotic and endovascular simulators, task trainers and five different simulated clinical environments.

Detroit-based Henry Ford Health System established its Innovation Institute in 2011. One of the most prominent innovations coming out of the institute is the newly designed Model G Patient Gown, which prioritizes patient comfort — notably the closed backside — while maintaining clinical function. Scott Dulchavsky, MD, PhD, is CEO of HFII. Mark Coticchia, vice president and CIO of Henry Ford Health System, leads the Henry Ford Innovations unit.

New York-based Hospital for Special Surgery opened its Innovation Center in September 2014 to support technological breakthroughs for musculoskeletal care, but HSS has been collaborating with commercialization partners since 1979. The center oversees ideas from generation to evaluation, acceleration and commercialization. In addition to traditional biomedical science and technology like implants and biomaterials, HSS Innovation Center also researches process innovations, digital health solutions, wearables and telemedicine.

At Houston Methodist’s Institute for Technology, Innovation and Education, healthcare professionals work to advance patient safety efforts with ongoing procedural skills training, skills acquisition research and technology and medical procedure development. The center is part virtual hospital, part hands-on clinical training facility working to push the bounds of healthcare training through technological innovation.

Pasadena, Calif.-based Huntington Memorial Hospital’s Institute for Nursing Excellence and Innovation was designed to further and enhance training and preparation for the hospital’s nursing workforce. The center drives clinical advances and research in nursing through innovative nursing practices, professional development and specialty nursing education programs.

Intermountain Healthcare opened its Transformation Lab in Murray, Utah,in 2013. Projects at the lab include developing the patient room of the future, 3D printing and sensors to boost hand hygiene compliance. Marc Probst, CIO of Intermountain Healthcare, oversees innovation at the lab.

Philadelphia-based Thomas Jefferson University Hospital opened its two-story, open floor plan Jefferson Accelerator Zone in January 2015 as the home base for innovation activities. JAZ hosts an innovation engagement speaker series — including a December appearance from Pennsylvania Gov. Tom Wolf — and hackathons. People can rent out space in JAZ by zone, floor or building for innovation-related activities.

At the Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality from Baltimore-based Johns Hopkins Medicine, researchers study the ways in which the physical care environment can improve patient safety and impact human performance. Through the study of macroergonomics and the application of human-centric engineering principles, the institute has been creating new models of care delivery that improve care quality and efficiency. Experts have developed tools and training programs that enable healthcare workers to realize radical, measurable advances in care delivery.

Baltimore-based Johns Hopkins Medicines’ Technology Innovation Center is a multidisciplinary hub for clinicians to create novel, technology-based solutions that span medical specialties and practice settings. A clinically embedded team of software engineers, data analysts, project managers and designers shepherd ideas from conceptual stages to product deployment. The center also includes an entrepreneurial accelerator as well as leadership training programs. The TIC often works in close affiliation with Hopkins’ Armstrong Institute.

In 2006, Kaiser Permanente opened the Sidney R. Garfield Health Care Innovation Center in San Leandro, Calif., named after the health system’s founding physician. Dr. Garfield was a pioneer in hospital designs that improved care delivery and enhanced the patient experience. Though closed to the public, Kaiser Permanente started offering virtual tours of the center in 2012. The center is modeled to look like a real hospital to allow providers to test products in as close-to-reality settings as possible.

Massachusetts General Hospital’s Stoeckle Center (Boston). Focused on primary care innovation, The Stoeckle Center offers several programs to test ideas through education, research and policy. The center is named after John Stoeckle, MD, who had a 50-year career as a primary care physician at Massachusetts General.

UCLA’s Children’s Discovery and Innovation Institute at Mattel Children’s Hospital in Los Angeles was founded to promote innovation and collaborative research spanning from molecular studies to community initiatives. The institute connects laboratory research to bedside practice and community outreach programs at a local and national level. The institute conducts research into the four following core areas: brain behavior and development; nutrition, metabolism and growth; cancer and regeneration; infection, inflammation and immunity.

Rochester, Minn.-based Mayo Clinic opened itsCenter for Innovation in 2008, making it the first to be integrated into a medical practice setting. The center includes an outpatient lab that allows researchers to observe patients while interacting with providers, as well as a Healthy Aging and Independent Living Lab. The center focuses on design in healthcare — such as patient exam rooms and delivery models — to improve the patient experience.

The Innovation Center linked to 802-bed Mercy Medical Center – Des Moines (Iowa) was established in 2014. Mercy Innovation Center provides observation opportunities, engineering services, simulation labs, project piloting, business plan development and process improvement for individuals engaged in the creative process. Samuel Schone serves as the director of Mercy Innovation Center.

Wyoming, Mich.-based Metro Health Innovation Center houses four departments: the physician hospital organization, IT, security and privacy, and professional billing and pre-arrival. The facility is a collaborative space, allowing for Metro Health employees to gather and work on projects.

Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio, has its Center for Innovation in Pediatric Practice, one of 13 research centers within the hospital. Researchers at the center seek to discover new methods for care delivery, both through information technology and communication techniques. The center has four key research focuses: depression or suicidal ideation, clotting disorders, drug use and routine preventive care services.

NewYork-Presbyterian Hospitallaunched its innovation center in 2014. NYP Innovation Center is based in Blueprint Health, an accelerator and coworking space for health tech startups. The center held New York City’s first hospital hackathon in March 2014.

The Center for Learning & Innovation at Great Neck, N.Y.-based Northwell Health aims to advance professional provider education through a variety of continuous learning programs, including patient safety, bio-skill development and leadership and nursing fellowships. The CLI works to improve patient care, develop future leaders and enhance healthcare business practices.

New Orleans-based Ochsner Health System launched its accelerator initiative called innovationOchsner in 2015. iO partners with technology developers and tech innovators both inside and outside of the healthcare industry to support the development of new clinical products in patient-centered care. Ochsner also embarked on a three-year health initiative in collaboration with GE Healthcare and The Idea Village to foster healthcare innovation through challenges that promote the marriage of technology and patient-centered care.

Fort Wayne, Ind.-based Parkview Health’s Mirro Center for Research and Innovation is among the newest innovation centers the country, having opened in late April. Folded into the Mirro Center is Parkview Research Center, a 25-year-old research hub, and the newly formed Center for Healthcare Innovation where scientists, entrepreneurs and organizations collaborate on new clinical solutions. The Mirro Center also features three simulation labs and classrooms for education and training personnel.

In Burlingame, Calif., is Mills-Peninsula Health Services, a Sutter Health-affiliated organization comprised of a medical center and health center. It operates the Center for Innovation & Research, a laboratory to develop new healthcare models, technologies, products, service and treatments. The center makes use of its proximity to Silicon Valley (25 miles) and San Francisco’s (17 miles) biotech industries to partner with entrepreneurs and innovators.

The Innovation Lab at Presbyterian Rust Medical Center in Rio Rancho, N.M., aims to bring healthcare workers and consumers together to develop better care approaches for improved patient outcomes. The lab occupies a designated space within the hospital set up for testing new ideas and care innovations. Since its conception, the lab has helped design and implement several leading-edge approaches at Rust, including acuity-adaptable patient rooms and a telemedicine-enabled ICU.

The Center for Medical Education and Innovation at Riverside Methodist in Columbus, Ohio, is a joint medical education facility and clinical training center. Through the use of human patient simulators and other advances in medical education technology, the center enables Riverside Medical Education to simulate the patient experience in a wide variety of clinical situations to establish improved training practices and better prepared medical staff.

In 2010, theUniversity of Californialaunched the Center for Health Quality and Innovation in Oakland, with representation from six UC medical school deans, five UC medical center CEOs and chaired by John Stobo, MD, the UC Health senior vice president. The center supports innovations in development across the UC health campuses through grants, fellowships and colloquiums.

The Center for Surgical Innovation is affiliated with Aurora-based University of Colorado Hospital and the university’s medical school. The CSI has been part of the medical school for about a decade, serving as a training facility for surgeons as well as a development hub for new surgical techniques and technologies. Clinicians from around the world come to Colorado to learn at the CSI alongside UC medical students.

The Connecticut Institute for Primary Care Innovation is a collaborative enterprise between Saint Francis Care in Hartfordand the University of Connecticut School of Medicine in Farmington. The center aims to advance primary care education and innovation by conducting research on primary care delivery models. CIPCI includes a collaborative theater for clinician learning sessions, a simulation studio with moveable walls for patient flow and office redesign research as well as an idea lab for brainstorming and process mapping.

The Innovation Accelerator Program from Philadelphia-based University of Pennsylvania Health System is a grant program designed to help thought leaders develop, test and implement new approaches in healthcare delivery. The accelerator program currently supports teams conducting research into: increasing compliance with preoperative instructions, automating lab monitoring for patients on high risk medications and redesigning follow-up scheduling practices to improve patient experience. 

In Chapel Hill, N.C., UNC Health Care and the UNC School of Medicine share Innovate Health Care @ Carolina. Within the center is an Innovation Council, which functions as a think tank that helps with ideation and selection of innovative opportunities. David Rubinow, MD, is the director of UNC Innovation and Health Care System Transformation. Through a partnership with Forecast Health, the center recently produced an analytical model that helps clinicians predict when patients are at high risk of readmission so care teams can proactively offer support to individual patients based on their risks and needs.

In Pittsburgh,UPMCEnterprises is the health system’s innovation arm. Formerly called the UPMC Technology Development Center, UPMC Enterprises features a team of more than 200 technology professionals offering clinical, technical, business and capital resources to develop, test and commercialize new healthcare products and services. Rasu Shrestha, MD, CIO of UPMC, also serves as executive vice president of UPMC Enterprises.

The commercialization and technology transfer arm of Winston-Salem, N.C.-based Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, Wake Forest Innovations seeks to transform ideas and inventions into proprietary technologies and inventions to improve healthcare. The organization offers industry relations and business development, product innovation services, and contract research and development services. Eric Tomlinson, PhD, CIO of Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, leads the Wake Forest Innovation Quarter, a hub for biomedical science and IT within Wake Forest Innovations.

WakeMed Center for Innovative Learning, part of WakeMed Health & Hospitals in Raleigh, N.C., is designed to facilitate realistic multidisciplinary clinical training and education using human patient simulators, educational gaming and other technologies. The center offers clinical and educational training to providers across the healthcare continuum, including physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists and first responders.


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As Some Companies Turn to Health Exchanges, G.E. Seeks a New Path by Reed Abelson

CINCINNATI — Although the new federal health care law is designed to help people buying individual policies, even people with employer-provided policies are beginning to see changes in their coverage as companies rethink health care for their workers, discontinuing it in a few cases and redesigning it in many others.

They are motivated by a need to rein in health care costs, which continue to rise faster than overall inflation, but the federal health care law is also changing how some view their obligations to their employees.

Some major firms, like Walgreen, the drugstore chain, are no longer planning to administer health care plans for their employees and are giving those who qualify money to buy insurance on a private health exchange. Aon Hewitt, a benefits consultant that will administer health plans on Walgreen’s behalf, said 18 large employers had signed up so far, including Sears and Darden Restaurants.

But here in Cincinnati, General Electric is taking the opposite approach.

One of the largest employers in the nation, it spends more than $2 billion a year offering coverage to 500,000 employees and retirees and their families. And it is using its considerable clout in places like this — where its giant aviation business gives it a major presence — to work directly with doctors and hospitals to improve care and reduce costs.

“I don’t know anybody who isn’t trying almost everything,” said Helen Darling, president of the National Business Group on Health, which represents employers providing benefits. “We’re going to see a lot of activity in the next couple of years.”

Over the last few years, G.E. has pushed for the creation of so-called medical homes, in which an individual medical practice closely coordinates a patient’s care by having access to all of the patient’s medical records.

In Cincinnati, about 118 doctors’ practices have converted to medical homes, and all five of the major health systems are making their primary care practices move in that direction. G.E. has also pushed for greater transparency of results.

The medical home also appears to resonate with employees. When Mary Farris, a 44-year-old marketing executive for G.E., found herself going to a local urgent care center because she could never get an appointment with her physician, she switched to a practice that had become a medical home.

What strikes Ms. Farris was how much time the doctor and medical assistant spent gathering her medical history and making sure there weren’t additional medical issues. While she came in for a spider bite, the focus was on her well-being as a working mother whose father was seriously ill at the time. “The picture was more on all of me as opposed to one isolated incident,” she said. “Somebody was trying to connect the dots.”

In Cincinnati, there are beginning to be grudging signs of success. Early results are promising: patients enrolled in medical homes had 3.5 percent fewer visits to the emergency room and 14 percent fewer hospital admissions over the four years from 2008 through 2012. G.E. plans to ask an outside firm to do a more detailed analysis.

But employers looking to adapt a similar strategy will find “it’s hard to do,” said David Lansky, the chief executive of the Pacific Business Group on Health, which represents West Coast employers. While “the opportunity is significant,” he said, companies may not have the time or resources to work in too many of their locations, with different hospitals and health plans in each market.

Some companies — Trader Joe’s for example — decided to send at least some employees to the new public exchanges. Trader Joe’s has left coverage for three-quarters of its work force untouched but is giving part-time workers a contribution of $500 to buy policies in the newly created state marketplaces. Because of the employees’ low incomes, the company says it believes many will be eligible for federal subsidies to help them afford coverage.

But a few major employers are taking even more aggressive stances and are trying to reshape how health care is delivered in this country.

They are increasingly looking to make direct connections with health systems, particularly well-regarded institutions that can deliver good care for what can be very expensive back or heart problems. G.E. recently signed an agreement with Hospital for Special Surgery in New York, a high-volume orthopedic hospital, to oversee the care of some employees getting hip and knee replacements. Last year, Walmart contracted with health systems like the Cleveland Clinic, Mayo and Geisinger, among others, to take care of employees who need transplants, heart and spine care. The company says it will soon expand the program to other centers of excellence.

The decision doesn’t always sit well with the home team. In Cincinnati, the UC Health System, which includes an academic medical center that also serves the area’s major source of care for the uninsured, says it would welcome a similar opportunity to provide joint replacements for G.E., but executives say they simply cannot afford to offer significant discounts. “We don’t have the resources to cut deals,” said Dr. Myles Pensak, an executive for UC Health.

G.E. is unapologetic. The company says it will continue to try a variety of approaches until it finds a way to tame health care costs even more than the annual growth rate achieved so far of under 3 percent. “You’ll see many, many experiments across the board,” Ms. Seigel said.

“If we don’t take accountability ourselves for figuring this out, we’re part of the problem,” said Sue Siegel, a senior executive at G.E., who sees transformation of health care both as a business opportunity and a business necessity.

“We have to be involved in the solution,” she said. “We can’t just wait for someone to tell us that it is going to be fixed.”

What distinguishes the effort by G.E. is its direct focus on hospitals and doctors. Companies looking to the private exchanges are largely hoping to save money and want to be freed from the headache of administering health benefits.

In Walgreen’s case, the company says it doesn’t plan to lower its share of its workers’ health care costs but hopes to foster more competition among insurers, leading to better prices and more choice for employees.

In Cincinnati, G.E. took on both a cheerleading and coordinating role. In early 2010, Jeffrey R. Immelt, its chief executive, addressed local business leaders and urged them to think strategically and align their efforts to make more of a difference. There were already significant efforts under way to foster medical homes, for example, and G.E. pushed to find more financing to expand the concept to more medical practices and keep the focus on that initiative.

“The ever-present vigilance of the employers help nudge things along,” said Craig Brammer, chief executive of three area health care coalitions, including the Greater Cincinnati Health Council, which is made up of the area’s hospitals, health plans and employers.

The city’s health systems say they recognize that insurers and employers are increasingly going to reward them for better tracking their patients in and out of the hospital. “We are clearly gearing up to change directions from fee for service for what I’ll call payment for value,” said Will Groneman, an executive vice president for TriHealth, one of the systems.

 

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Autism have mutated cancer or tumor genes

Researchers studying two seemingly unrelated conditions — autism and cancer — have unexpectedly converged on a surprising discovery. Some people with autism have mutated cancer or tumor genes that apparently caused their brain disorder.

Christopher Berkey for The New York Times

Richard Ewing, 10, who’s autistic and has a tumor-causing gene, with his father and sister in Nashville.

Ten percent of children with mutations in a gene called PTEN, which cause cancers of the breast, colon, thyroid and other organs, have autism. So do about half of children with gene mutations that can lead to some kinds of brain and kidney cancer and large tumors in several organs, including the brain. That is many times the rate of autism in the general population.

“It’s eerie,” Evan Eichler, a professor of genome science at the University of Washington, said about the convergence.

He and others caution that the findings apply to only a small proportion of people with autism; in most cases, the cause remains a mystery. And as with nearly all genetic disorders, not everyone with the mutations develops autism or cancer, or other disorders associated with the genes, like epilepsy, enlarged brains and benign brain tumors.

But researchers say the findings are intriguing, given that there are no animals that naturally get autism, no way of analyzing what might cause autism in developing brains and no cure. The newly discovered link has enabled scientists to genetically engineer mice with many symptoms of the human disorder.

And it has led to the first clinical trial of a treatment for children with autism, using the drug that treats tumors that share the same genetic basis.

Richard Ewing of Nashville, a 10-year-old who has a form of autism caused by a tumor-causing gene, is among those in the new study. His parents, Alexandra and Rick Ewing, know he is at risk for tumors in the brain, heart, kidney, skin and eyes. But that bad news was tempered by his eligibility for the clinical trial, which has only just started.

“There is a big difference between us and the rest of the autism community,” Mr. Ewing said. “We have an honest-to-God genetic diagnosis.”

Not everyone agrees that the discovery is so promising. Steven McCarroll, a geneticist at Harvard, notes that autistic children with the cancer gene mutation have “a brain that is failing in many ways.” Autism in these children could be a manifestation of a general brain malfunction, he said, adding, “The fact that autism is one of the many neurological problems that arise in these patients doesn’t necessarily tell us anything penetrating about the social and language deficits that are specific to autism.”

But other scientists who are not involved in the research that produced these findings say the work is changing their understanding of autism and why it develops. Like cancer, autism can involve unregulated growth of cells, in this case neurons in the brain.

Jonathan Sebat, chief of the Center for Molecular Genomics of Neuropsychiatric Diseases at the University of California, San Diego, describes the parallels between cancer and autism as “quite uncanny.”

“We haven’t solved it all; we have only solved a tiny bit,” he added. “But the small bit we solved has been very illuminating.”

It was Dr. Charis Eng, a cancer geneticist at the Cleveland Clinic, who first noticed a surprising incidence of autism in children whose parents had the PTEN mutation (pronounced p-10). Eventually, investigators discovered that the rate of autism was 10 percent, about 10 times what would normally be expected.

At the same time, researchers found that another genetic disorder was even more likely to result in autism. That disorder, tuberous sclerosis, increases the risk for kidney cancer and a type of brain cancer; half of tuberous sclerosis patients had autism.

Although PTEN and tuberous sclerosis genes are not the same, they are part of the same network of genes that put a brake on cell growth. Disabling PTEN or one of the tuberous sclerosis genes releases that brake. One result can be cancer or tumors. Another can be abnormal wiring of nerve fibers in the brain and autism.

Dr. Mustafa Sahin of Boston Children’s Hospital decided to test whether drugs used to treat tumors caused by tuberous sclerosis gene mutations might also treat autism in people with the same mutated genes.

He started with mice, deleting tuberous sclerosis genes in their cerebellums. Nerve fibers in the animals’ brains grew wildly, and the mice had unusual behaviors, reminiscent of autism. They had repetitive movements and groomed themselves constantly, so much that they sometimes rubbed their skin raw. And unlike normal mice, which prefer other mice to an inanimate object, these mice liked a plastic cup just as much.

But rapamycin, which targets the tuberous sclerosis gene and blocks a protein involved in cell division, changed the animals. They no longer compulsively groomed themselves, and they no longer liked the plastic cup as much as a live mouse. The animals did better on tests of learning and memory, and the growth of nerve fibers in their brains was controlled. Now Dr. Sahin is giving a similar drug, everolimus, to autistic children with a tuberous sclerosis gene mutation, asking if it can improve their mental abilities. Richard is among the children. Each child takes the drug or a placebo for six months. The study is scheduled to be completed by December 2014.

While Dr. Eng started with cancer gene mutations and discovered a link to autism, Dr. Eichler, of the University of Washington, started with autism and found a connection to cancer genes.

He focused on what he calls “out of the blue autism,” which occurs with no family history, recruiting 209 families with autistic children.

http://www.nytimes.com

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