COPKL: Colorectal, ovarian/uterine, prostate, kidney, liver and bladder cancer risk Factor, formula by Connie Dello Buono , ©12Sept2016
Assumption: Female/Male, over 50yrs of age, on western diet, lives in Northern hemisphere, have families with cancer, diabetes and polyps, prone to allergies (lack zinc), digestive disorders, high dairy and sugar consumption (low magnesium and calcium,iron) and had used some medications in the past
COPKL Risk Factor = Blood sugar (0.2) + history (0.1) + sugar/processed foods consumption (0.1) + Exercise and sun exposure (0.1) + number of medications (0.1) + obesity/night time worker (0.1) + exposure to copper,fungus,molds,aflatoxins (0.1) + genes (0.2)
- COPKL Risk Factor =1.0 (High)
- COPKL Risk Factor = 6- 4 (Medium)
- COPKL Risk Factor = < 3 (Low)
Please email your entries to email@example.com to create a database and get health data insights on Prostate,Colorectal,kidney,liver and ovarian/uterine disease.
Modified Colon and other cancer risk factor
Normal/low =0High = 0.2
|Previous history of cancer/bowel disease, family cancer/polyps
High = 0.1
|Race = 0.1 racial/ethnic background (African American, Eastern European Jews)
|Exercise and sun exposure, 3x per week = 0
No exercise = 0.1
|Exposure to copper,fungus,molds,toxins, smoking,alcohol,narcotics, aluminum, air pollution, char broiled meat, aflatoxin, virus,bacteria, medications > 5
Yes = H,M = 0.1
|Metabolic and diet:
Diabetes 0.1Night time work, obesity (H,M,L)
H = 0.1
|Age > 45 yrs old
0.2 = MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, PMS2, PMS1, TGFBR2, MLH3 , RCC, APC, HPC1, tmprss2-erg , TMPRSS2-ETV1/4, HBOC,BRCA,BRCA2,BRCA1
(0.2 more than 2 genes, 0.1 one gene),
|Weak immune and metabolic system:
Infection and allergy 0.1
Having an inherited syndrome
About 5% to 10% of people who develop colorectal cancer have inherited gene defects (mutations) that can cause family cancer syndromes and lead to them getting the disease. The most common inherited syndromes linked with colorectal cancers are familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, or HNPCC), but other rarer syndromes can also increase colorectal cancer risk.
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP): FAP is caused by changes (mutations) in the APC gene that a person inherits from his or her parents. About 1% of all colorectal cancers are due to FAP.
In the most common type of FAP, hundreds or thousands of polyps develop in a person’s colon and rectum, usually in their teens or early adulthood. Cancer usually develops in 1 or more of these polyps as early as age 20. By age 40, almost all people with this disorder will have developed colon cancer if the colon isn’t removed first to prevent it. People with FAP are also at increased risk for cancers of the stomach, small intestines, and some other organs.
In attenuated FAP, which is a subtype of this disorder, patients have fewer polyps (less than 100), and colorectal cancer tends to occur at a later age.
Gardner syndrome is a type of FAP that also has non-cancerous tumors of the skin, soft tissue, and bones.
Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer, or HNPCC): Lynch syndrome accounts for about 2% to 4% of all colorectal cancers. In most cases, this disorder is caused by an inherited defect in either the MLH1 or MSH2 gene, but changes in other genes can also cause Lynch syndrome. These genes normally help repair DNA damage. (See Do we know what causes colorectal cancer? for more details.)
People with this syndrome develop cancers when they are relatively young, although not as young as in FAP. People with Lynch syndrome may have polyps, but they tend to only have a few, not hundreds as in FAP. The lifetime risk of colorectal cancer in people with this condition may be as high as 80%, although this depends on which gene is affected.
Women with this condition also have a very high risk of developing cancer of the endometrium (lining of the uterus). Other cancers linked with Lynch syndrome include cancer of the ovary, stomach, small intestine, pancreas, kidney, brain, ureters (tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder), and bile duct.
For more information on Lynch syndrome, see Do we know what causes colorectal cancer? and Can colorectal cancer be prevented?
Turcot syndrome: This is a rare inherited condition in which people have a higher risk of adenomatous polyps and colorectal cancer, as well as brain tumors. There are actually 2 types of Turcot syndrome:
One is caused by gene changes similar to those seen in FAP, in which cases the brain tumors are medulloblastomas.
The other is caused by gene changes similar to those seen in Lynch syndrome, in which cases the brain tumors are glioblastomas.
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: People with this rare inherited condition tend to have freckles around the mouth (and sometimes on the hands and feet) and a special type of polyp in their digestive tracts (called hamartoma). These people are at greatly increased risk for colorectal cancer, as well as several other cancers, which usually appear at a younger than normal age. This syndrome is caused by mutations in the STK1 gene.
MUTYH-associated polyposis: People with this syndrome develop colon polyps which will become cancerous if the colon is not removed. These people also have an increased risk of cancers of the small intestine, skin, ovary, and bladder. This syndrome is caused by mutations in the MUTYH gene.
These syndromes often lead to cancer at a younger age than is usual. They are also linked to some other types of cancer. Identifying families with these inherited syndromes is important because it lets doctors recommend specific steps such as screening and other preventive measures when the person is younger.
Information on risk assessment, and genetic counseling and testing for these syndromes can be found in Colorectal Cancer Prevention and Early Detection.
Your racial and ethnic background
African Americans have the highest colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates of all racial groups in the United States. The reasons for this are not yet understood.
Jews of Eastern European descent (Ashkenazi Jews) have one of the highest colorectal cancer risks of any ethnic group in the world. Several gene mutations leading to an increased risk of colorectal cancer have been found in this group. The most common of these gene changes, called the I1307K APC mutation, is present in about 6% of American Jews.
Having type 2 diabetes
People with type 2 (usually non-insulin dependent) diabetes have an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Both type 2 diabetes and colorectal cancer share some of the same risk factors (such as being overweight or obese). But even after taking these factors into account, people with type 2 diabetes still have an increased risk. They also tend to have a less favorable prognosis (outlook) after diagnosis.
Factors with unclear effects on colorectal cancer risk
Night shift work
Results of one study suggested working a night shift at least 3 nights a month for at least 15 years may increase the risk of colorectal cancer in women. The study authors suggested this might be due to changes in levels of melatonin (a hormone that responds to changes in light) in the body. More research is needed to confirm or refute this finding.
Previous treatment for certain cancers
Some studies have found that men who survive testicular cancer seem to have a higher rate of colorectal cancer and some other cancers. This might be because of the treatments they have received.
Several studies have suggested that men who had radiation therapy to treat prostate cancer might have a higher risk of rectal cancer because the rectum receives some radiation during treatment. Most of these studies are based on men treated in the 1980s and 1990s, when radiation treatments were less precise than they are today. The effect of more modern radiation methods on rectal cancer risk is not clear.
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