Limit iron intake to limit growth of invading pathogens

iron.pngIron Limitation as an Innate Immune Defense

In addition to mitigating toxicity associated with hypo- or hyperferremia, regulation of iron distribution serves as an innate immune mechanism against invading pathogens. Even in the absence of infection, several facets of human iron metabolism ensure that iron is scarcely accessible to pathogenic microorganisms. First, the majority of iron in humans is sequestered intracellularly, complexed within hemoglobin inside erythrocytes. Some pathogens have therefore evolved mechanisms to liberate hemoglobin by lysing erythrocytes to ultimately extract iron from heme. However, hemolytic pathogens must subsequently compete with haptoglobin and hemopexin, host glycoproteins that scavenge liberated hemoglobin and heme, respectively (Figure 1D). A second factor limiting the availability of iron to invading pathogens is the paucity of free extracellular iron. Extracellular iron is bound with high affinity by transferrin, which in healthy individuals is typically less than 50% saturated with iron. When transferrin-binding capacity is exceeded, iron can also be chelated with lower affinity by a number of molecules in plasma including albumin, citrate, and amino acids (Nathan et al., 2003).

During infection, additional fortification of iron-withholding defense occurs (Figure 2). The hypoferremia of infection was documented in seminal studies by Cartwright et al. in the 1940s, who noted a precipitous drop in plasma iron levels upon intramuscular inoculation of canines with Staphylococcus aureus. A similar hypoferremic response was noted upon intravenous injection with sterile turpentine, suggesting that inflammation, rather than a specific microbial product, was responsible for declining plasma iron levels (Cartwright et al., 1946). Since these initial observations, much has been learned regarding the importance of iron withholding to the outcome of host-pathogen interactions.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1931312813001522

 

With the oxygenation of the Earth’s atmosphere over 2 billion years ago, abundant soluble Fe2+ was oxidized to insoluble Fe3+, making bioavailable iron much more scarce. At the same time, iron became potentially more toxic since the redox cycling of iron in the presence of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide catalyzes the production of free radicals in the Fenton reaction that can damage DNA, protein, and lipids.Humans and other organisms therefore evolved specialized proteins and tightly regulated homeostatic mechanisms for the uptake, transport, storage, and export of iron to provide adequate iron for essential biologic process, but to limit the toxicity of iron excess.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5977983/

Brain iron loading impairs DNA methylation and alters GABAergic function in mice.

https://www.fasebj.org/doi/abs/10.1096/fj.201801116RR?journalCode=fasebj

The term “hemochromatosis,” introduced by von Recklinghausen at the end of the 19th century, refers to the clinical disorder that results from excess of total body iron and organ failure due to iron toxicity. The disease manifestations include cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, hypogonadism and other endocrinopathies, cardiomyopathy, arthropathy, skin pigmentation, and, in cirrhotic patients, increased susceptibility to liver cancer.

http://www.bloodjournal.org/content/106/12/3710?sso-checked=true

Monthly brain cycles predict seizures in patients with epilepsy

Other studies:
Yoga is believed to induce relaxation and stress reduction. The effect of yoga on the EEG and the autonomic nervous system have been reported.
A musicogenic seizure is reflex epilepsy triggered by certain types of music or even specific frequencies of pitch for which the person’s brain has a low threshold or tolerance. These sounds trigger focal epileptiform EEG discharges in cerebral areas specific to the triggering stimulus.
People with epilepsy appear to have decreased parasympathetic tone, with a greater decrease in those with intractable seizures than in those with well-controlled epilepsy. Slow breathingexercises have been shown to increase parasympathetic tone in healthy volunteers.

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Image shows a fat mouse and a thin mouse.

CAN THE SMELL OF FOOD MAKE YOU FAT?

According to a new study, your sense of smell could be responsible for weight gain. Using mice, researchers noticed that those who lost their sense of smell also lost weight, while those mice with a super sense of smell gained more weight on a high fat diet than mice with a regular sense of smell. Findings suggest odor may play an important role in calorie burning processes; if you can’t smell your food, you may burn it rather than store it. READ MORE…

How you can use your health history form to find holistic cures with a CAM doctor

A complimentary alternative or medical doctor can help you find holistic healing ways. Knowing details of your health history will allow your health care professionals and you determine the course of action toward a healthier you.

Your determination to optimize your current health and your environment will have a greater impact on your success to achieving a healthier you.

If I become your health coach, you have to work with me to motivate yourself to wake up each day with the goal of achieving maximum health.

Examine the air your breath, the water or liquid drink you take, the time you sleep and for how long, your stress level, the texture of your skin, your eyes and your vowel.

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