Happy genes love to eat

 Special people with special genes are always happy and love to eat. We are also influence by our environment but our genes is our master control until we harmed our genes from forces in the environment, prenatal nutrition , stress and other factors.

Connie

Physical inactivity, dopamine, lactate , glucose and aging

aging exerAfter 96 years of age, he has crying spells in the afternoon or early evening hours when our brain hormones are slowing down to ready for sleep.  With less exercise and more time sitting down watching TV and eating every 2 hours, he forgets to remember things as his brain and muscles are not working as it should when he was young.  Whenever I see him, I give him a hug and trains other caregivers to hug him more. He perks up and can do more walking.

Hugging can increase the production of dopamine in your brain, and this can be seen in PET scans of the brain. Dopamine levels are low in people with conditions like Parkinsonism and mood disorders like Depression.

So if you see someone depressed, give him a hug, and bring a little joy to their life.
Dopamine levels are low to those with Alzheimer and Parkinson’s diseases.
Dopamine containing neurons control  voluntary movements. The association with a physiologically reduced glutamate release from frontal and prefrontal cortices, hippocampi and amygdala would induce further decrease of Dopamine release, inducing hypo-activity, gait disturbances and decline of executive functions.

The earlier the impairment of Dopamine system occurs, the fastest the cognitive decline goes.

Hormones and nuerotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine are responsible for our emotions and affects our memory and muscles causing Alzheimer and Parkinson’s disease.
In the brain, dopamine functions as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by neurons (nerve cells) to send signals to other nerve cells. The brain includes several distinct dopamine pathways, one of which plays a major role in the motivational component of reward-motivated behavior.
Epinephrine, also called adrenaline, hormone that is secreted mainly by the medulla of the adrenal glands and that functions primarily to increase cardiac output and to raise glucose levels in the blood.
Norepinephrine, also called noradrenaline, substance that is released predominantly from the ends of sympathetic nerve fibers and that acts to increase the force of skeletal muscle contraction and the rate and force of contraction of the heart.

Supplements and Nutrition

Eat happy foods: eggs, colorful whole foods and yams and whole foods/dietary supplements rich in the following nutrients:
Folate, Vitamin B complex, SAM-E,omega 3, digestive enzymes, probiotic, Vitamin C, copper, iron from greens, NAC
Suggested exercises should include walking, dancing , stretching, yoga, meditation, and other body movement.
Remember all the above information assumes that you have a healthy liver. Take care of the laboratory organ of your body, the liver which processes all chemicals, drugs, alcohol and nutrition in your body.
During sleep, your brain is helping the liver detox your body. The lymphatic system which travels opposite your circulatory system is responsible for cleaning your blood.

Lactate and brain

Lactate is considered an important metabolite in the human body, but there has been considerable debate about its roles in brain function. Research in recent years has suggested that lactate from astrocytes may be crucial for supporting axonal function, especially during times of high metabolic demands or hypoglycemia. The astrocyte-neuron lactate transfer shuttle system serves a protective function to ensure a supply of substrates for brain metabolism, and oligodendrocytes appear to also influence availability of lactate. There is increasing evidence for lactate acting as a signaling molecule in the brain to link metabolism, substrate availability, blood flow and neuronal activity.
The brain produces its own lactate from the metabolism of glycogen and tends to export lactate at rest []. Lactate is brought into the brain across the BBB to be used as fuel when plasma lactate is high or plasma glucose is low [].

Sucrose, gut bacteria, toxins, and muscle integrity

Calculate your Body Mass Index – BMI

BMI

https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/BMI/bmicalc.htm

Waist Circumference

Measuring waist circumference helps screen for possible health risks that come with overweight and obesity. If most of your fat is around your waist rather than at your hips, you’re at a higher risk for heart disease and type 2 diabetes. This risk goes up with a waist size that is greater than 35 inches for women or greater than 40 inches for men. To correctly measure your waist, stand and place a tape measure around your middle, just above your hipbones. Measure your waist just after you breathe out.

The table Risks of Obesity-Associated Diseases by BMI and Waist Circumference provides you with an idea of whether your BMI combined with your waist circumference increases your risk for developing obesity-associated diseases or conditions.

Risk Factors for Health Topics Associated With Obesity

Along with being overweight or obese, the following conditions will put you at greater risk for heart disease and other conditions:

Risk Factors

  • High blood pressure (hypertension)
  • High LDL cholesterol (“bad” cholesterol)
  • Low HDL cholesterol (“good” cholesterol)
  • High triglycerides
  • High blood glucose (sugar)
  • Family history of premature heart disease
  • Physical inactivity
  • Cigarette smoking

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Is Obesity ‘Contagious’?

Is Obesity ‘Contagious’?

News Picture: Is Obesity 'Contagious'?By Alan Mozes
HealthDay Reporter

TUESDAY, Jan. 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) — Living in a neighborhood with a high rate of obesity might raise the odds that you and your children will become plus-sized, too.

That’s according to a new study involving more than 1,500 U.S. Army families. The researchers say their findings may help explain why high obesity rates in the United States tend to cluster in certain geographic areas.

“Living in a community where obesity is more of the norm than not can influence what is socially acceptable in terms of eating and exercise behaviors and body size,” explained study author Ashlesha Datar.

A phenomenon called “social contagion” may be at work, she said, though the study did not prove a cause-and-effect link.

The bottom line: “If more people around you are obese then that may increase your own chances of becoming obese,” said Datar, a senior economist at the University of Southern California Center for Economic and Social Research.

Datar and co-author Nancy Nicosia, of the RAND Corp., focused on Army families because they typically relocate based on military requirements rather than personal preference. This eliminated from the get-go one theory about regional obesity — that people who are obese associate with others like themselves.

The researchers sifted through 2013-2014 data for about 1,300 parents and 1,100 children. The families were stationed at or near 38 military installations across the United States.

Datar wanted to see if families had higher odds for being overweight or obese when posted in counties with higher rates of obesity.

The team first reviewed body mass index (BMI) for family members. BMI is a measure of body fat based on height and weight.

They then assessed the “shared environment” in which service families lived, tallying up the number of grocery stores, sports and recreational facilities, and such.

The researchers also weighed each community’s overall obesity rate. These ranged from 21 percent (El Paso County, Colo.) to 38 percent (Vernon County, La.).

Datar said the analysis confirmed that “military families assigned to installations in counties with higher obesity rates were more likely to be overweight or obese than military families assigned to installations in counties with lower rates of obesity.”

But the opposite also appears true: Relocating to a county with a lower obesity rate reduces a family’s odds of plumping up.

Datar said the study found no evidence to suggest that “neighborhood shared environments” — such as access to the same eating and exercise options — were driving obesity rates.

Lona Sandon is an assistant professor of clinical nutrition at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas.

“It is well known in the behavior and psychology literature that those around us influence behaviors, values and beliefs,” she said.

“That includes behaviors, values and beliefs related to health, eating and exercise,” Sandon added. “Social acceptability and norms have a lot to do with food and exercise behavior choices, whether we are aware of it or not.”

Her own research suggests “most people believed they were in control of their behaviors,” said Sandon, who wasn’t involved in the study.

But when asked about specific situations — like eating out with friends and whether what their friends ordered influenced their choice of meal — the respondents’ answers changed. “They would often realize that others around them did influence meal choices,” she said.

Sandon’s advice: “If you want to change your weight, eating and exercise habits, get new friends who are already eating healthier and exercising.”

The findings were published online in the Jan. 22 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Gut Bacteria Linked to Age Related Conditions

Gut Bacteria Linked to Age Related Conditions

Source: Frontiers.

A new study shows for the first time that gut bacteria from old mice induce age-related chronic inflammation when transplanted into young mice. Called “inflammaging,” this low-grade chronic inflammation is linked to life-limiting conditions such as stroke, dementia and cardiovasuclar disease. The research, published today in open-access journal Frontiers in Immunology, brings the hope of a potentially simple strategy to contribute to healthy ageing, as the composition of bacteria in the gut is, at least in part, controlled by diet.

“Since inflammaging is thought to contribute to many diseases associated with ageing, and we now find that the gut microbiota plays a role in this process, strategies that alter the gut microbiota composition in the elderly could reduce inflammaging and promote healthy ageing,” explains Dr Floris Fransen, who performed the research at the University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands. “Strategies that are known to alter gut microbiota composition include changes in diet, probiotics, and prebiotics.”

Previous research shows that the elderly tend to have a different composition of gut bacteria than younger people.

Immune responses also tend to be compromised in the elderly, resulting in inflammaging.

Knowing this, Fransen and his team set out to investigate a potential link.

The scientists transferred gut microbiota from old and young conventional mice to young germ-free mice, and analysed immune responses in their spleen, lymph nodes and tissues in the small intestine. They also analysed whole-genome gene expression in the small intestine.

All results showed an immune response to bacteria transferred from the old mice but not from the young mice.

The results suggest that an imbalance of the bacterial composition in the gut may be the cause of inflammaging in the elderly. Imbalances, or “dysbiosis” of gut bacteria results in “bad” bacteria being more dominant than “good” bacteria. An overgrowth of bad bacteria can make the lining of the gut become more permeable, allowing toxins to enter the bloodstream where they can travel around the body with various negative effects.

Dysbiosis can have serious health implications: several disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, diabetes, cancer, anxiety and autism are already linked to the condition.

“Our gut is inhabited by a huge number of bacteria” explains Fransen. “Moreover, there are many different kinds of bacterial species, and the bacterial species that are present can vary a lot from person to person.”

gut

Maintaining a healthy gut microbiota is clearly important to a healthy body and healthy ageing, but why the gut microbiota is different in the elderly is not fully understood. Many people are aware of the effect a course of antibiotics can have on the digestive system for example, but as Fransen explains, it may not be down to just one thing: “It is likely a combination of factors such as reduced physical activity, changes in diet, but also as part of a natural process.”

Most, if not all, age-related diseases can be linked back to inflammaging. Despite the fact that this particular study was conducted on mice, it is clear that maintaining a healthy gut microbiota is key to a healthy lifestyle. However, more research is needed to confirm that the human body mirrors the mice in this study.

“Both in humans and mice there is a correlation between altered gut microbiota composition and inflammaging, but the link between the two remains to be proven in humans” concludes Fransen.

The article is part of the Frontiers Research Topic Immunomodulatory Functions of Nutritional Ingredients in Health and Disease.

ABOUT THIS NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH ARTICLE

Source: Frontiers
Publisher: Organized by NeuroscienceNews.com.
Image Source: NeuroscienceNews.com image is in the public domain.
Original Research: Full open access research for “Aged Gut Microbiota Contributes to Systemical Inflammaging after Transfer to Germ-Free Mice” by Floris Fransen, Adriaan A. van Beek, Theo Borghuis, Sahar El Aidy, Floor Hugenholtz, Christa van der Gaast – de Jongh, Huub F. J. Savelkoul, Marien I. De Jonge, Mark V. Boekschoten, Hauke Smidt, Marijke M. Faas, and Paul de Vos in Frontiers in Immunology. Published online November 2 2017 doi:10.3389/fimmu.2017.01385

CITE THIS NEUROSCIENCENEWS.COM ARTICLE
Frontiers “Gut Bacteria Linked to Age Related Conditions.” NeuroscienceNews. NeuroscienceNews, 5 November 2017.
<http://neurosciencenews.com/microbiome-aging-inflammation-7878/&gt;.

Abstract

Aged Gut Microbiota Contributes to Systemical Inflammaging after Transfer to Germ-Free Mice

Advanced age is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which is usually referred to as inflammaging. Elderly are also known to have an altered gut microbiota composition. However, whether inflammaging is a cause or consequence of an altered gut microbiota composition is not clear. In this study, gut microbiota from young or old conventional mice was transferred to young germ-free (GF) mice. Four weeks after gut microbiota transfer immune cell populations in spleen, Peyer’s patches, and mesenteric lymph nodes from conventionalized GF mice were analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, whole-genome gene expression in the ileum was analyzed by microarray. Gut microbiota composition of donor and recipient mice was analyzed with 16S rDNA sequencing. Here, we show by transferring aged microbiota to young GF mice that certain bacterial species within the aged microbiota promote inflammaging. This effect was associated with lower levels of Akkermansia and higher levels of TM7 bacteria and Proteobacteria in the aged microbiota after transfer. The aged microbiota promoted inflammation in the small intestine in the GF mice and enhanced leakage of inflammatory bacterial components into the circulation was observed. Moreover, the aged microbiota promoted increased T cell activation in the systemic compartment. In conclusion, these data indicate that the gut microbiota from old mice contributes to inflammaging after transfer to young GF mice.

“Aged Gut Microbiota Contributes to Systemical Inflammaging after Transfer to Germ-Free Mice” by Floris Fransen, Adriaan A. van Beek, Theo Borghuis, Sahar El Aidy, Floor Hugenholtz, Christa van der Gaast – de Jongh, Huub F. J. Savelkoul, Marien I. De Jonge, Mark V. Boekschoten, Hauke Smidt, Marijke M. Faas, and Paul de Vos in Frontiers in Immunology. Published online November 2 2017 doi:10.3389/fimmu.2017.01385

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