How To Heal Your Metabolism , reset your hormones and make you feel young

How To Heal Your Metabolism

How to Heal Your Metabolism

Lately, as many of you know I have been deep in reading and researching about the systems of the body, healing the body, nutrients, foods that heal and how they are all related in increasing metabolic function.  I think we can agree that we would all like to increase our metabolism…right?  As we get older we are led to believe that our metabolism will just naturally slow down.  We will have to work harder and eat less just to stay thin and feel good about ourselves.  Do these statements ring true to you?  They certainly did for me…of course, until now.

Here are ELEVEN things that will help increase cellular respiration and help heal your metabolism.

  1. Stop dieting
  2. Reduce all other toxins
  3. Get more Sleep
  4. Get more Sunlight
  5. Decrease polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) in meats
  6. Decrease phytoestrogens (soy)
  7. Increase saturated fats in coconut oil
  8. Eat the right types of carbohydrates (sugars) in ripe fruits, root vegetables
  9. Eat the right type of protein in eggs and white fish
  10. Increasing Carbon dioxide (C02) by eating baking soda or carbonated water

You see, for many years, I believed the only way that I could increase my metabolic expenditure (increase calories burned) was to add more muscle to my body and/or to exert more energy through increased exercise load and intensity.  However, there is actually a third way to increase your metabolism.  One that is not discussed very often, either because people do not know about it or they just do not understand it.  Are you wondering what it is?  Oh, I bet you are…

Over the last few years of my studies, I have begun to look at the body and its functions very differently.  I have realized that the health of our metabolism is more than just how much we move and how much muscle we have; a healthy metabolism is about what is happening in every cell of our body and the actual respiration of every cell of our body.  Thus, if we can increase cellular respiration we can increase metabolic function.

First, what is cellular respiration?

Cellular respiration is the set of the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.

Basically, it is what happens when glucose (sugar) enters the cells and converts to usable energy.  Without getting too scientific, it’s the most efficient way for cells to harvest energy stored in food.

Cellular respiration has three main stages: glycolysis, the Kreb’s cycle, and the electron transport chain.  For all the geeks, here is a basic explanation of each, for everyone else, skip ahead…

  1. Glycolysis is the metabolic process occurring in the cytosol of your cells that converts glucose (sugar) into two pyruvate molecules.  Glycolysis is an anaerobic (does not require oxygen) reaction that has an end production of 2 ATP (ATP is usable energy) molecules.
  2. Kreb’s Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) is an aerobic (requires oxygen) reaction that occurs in the mitochondria of every cell in your body.  The mitochondria are referred to as the cell’s power plant because they produce most of the cells supply of ATP (energy). Once oxygen is present, Acetyl Co A is produced from the two pyruvate molecules.  Through an 8-step process 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, and 2 ATP are formed (yes, I know you have no idea what this means…but keep reading, it will all make sense soon).
  3. 3. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) is also an aerobic reaction occurring in the mitochondria.  The ETC transports electrons from donors (like NADH and FADH2) to acceptors (like Oxygen).   When working properly the Kreb’s cycle and the ETC produce most of the cells energy.  The end result is an additional 34 ATP.  As you can see we need adequate amount of glucose, oxygen and a healthy mitochondria to produce sufficient amounts of energy…without these our cells become inefficient and eventually die.

Have I lost you with all this scientific jargon?  Stick with me; things will start to come together soon…

What I want you to see is when everything is working optimally and our cells are getting adequate glucose and oxygen we produce lots of energy (increased cellular respiration).  With increased cellular respiration our metabolism increases.  A great running metabolism means we are meeting our body’s energy needs, we are repairing tissue, we are detoxing properly, we have proper hormone function, we have good energy, we feel happy and life is good.

Did you ever have a friend when you were young who was thin, didn’t workout and could eat whatever she wanted and never gain a pound?  You know, that friend you hated… we will call her Britch.   Britch had great cellular respiration.  It is not the amount of muscle she had or the amount of exercise or activity she did that kept her thin.  Her increased metabolic function came from great cellular respiration.  However, if Britch continued to live her crappy-eating, non-exercising lifestyle her cells would become damaged and her lifestyle would catch up to her.

Many of us would attribute this phenomenon to great genes.   This is partially true since our mitochondria has its own set of DNA.   However, we can help or harm the health of our cellular respiration through the foods we eat, the lifestyles we choose and the decisions we make.  So even if you were not born with great mitochondrial genes you can still improve OR worsen your cells energy production.

  1. Decrease polyunsaturated fats (PUFA).  As I have discussed before PUFAs are highly unstable and oxidize easily in the body.  PUFAs cause mitochondrial damage and reduce respiration.  PUFAs also bind to the same protein receptors that transport your thyroid hormone, reducing thyroid usage…which, once again, has an adverse effect on your cells respiration.  Some examples of PUFA’s are vegetable oils, corn oils, seed oils, nut oils, fish oils, most nuts and seeds and most conventional meats.
  2. Decrease phytoestrogens (soy). An increased level of phytoestrogens increases free fatty acids (FFA) in the body.  FFA acids are known to inhibit the thyroid function and disrupt glucose metabolism.  Soy, like PUFAs, lowers cellular respiration.
  3. Increase saturated fats. Yes, you heard me.  Increasing the right types of saturated fats like coconut oil, organic butter or ghee, cocoa butter, raw organic dairy, and grass fed meats can be very beneficial for your cells.  Saturated fats are stable. Unlike PUFAs, saturated fats bind to proteins in the correct way.  They are used properly and do not break down causing damage to mitochondria genes (DNA).
  4. Eat the right types of carbohydrates (sugars). I know everyone is scared of the words carbohydrate and sugar these days.  You would think by telling you to consume them, it is like telling you to go jump off a bridge.  We must understand not all carbohydrates (sugars) are created equal.  When I say the right types of carbs or sugars, I am referring to ripe fruits, root vegetables, organic raw dairy, pulp free OJ and some low starch above ground vegetables.  I am not referring to processed cookies, crackers, grains, breads and candies.   Sugar is the bodies preferred source of energy.  When we use the right sugars to fuel our cells they produce the most energy by using the least amount of our own bodies resources.  When we use a less optimal fuel (like protein or fat) our body uses more resources to produce less energy.
  5. Eat the right type of protein. Consuming easily digestible proteins like organic beef broth, gelatin, white fish, eggs, dairy and shellfish help support the liver and thyroid.  Increase thyroid hormone increases mitochondria respiration and increases CO2 production.
  6. Increasing Carbon dioxide (C02). C02 helps increase cellular respiration.  You can increase your C02 levels by living at high altitudes (Denver, you are all set), bag breathing, ingesting or bathing in baking soda and increasing your intake of carbonated water.
  7. The right exercise.  Stressful exercise increases mitochondrial damage.  Long duration cardio is incredibly stressful to the body.  Endurance athletes, although fit, have decreased cellular function, you can see this in their very low pulse and low body temperature.  According to Dr. Ray Peat “concentric” weight training is actually restorative to the cells mitochondria.  This means lifting with a load and relaxing without a load.  Burst training (short burst of exercise followed by rest) is also supportive of a healthy metabolism.
  8. Get more Sunlight. According to Dr. Ray Peat, “It turns out that day light 
stimulates our ability to use oxygen for energy production, and
 protects our tissues from some of the free-radical toxins that are
 produced by normal metabolism, by stress, or by radiation.”   This does not mean lay in the sun for 10 hours/day.  Refer to my blog on Vitamin D to help decide how much sun you need.
  9. Get more Sleep. Getting restorative sleep helps with proper cellular function.  This can mean anywhere from 6- 10 hours depending on the person.  Deep sleep is better than more sleep.  Best hours for sleeping are between the hours of 10:30PM -6:30AM.  When the body is at rest its primary energy source should be fat.  Burning fat while sleeping is far less harmful to the cells than oxidizing it while working out.  Remember to optimize energy production sugars should be used while awake and fats should be used while asleep.
  10. Stop dieting. Dieting, starvation, and detox programs may all help you lose weight fast and help you feel better in the short run.  However, long term they are all doing the same thing…they damage your mitochondria and decrease cellular respiration.  Have you ever wondered why ever time you “diet” it gets a little harder to lose weight?  It’s because “dieting”deprives our cells of proper energy and nutrients, damaging our cells and decreasing metabolism.
  11. Reduce all other toxins.  Remove as many toxins from your life as possible.  This includes processed foods, trans-fats, high fructose corn syrup, additives, preservatives, carrageenan, hormones, anti-biotics, drugs, alcohol, environmental toxins, fluoride, pesticides, herbicides, mercury, radiation, etc.  All toxins will disrupt and interfere with proper cell function.  All toxins will lower cellular respiration.

Okay, you got all that?  Yes, I know this is a lot to take in.  And yes, I know some of you may think I am crazy.  This is totally okay with me.  However, what you should know is everything I write about is based on the physiology of the human body, scientific research and my own self-experimentation.   I am not here to tell you what you should or should not do.  My intentions for giving you this information is to only share with you what I am learning, and how it is helping not only myself, but also many of my clients.

Please understand the recommendations I am giving are not person specific.  Every person is different, is at a different state of health and has different needs.  You must also understand that healing the body on a cellular level takes time, a real commitment to wanting to get better and a belief that you are doing the right thing.  There is so much misinformation on health and nutrition out there, it is hard to know what to believe anymore.  In fact, you should question everything you learn, including me.  It is important that you investigate on your own, find out what works for you, ask lots questions, and get help from a professional if you feel you need it.  For more information on how to heal your metabolism…Buy The BOOK.

Happy healing!

Your Optimal Health Coach,

Kate

“Disclaimer:  I am an exercise physiologist, personal trainer, nutritional and lifestyle coach, not a medical doctor.  I do not diagnose, prescribe for, treat or claim to prevent, mitigate or cure any human disease or physical problem. I do not provide diagnosis, care treatment or rehabilitation of individuals, nor apply medical, mental health or human development principles.  I do not prescribe prescription drugs nor do I tell you to discontinue them.  I provide physical and dietary suggestions to improve health and wellness and to nourish and support normal function and structure of the body.  If you suspect any disease please consult your physician.”

References:

  1. Mitochondria and Mortality.  Dr. Ray Peat
  2. Energy structure and carbon dioxide: A realistic view of the organism. Dr. Ray Peat
  3. Using Sunlight to Sustain Life.  Dr. Ray Peat
  4. The acute phase response and exercise: the ultra marathon as prototype exercise. Clin J Sport Med. 2001 Jan;11(1):38-43.
  5. Systemic inflammatory response to exhaustive exercise. Cytokine kinetics.
Suzuki K, Nakaji S, Yamada M, Totsuka M, Sato K, Sugawara K.  Exerc Immunol Rev. 2002;8:6-48.
  6. Inhibition of NADH-linked mitochondrial respiration by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal.
Humphries KM, Yoo Y, Szweda LI.  Biochemistry. 1998 Jan 13;37(2):552-7.
  7. 4-Hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal inhibits CNS mitochondrial respiration at multiple sites.
Picklo MJ, Amarnath V, McIntyre JO, Graham DG, Montine TJ.  J Neurochem. 1999 Apr;72(4):1617-24.
  8. Effect of high plasma free fatty acids on the free radical formation of myocardial mitochondria isolated from ischemic dog hearts.
Kamikawa T, Yamazaki N.  Jpn Heart J. 1981 Nov;22(6):939-49.
  9. Acrolein inhibits respiration in isolated brain mitochondria.
Picklo MJ, Montine TJ.  Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001 Feb 14;1535(2):145-52
  10. Acrolein, a product of lipid peroxidation, inhibits glucose and glutamate uptake in primary neuronal cultures.
Lovell MA, Xie C, Markesbery WR.  Free Radic Biol Med. 2000 Oct 15;29(8):714-20.
  11. Thyroid hormone action in mitochondria.  C Wrutniak-Cabello, F Casas and G Cabello UMR Différenciation Cellulaire et Croissance (INRA, Université Montpellier II, ENSAM), Unité d’Endocrinologie Cellulaire, INRA, 2 Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier Cedex 1, France

Gut Bacteria Linked to Age Related Conditions

Gut Bacteria Linked to Age Related Conditions

Source: Frontiers.

A new study shows for the first time that gut bacteria from old mice induce age-related chronic inflammation when transplanted into young mice. Called “inflammaging,” this low-grade chronic inflammation is linked to life-limiting conditions such as stroke, dementia and cardiovasuclar disease. The research, published today in open-access journal Frontiers in Immunology, brings the hope of a potentially simple strategy to contribute to healthy ageing, as the composition of bacteria in the gut is, at least in part, controlled by diet.

“Since inflammaging is thought to contribute to many diseases associated with ageing, and we now find that the gut microbiota plays a role in this process, strategies that alter the gut microbiota composition in the elderly could reduce inflammaging and promote healthy ageing,” explains Dr Floris Fransen, who performed the research at the University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands. “Strategies that are known to alter gut microbiota composition include changes in diet, probiotics, and prebiotics.”

Previous research shows that the elderly tend to have a different composition of gut bacteria than younger people.

Immune responses also tend to be compromised in the elderly, resulting in inflammaging.

Knowing this, Fransen and his team set out to investigate a potential link.

The scientists transferred gut microbiota from old and young conventional mice to young germ-free mice, and analysed immune responses in their spleen, lymph nodes and tissues in the small intestine. They also analysed whole-genome gene expression in the small intestine.

All results showed an immune response to bacteria transferred from the old mice but not from the young mice.

The results suggest that an imbalance of the bacterial composition in the gut may be the cause of inflammaging in the elderly. Imbalances, or “dysbiosis” of gut bacteria results in “bad” bacteria being more dominant than “good” bacteria. An overgrowth of bad bacteria can make the lining of the gut become more permeable, allowing toxins to enter the bloodstream where they can travel around the body with various negative effects.

Dysbiosis can have serious health implications: several disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, diabetes, cancer, anxiety and autism are already linked to the condition.

“Our gut is inhabited by a huge number of bacteria” explains Fransen. “Moreover, there are many different kinds of bacterial species, and the bacterial species that are present can vary a lot from person to person.”

gut

Maintaining a healthy gut microbiota is clearly important to a healthy body and healthy ageing, but why the gut microbiota is different in the elderly is not fully understood. Many people are aware of the effect a course of antibiotics can have on the digestive system for example, but as Fransen explains, it may not be down to just one thing: “It is likely a combination of factors such as reduced physical activity, changes in diet, but also as part of a natural process.”

Most, if not all, age-related diseases can be linked back to inflammaging. Despite the fact that this particular study was conducted on mice, it is clear that maintaining a healthy gut microbiota is key to a healthy lifestyle. However, more research is needed to confirm that the human body mirrors the mice in this study.

“Both in humans and mice there is a correlation between altered gut microbiota composition and inflammaging, but the link between the two remains to be proven in humans” concludes Fransen.

The article is part of the Frontiers Research Topic Immunomodulatory Functions of Nutritional Ingredients in Health and Disease.

ABOUT THIS NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH ARTICLE

Source: Frontiers
Publisher: Organized by NeuroscienceNews.com.
Image Source: NeuroscienceNews.com image is in the public domain.
Original Research: Full open access research for “Aged Gut Microbiota Contributes to Systemical Inflammaging after Transfer to Germ-Free Mice” by Floris Fransen, Adriaan A. van Beek, Theo Borghuis, Sahar El Aidy, Floor Hugenholtz, Christa van der Gaast – de Jongh, Huub F. J. Savelkoul, Marien I. De Jonge, Mark V. Boekschoten, Hauke Smidt, Marijke M. Faas, and Paul de Vos in Frontiers in Immunology. Published online November 2 2017 doi:10.3389/fimmu.2017.01385

CITE THIS NEUROSCIENCENEWS.COM ARTICLE
Frontiers “Gut Bacteria Linked to Age Related Conditions.” NeuroscienceNews. NeuroscienceNews, 5 November 2017.
<http://neurosciencenews.com/microbiome-aging-inflammation-7878/&gt;.

Abstract

Aged Gut Microbiota Contributes to Systemical Inflammaging after Transfer to Germ-Free Mice

Advanced age is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which is usually referred to as inflammaging. Elderly are also known to have an altered gut microbiota composition. However, whether inflammaging is a cause or consequence of an altered gut microbiota composition is not clear. In this study, gut microbiota from young or old conventional mice was transferred to young germ-free (GF) mice. Four weeks after gut microbiota transfer immune cell populations in spleen, Peyer’s patches, and mesenteric lymph nodes from conventionalized GF mice were analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, whole-genome gene expression in the ileum was analyzed by microarray. Gut microbiota composition of donor and recipient mice was analyzed with 16S rDNA sequencing. Here, we show by transferring aged microbiota to young GF mice that certain bacterial species within the aged microbiota promote inflammaging. This effect was associated with lower levels of Akkermansia and higher levels of TM7 bacteria and Proteobacteria in the aged microbiota after transfer. The aged microbiota promoted inflammation in the small intestine in the GF mice and enhanced leakage of inflammatory bacterial components into the circulation was observed. Moreover, the aged microbiota promoted increased T cell activation in the systemic compartment. In conclusion, these data indicate that the gut microbiota from old mice contributes to inflammaging after transfer to young GF mice.

“Aged Gut Microbiota Contributes to Systemical Inflammaging after Transfer to Germ-Free Mice” by Floris Fransen, Adriaan A. van Beek, Theo Borghuis, Sahar El Aidy, Floor Hugenholtz, Christa van der Gaast – de Jongh, Huub F. J. Savelkoul, Marien I. De Jonge, Mark V. Boekschoten, Hauke Smidt, Marijke M. Faas, and Paul de Vos in Frontiers in Immunology. Published online November 2 2017 doi:10.3389/fimmu.2017.01385

Regeneration of our cells, brain metabolism and exercise

This is my third week at cross fit exercise training. I wanted to know how my body can regenerate.

  • The human body is an incredible machine.
  • Part of what makes it so impressive (apart from the concept of conciousness and self awareness) is its ability to regenerate itself.
  • Your outer layer of skin, the epidermis (apart from the thicker dermis beneath), replaces itself every 35 days.
  • You are given a new liver every six weeks (a human liver can regenerate itself completely even if as little as 25% remains of it).
  • Your stomach lining replaces itself every 4 days, and the stomach cells that come into contact with digesting food are replaced every 5 minutes.
  • Our entire skeletal structures are regenerated every 3 months.
  • Your entire brain replaces itself every two months.
  • And the entire human body, right down to the last atom, is replaced every 5-7 years.
  • How Your Body Rebuilds Itself In Under 365 Days

We can really influence how this renewal process take place, by the thoughts we have, the food we eat, the life style we adopt, the environment we live in, our relationships, the exercise we take. Most of these things are about the decisions we make.

FACT: Your entire body totally rebuilds itself in less than 2 years – and 98% in less than a year.

Every cell in your body eventually dies and is replaced with new cells. Everyday is a new opportunity to build a new body!

  • Your DNA renews itself every 2 months.
  • Your skin rebuilds itself in 1 month. (especially at night)
  • Your liver rebuilds itself in 6 weeks.
  • The lining in your stomach rebuilds itself in 5 days.
  • Your brain rebuilds itself in 1 year.
  • Your blood rebuilds itself in 4 months.
  • Your body builds a whole new skeleton in 3 months.

(Some research says 2 years some say 10 years*)

There is the saying that your only as old as you feel, so that’s your subjective age.

So if you always feel sick& tired as I hear people say in there frustrating moment, guess what your probably become those thoughts.

There is also the biological age. If you have been a smoker all your life, your lungs will have aged prematurely; or if your life style is very sedentary like most modern cultures,  this will have damaging effects on the body resulting in wear and tear.

There is also the belief among many religious/spiritual followers  that we are in our truest essence an eternal soul which is ageless, timeless and dimensionless.

Of course we have our chronological age which we can not change but we can change the our perception, and decisions about the other ways we behave and age.

Red blood cells live for about four months, while white blood cells live on average more than a year. Skin cells live about two or three weeks.

Colon cells have it rough: They die off after about four days. Sperm cells have a life span of only about three days, while brain cells typically last an entire lifetime (neurons in the cerebral cortex, for example, are not replaced when they die).

Muscle regeneration

Muscle regeneration is the process by which damaged skeletal, smooth or cardiac muscle undergoes biological repair and formation of new muscle in response to death (necrosis) of muscle cells. The success of the regenerative process depends upon the extent of the initial damage and many intrinsic and environmental factors. Key cellular events required for regeneration include inflammation, revascularisation and innervation, in addition to myogenesis where new muscle is formed. In mammals, new muscle formation is generally excellent for skeletal muscle but poor for cardiac muscle; however a greater capacity for regeneration of cardiac muscle is seen in fish and some anurans. These aspects of regeneration are discussed with respect to myogenic stem cells, molecular regulation, ageing and implications for human therapies, with a strong focus on skeletal muscle. Other situations of muscle damage and restoration that do not involve necrosis (e.g. sarcomere disruption and atrophy) are here not considered as regeneration.

Key Concepts:

  • Necrosis is required for muscle regeneration.
  • Inflammation is essential to remove necrotic tissue and initiate myogenesis.
  • New blood vessel formation is required after major injury of muscles.
  • Skeletal muscle has an excellent capacity for regeneration. The major source of myogenic precursor (stem) cells is still considered to be the satellite cell, although other cells lying outside the myofibre may contribute to myogenesis.
  • The source of the myogenic precursor cells (myoblasts) varies between conventional tissue regeneration and epimorphic regeneration (where mature cells dedifferentiate).
  • The microenvironment, including the extracellular matrix, affects all aspects of regeneration, for example, the muscle precursors and their capacity for new muscle formation (and fibrosis impairs myogenesis).
  • Reinnervation is essential for functional recovery of skeletal muscle.
  • Excellent myogenesis can occur in geriatric muscle, although systemic factors essential for regeneration, for example, inflammation and innervation, may be suboptimal.
  • Mammalian heart muscle has a very poor capacity for regeneration and severe damage (e.g. heart attack) results in fibrosis and impaired function.
  • In contrast, the hearts of vertebrates such as salamanders and zebrafish can regenerate; the new heart muscle is derived from the dedifferentiation and proliferation of mature cardiomyocytes. It is hoped that an understanding of mechanisms involved in these situations will present opportunities to induce regeneration of damaged human cardiac muscle.

Adult skeletal muscle is a postmitotic tissue with an enormous capacity to regenerate upon injury. This is accomplished by resident stem cells, named satellite cells, which were identified more than 50 years ago. Since their discovery, many researchers have been concentrating efforts to answer questions about their origin and role in muscle development, the way they contribute to muscle regeneration, and their potential to cell-based therapies. Satellite cells are maintained in a quiescent state and upon requirement are activated, proliferating, and fusing with other cells to form or repair myofibers. In addition, they are able to self-renew and replenish the stem pool. Every phase of satellite cell activity is highly regulated and orchestrated by many molecules and signaling pathways; the elucidation of players and mechanisms involved in satellite cell biology is of extreme importance, being the first step to expose the crucial points that could be modulated to extract the optimal response from these cells in therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the basic aspects about satellite cells biology and briefly discuss recent findings about therapeutic attempts, trying to raise questions about how basic biology could provide a solid scaffold to more successful use of these cells in clinics.

Research is currently ongoing in determining the physiological role of satellite glial cells. Current theories suggest that SGCs have a significant role in controlling the microenvironment of the sympathetic ganglia. This is based on the observation that SGCs almost completely envelop the neuron and can regulate the diffusion of molecules across the cell membrane.[2] It has been previously shown that when fluorescent protein tracers are injected into the cervical ganglion in order to bypass the circulatory system, they are not found on the neuron surface. This suggests that the SGCs can regulate the extracellular space of individual neurons.[22] Some speculate that SGCs in the autonomic ganglia have a similar role to the blood–brain barrier as a functional barrier to large molecules.[23]

SGCs role as a regulator of neuronal microenvironment is further characterized by its electrical properties which are very similar to those of astrocytes.[24] Astrocytes have a well studied and defined role in controlling the microenvironment within the brain, therefore researchers are investigating any homologous role of SGCs within the sympathetic ganglia. An established mode of controlling the microenvironment in sensory ganglia is the uptake of substances by specialized transporters which carry neurotransmitters into cells when coupled with Na+ and Cl.[25] Transporters for glutamate and gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)[26] have been found in SGCs. They appear to be actively engaged in the control of the composition of the extracellular space of the ganglia. The enzyme glutamine synthetase, which catalyzes the conversion of glutamate into glutamine, is found in large amounts in SGCs.[27] Additionally, SGCs contain the glutamate related enzymes glutamate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase, and thus can supply the neurons not only with glutamine, but also with malate and lactate

 

Molecule[1] Type of Ganglia Method of Detection Comments
Glutamine synthetase Mouse TG IHC Catalyzes the condensation of glutamate and ammonia to form glutamine
GFAP Rat DRG, TG IHC Upregulated by nerve damage
S100 Rat DRG IHC Upregulated by nerve damage
Endothelin ETB receptor Rat, rabbit DRG IHC, autoradiography Blockers of ETs are shown to alleviate pain in animal models
Bradykinin B2 receptor Rat DRG Electrophysiology Involved in the inflammatory process
P2Y receptor Mouse TG Ca2+ imaging, IHC Contributes to nociception
ACh muscarinic receptor Rat DRG IHC, mRNA (ISH) Role not well defined in sensory ganglia
NGF trkA receptor Rat DRG Immuno-EM May play a role in response to neuronal injury
TGFα Rat DRG mRNA (ISH), IHC Stimulates neural proliferation after injury
Erythropoietin receptor Rat DRG IHC
TNF-α Mouse DRG, TG IHC Inflammatory mediator increased by nerve crush, herpes simplex activation
IL-6 Mouse TG IHC Cytokine released during inflammation, increased by UV irradiation
ERK Rat DRG IHC Involved in functions including the regulation of meiosis, and mitosis
JAK2 Rat DRG IHC Signaling protein apart of the type II cytokine receptor family
Somatostatin sst1 receptor Rat DRG IHC Somatostatin inhibits the release of many hormones and other secretory proteins
GABA transporter Rat DRG Autoradiography
Glutamate transporter Rat DRG mRNA (ISH), IHC, Autoradiography Terminates the excitatory neurotransmitter signal by removal (uptake) of glutamate
Guanylate cyclase Rat DRG, TG IHC for cGMP Second messenger that internalizes the message carried by intercellular messengers such as peptide hormones and NO
PGD synthase Chick DRG IHC Known to function as a neuromodulator as well as a trophic factor in the central nervous system

 

Exercise and Lactate

In animals, L-lactate is constantly produced from pyruvate via the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in a process of fermentation during normal metabolism and exercise. It does not increase in concentration until the rate of lactate production exceeds the rate of lactate removal, which is governed by a number of factors, including monocarboxylate transporters, concentration and isoform of LDH, and oxidative capacity of tissues. The concentration of blood lactate is usually 1–2 mmol/L at rest, but can rise to over 20 mmol/L during intense exertion[4] and as high as 25 mmol/L afterward.

During power exercises such as sprinting, when the rate of demand for energy is high, glucose is broken down and oxidized to pyruvate, and lactate is then produced from the pyruvate faster than the body can process it, causing lactate concentrations to rise. The production of lactate is beneficial because it regenerates NAD+ (pyruvate is reduced to lactate while NADH is oxidized to NAD+), which is used up in oxidation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate during production of pyruvate from glucose, and this ensures that energy production is maintained and exercise can continue. (During intense exercise, the respiratory chain cannot keep up with the amount of hydrogen atoms that join to form NADH, and cannot regenerate NAD+ quickly enough.)

The resulting lactate can be used in two ways:

Oxidation back to pyruvate by well-oxygenated muscle cells, heart cells, and brain cells Pyruvate is then directly used to fuel the Krebs cycle

Conversion to glucose via gluconeogenesis in the liver and release back into circulation; see Cori cycle[12] If blood glucose concentrations are high, the glucose can be used to build up the liver’s glycogen stores.

However, lactate is continually formed even at rest and during moderate exercise. Some causes of this are metabolism in red blood cells that lack mitochondria, and limitations resulting from the enzyme activity that occurs in muscle fibers having a high glycolytic capacity.

Brain metabolism and exercise

Although glucose is usually assumed to be the main energy source for living tissues, there are some indications that it is lactate, and not glucose, that is preferentially metabolized by neurons in the brain of several mammalian species (the notable ones being mice, rats, and humans).[15][16] According to the lactate-shuttle hypothesis, glial cells are responsible for transforming glucose into lactate, and for providing lactate to the neurons.[17][18] Because of this local metabolic activity of glial cells, the extracellular fluid immediately surrounding neurons strongly differs in composition from the blood or cerebro-spinal fluid, being much richer with lactate, as was found in microdialysis studies.

Some evidence suggests that lactate is important at early stages of development for brain metabolism in prenatal and early postnatal subjects, with lactate at these stages having higher concentrations in body liquids, and being utilized by the brain preferentially over glucose.[15] It was also hypothesized that lactate may exert a strong action over GABAergic networks in the developing brain, making them more inhibitory than it was previously assumed,[19] acting either through better support of metabolites,[15] or alterations in base intracellular pH levels,[20][21] or both.[22]

Studies of brain slices of mice show that beta-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, and pyruvate act as oxidative energy substrates, causing an increase in the NAD(P)H oxidation phase, that glucose was insufficient as an energy carrier during intense synaptic activity and, finally, that lactate can be an efficient energy substrate capable of sustaining and enhancing brain aerobic energy metabolism in vitro.[23] The study “provides novel data on biphasic NAD(P)H fluorescence transients, an important physiological response to neural activation that has been reproduced in many studies and that is believed to originate predominately from activity-induced concentration changes to the cellular NADH pools.

The following will age us: drugs/medications, alcohol, obesity and negative persona.

I will vow not to stop my 30-min cross fit training every morning to keep my cells from growing old.

Moving to smaller homes

move to smaller homes

Young and old want to move to a smaller house for practical reasons, mobility and changing times. With smart phones, computers and availability of travel choices, people wanted to be mobile and not be burdened by the cost of owning a large house.

In the bay area, that means mobile homes, condos, towhouse, apartment, senior assisted living, care homes and living with other family members.

A widow in Oregon, rented out the other bedrooms in her house. A grandma lives with her grandchildren. A divorce parent lives with their adult children. Many renters share a room in a house in the bay area.

An uncle bought a house and have his relatives/family members rent out each room in the house in the bay area.

What are some other ways we can cut housing costs which eat up more than a third of our paycheck?

Email motherhealth@gmail.com

 

 

Emergency Childbirth: When Baby Arrives Before the Midwife or Doctor

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Most     births are    spontaneous and normal. The baby is crafted for survival. Relax and    do the following after contacting the midwife or doctor who is on her way:

  1. Move     her to a comfortable place away from the toilet. Call for help.

  2. Make     sure the room is warm and draft free. Remember that baby needs a     warm environment. A clean, dry towel and a hat should be ready for     the baby.

  3. Prepare     a bowl of warm water with provolone iodine solution and a clean     cloth in it. Place a clean under pad under the mother with the paper     side next to her skin. Place another empty bowl (to catch the     placenta later on) in close proximity together with scissors, gauze,     bulb syringe and cord clamp. Put all items gathered on a clean towel.

  4. Wash     your hands thoroughly. Tear open several packs of 4 x 4’s sterile     gauze. Put gloves on if available.

  5. As     the head starts emerging, put gentle counter pressure against the     bulging perineum. Don’t touch anything except the mother and baby so     as not to contaminate. As the baby’s head starts emerging, remind the     mother that she will feel the “ring of fire” which is normal.

  6. Place     a gauze 4 x 4 over the mother’s anus, to prevent contamination. wipe     the feces away, if necessary, and place a clean 4 x 4 over the anus.     Make sure you don’t contaminate the gloves or your hands.

  7. Ask     the mother to pant as the head crowns and is born. Support the     mother’s perineum with both hands.

  8. When     head is out, slide your fingers in along the baby’s neck to feel for     the umbilical cord. If you feel the cord, try slipping it over the     baby’s head. If you can’t, it’s usually not a problem to leave it,     unless it is too tight and keeps the baby from coming out.

  9. If     the cord is very tight: with your fingers placed between the baby’s     neck and cord, clamp with two hemostats or two cord clamps in two     spots an inch apart.

  10. Make     sure you put both clamps on next to each other on the same piece of     cord. Carefully cut between the two clamps and unwind the cord from     baby’s neck. Keep both clamps on and be sure they are clamped tightly.

  11. If     the bag of waters is still around the baby’s face, as it is born,     tear the bag by pinching it apart with your fingers.

  12. Wipe     the baby’s face with a gauze 4 x 4. Use the syringe to suction the     baby, if needed. While keeping the bulb syringe squeezed, gently     place the tip (sweeping from the side) in baby’s mouth and release     the bulb syringe. Spray contents onto a gauze 4 x 4. Do the same for     both nostrils.

  13. Ask     the mother to push as the baby rotates to face one of the mother’s     leg. With one hand under baby’s head and the other on top of it,     exert gentle pressure downward pressure on the baby’s head to     facilitate the delivery of the top shoulder.

  14. When     the top shoulder is out about two or three inches, lift upward on     the baby’s head to help the bottom shoulder come out. The baby’s body     will follow. Hold the baby (with her/his face down) with your two     hands since the baby is slippery.

  15. Place     the baby on mother’s belly with mom lying on her back and both in     tummy to tummy position. Cover the baby and put her/his hat on. Make     sure you don’t pull the umbilical cord.

  16. As     soon as the cord stops pulsating, you can cut the cord. Attach cord     clamp securely 1/2 inch from baby’s belly button. Place gauze under     the cord. Cut cord 1/2 inch away from the clamp on the other side     (away from the baby).

  17. Baby     should be pink. If baby is bluish, white or limp and not crying, do     the following: Run your fingers up the baby’s spine, massaging     vigorously. Flick baby’s feet with your fingers. Having mother talk     to baby, continue the above. Keep baby warm and dry.

  18. If     baby is still not responding and it has been one minute since birth,     begin mouth to mouth resuscitation with gentle puffs from your     cheeks. Keep baby warm and dry and have someone call the emergency personnel.

  19. Watch     for signs that the placenta is detaching such as a gush of blood,     the cord gets longer and mother feels more contractions.

  20. When     the above happens: wrap gauze around section of the cord, so it’s     not so slick. Place opposite hand against mother’s pubic bone and     press gently inward and upward. Ask mother to give little push with     the next contraction. using gentle cord traction, guide the cord     downward as you see the placenta start to emerge, lift upward with     the cord to help placenta out.

  21. Wipe     and warm the baby by wrapping the baby well and putting the baby on     mother’s breast, apply CPR if necessary, wait for the midwife or     doctor to cut the cord, let the mother massage her uterus and stay     with the mother.

When your face cannot take it any more

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