False Emotion Appearing Real – FEAR

Love trumps Fear, Deception and Hate

According to a 1990 Vanity Fair interview, Ivana Trump once told her lawyer Michael Kennedy that her husband, real-estate mogul Donald Trump, now a leading Republican presidential candidate, kept a book of Hitler’s speeches near his bed.

“Last April, perhaps in a surge of Czech nationalism, Ivana Trump told her lawyer Michael Kennedy that from time to time her husband reads a book of Hitler’s collected speeches, My New Order, which he keeps in a cabinet by his bed … Hitler’s speeches, from his earliest days up through the Phony War of 1939, reveal his extraordinary ability as a master propagandist,” Marie Brenner wrote.

Hitler was one of history’s most prolific orators, building a genocidal Nazi regime with speeches that bewitched audiences.

“He learned how to become a charismatic speaker, and people, for whatever reason, became enamored with him,” Professor Bruce Loebs, who has taught a class called the Rhetoric of Hitler and Churchill for the past 46 years at Idaho State University, told Business Insider earlier this year.

“People were most willing to follow him, because he seemed to have the right answers in a time of enormous economic upheaval.”

When Brenner asked Trump about how he came to possess Hitler’s speeches, “Trump hesitated” and then said, “Who told you that?”

“I don’t remember,” Brenner reportedly replied.

Trump then recalled, “Actually, it was my friend Marty Davis from Paramount who gave me a copy of ‘Mein Kampf,’ and he’s a Jew.”

Brenner added that Davis did acknowledge that he gave Trump a book about Hitler.

“But it was ‘My New Order,’ Hitler’s speeches, not ‘Mein Kampf,'” Davis reportedly said. “I thought he would find it interesting. I am his friend, but I’m not Jewish.”

After Trump and Brenner changed topics, Trump returned to the subject and reportedly said, “If, I had these speeches, and I am not saying that I do, I would never read them.”

In the Vanity Fair article, Ivana Trump told a friend that her husband’s cousin, John Walter “clicks his heels and says, ‘Heil Hitler,” when visiting Trump’s office.

Here’s the entire Vanity Fair interview.

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Hair growth drug is taken by Mr Trump according to his doctor

Propecia may also cause decrease in blood prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels, and can affect the PSA blood test.

Propecia is available in strength of 1 mg tablets; the recommended dose of Propecia is one tablet (1mg) taken once daily. In general daily use for three months is necessary before benefit is observed. Withdrawl of treatment leads to reversal of effect within 12 months. Propecia may interact with other drugs. Tell your doctor all medications and supplements you use. Propecia is not indicated for use in women. Women should not handle crushed or broken Propecia tablets when they are pregnant or may potentially be pregnant. Caution should be used in older men who have benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), PSA levels are decreased by approximately 50%. Men aged 55 and over have increased risk of high grade prostate cancer with 5a-reductase inhibitors. Caution should be exercised in administration of Propecia in those patients with liver function abnormalities.


Certain mental health problems, like depression and disturbances — such as hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia — are possible complications of Parkinson’sdisease and/or its treatment.

Fear of Falling with Parkinson

Although fear of falling (FOF) is common in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD), there is a lack of research investigating potential predictors of FOF. This study explored the impact of motor, nonmotor, and demographic factors as well as complications of drug therapy on FOF among people with PD. Postal survey data (including the Falls Efficacy Scale, FES) from 154 nondemented people with PD were analyzed using multiple regression analyses. Five significant independent variables were identified explaining 74% of the variance in FES scores. The strongest contributing factor to FOF was walking difficulties (explaining 68%), followed by fatigue, turning hesitations, need for help in daily activities, and motor fluctuations. Exploring specific aspects of walking identified three significant variables explaining 59% of FOF: balance problems, limited ability to climb stairs, and turning hesitations. These results have implications for rehabilitation clinicians and suggest that walking ability is the primary target in order to reduce FOF. Specifically, balance, climbing stairs, and turning seem to be of particular importance.

Mr Trump fear of stairs

This weekend, the press went berserk over the news that President Donald Trump supposedly gripped British Prime Minister Theresa May’s hand on a White House path as a result of bathmophobia, a pathological fear of stairs or inclines. The handclasp did not last long. As The Telegraphreported, “Just as the couple reach the top of the slope, the president stretches out his left arm and grabs at Mrs. May’s right hand. They then walk for about five steps before Mr. Trump slides his left arm across and pats the underside of Mrs. May’s hand, possibly grateful for her steadying presence.” The Sun was more dramatic: “‘SCARE’CASE: Is Donald Trump afraid of stairs and what is bathmophobia? Here’s all you need to know.” The condition, The Sunreported, is “common in household pets.”

Leg cramps, heart muscles, magnesium and CQ10

Minerals for the heart

The heart rhythm is dependant on the movement of minerals across the heart lining.  The heart is trigged to beat by this movement.  Arteries and veins are lined with muscle, which also responds to mineral treatments. Leg cramps can be giving you cues that your body lacks magnesium. And after an intense exercise, your heart muscles need to be nourished with whole foods and CQ10.


Women who supplement only with calcium or people who eat a standard American diet are typically deficient in magnesium.  A standard American diet consists of high sugar, high-refined carbohydrates, low protein, and high fat.

Always supplement calcium with magnesium and use a 1:1 ratio of calcium and magnesium if you tend to have high blood pressure, restless leg syndrome, headaches or muscle cramps.  Otherwise have a 1:2 ratio of magnesium to calcium.  This means with 1500 mg of calcium per day, you should use 750-1500 mg magnesium on the same day.

Magnesium relaxes muscle cells and helps regulate heart rhythm.  It does, however, tend to cause diarrhea, and some forms cause looser stools than others.

Which form of magnesium to use?

Constipation: If you don’t have a complete bowel movement daily use magnesium citrate which helps relax bowel spasms and is an osmotic laxative (see the section on constipation for more information).  Magnesium citrate is a non-addictive and gentle laxative.  To determine the level of magnesium citrate to take, start with 1/day with or without food.  Then daily, increase by 1.  Stop when stools are normal. For instance, 1-2 magnesium citrate 1-2X/day is a common dosage.

Regular bowel movements: If you tend to be regular or have loose stools, use magnesium glycinate or magnesium taurate.

Dosage of magnesium: anywhere from 100-1500mg/day depending on blood pressure.


Taurine is an amino acid normally made in the liver.  Unlike most amino acids, which are hooked together to make proteins, taurine’s function is to shuttle minerals into the heart.  It improves your body’s sensitivity to the minerals you obtain from diet or supplements.

Taurine is especially useful for people who use many medications, or who use medications that damage liver function (e.g. heart medicines including beta blockers and cholesterol medicines.)

It is also useful for those who have adrenal stress, malabsorption, excessive perspiration, or people who have eaten a poor diet all their lives, and currently experience inefficient mineral use.

Taurine dosage: 500-1000mg up to 3 times a day, based on blood pressure, cramping or muscle twitching.



CoQ10 is a molecule necessary for the production of energy in the body.  The body has a series of molecules that shuffle electrons from one to the next (called the electron transport chain).  This shuttle of electrons (electricity) is used to make energy for the body.  The last molecule in this energy transfer is CoQ10.  The molecule made for energy storage is called ATP.  CoQ10 feeds the ATP producing molecule, which causes stores of bodily fuel to be built up.

Muscles require ATP to relax, not contract.  This means muscles contract “for free”, but then need energy to relax again.  This is why deceased people with rigor mortis become “stiff”.  After death, energy production ceases, as does the relaxation of muscles.

CoQ10 supplies energy to the muscles to help them function.

Beta-blockers and some cholesterol lowering medication deplete the body of CoQ10, therefore depleting the body of energy.

Your heart medicines and cholesterol medicines may be harming your heart by depleting its energy!  The very treatment you use to lower your blood pressure or cholesterol can be giving you cramps and robbing your heart of energy.

Vitamin EThree very large studies found 40% heart disease risk reduction with supplements. 

Anti-Alzheimer’s; helps diabetes and dialysis problems and it’s an important anti-inflammatory.

about 200 IU type ‘d’, not ‘dl’. MIXED ‘tocopherols’ best. Relaxes arteries. Always take in oil or fatty meal –AJCN: 1-2004]

Here’s a summary of the excellent 1999 book The Vitamin E factor
Antioxidant; protects blood fats; keeps cholesterol “happy”.  Prevents blood sticking, clots and artery damage.  Like vitamin C, keeps blood and cell fats non-toxic.Very important.  Take during “fattiest” meal.  Natural (d) type doubly effective –also consider: mixed “tocopherols” and possibly “mixed tocotrienols”.  Consider starting with lower dose.  IF on Coumadin (warfarin), aspirin and/or high fish oil, use lowest dose: while preventing clotting, you could promote excessive bleeding.

As with the heart-healthy omega-3 oils, E’s cardio benefits increase with time.  The evidence for prevention is stronger than for E as a cure.

Vitamin Cnot Ester-C238 references in Am J Cl Nutr; June ’99.

Beneficial roles of very high doses in disease are probable but not well established.C, easy to take for granted, hard to underestimate!

1/2 – 4 grams.
At or above lower dose in health, higher in illness.If prone to oxalate type kidney stones, stay below 1 g, drink sufficient water, consider vitamin B6, low salt, low protein and high calcium foods.
Antioxidant.  Works with and recycles vitamin E; Keeps blood vessels healthy; raises ‘good’ & lowers Lp(a) cholesterol; speeds up bowel, reduces length & severity of colds.  Improves general health: point 2 in [31 Comments] and the Linus Pauling Institute.Anti-viral.  At 4 ¢/g, best health bargain around.  99.9% of animals make their own in “mega” amounts as do all plants.  We, monkeys and guinea pigs do not.  Very high dose is remarkably safe: “..take as much as you like” [from the L. Pauling Institute’s Top Ten, May 2000]. Very important.  Nature’s nitroglycerin, like arginine & vitamin E.
The B’s  –No reported toxicity in doses mentioned.(B2), B6, B12 & folic acid will lower artery toxic homocysteine in anyone.Take as a multi and not individually unless there is a special reason.

B1   25-100 mg
B2   25-100 mg
B3 50-600 mg
B6   25-100 mg
B12  100 mcg+B9 = folic acid 800 – 2000 mcg

Pantothenic acid  (B5) 25-200 mg 

They help digest fats and sugars, lower homocysteine (-best in higher than RDA amounts) and reduce plaque.
Very high dose plain B3 niacin (about 0.7g taken after each of meals) is by far the best & cheapest cholesterol “modifying” drug, raising HDL while lowering LDL, Lp(a), fibrinogen and triglycerides –must take with a daily multi.  B3 is also good for your liver and brain.
The B’s are needed for 100’s of processes in the body.  Ultra high doses of some have anti-Alzheimer’s, schizophrenia & depression links. 

The higher doses mentioned resemble Pauling’s.  Very important.  Very high B6 may help carpal tunnel problems.

Calcium (see minerals, below) + Vitamin D, the sun shine vitamin (very important). I’d use calcium combined with magnesium. Calcium 1.2 gr. + Vitamin D 1200 IU (BMJ; Nov. 28 ’98); up to 100 mcg = 4000 IU likely safe AJCN; Dec. ’01) 1.2g Ca + 800IU D prevent bone loss and fracture at age 84! (here’s your reference).  Calcium is heart healthy: bone, boiled egg shell, oyster shell, dolomite, milk (may be) & soy, and green leaf or cabbage type veggie (which also have the bone-building vitamin K).  D = extremely important: fish liver [oil], fatty fish, high-sun on skin; science ref’s: “D”-council & Oregon State.
Magnesium (for more, and for potassium** see minerals, below) 1/2 – 1 gr. Crucial for heart function; it, and potassium** regulate heart beat.  Mg is needed for 325 reactions, not least the lowering of toxic blood homocysteine.  90% of Mg is removed from refined grains and rice!  Most Americans don’t get the RDA of about 0.4 gr. Very important and few side effects.
Selenium (see minerals, below) 200 mcg (max. 800 mcg) Antioxidant, works with vitamins E and C.  A lack causes heart disease, some virus diseases & cancer which are, in part, selenium deficiency diseases. Very important.
CoQ10 (CoenzymeQ10,  or ubiquinone) 60 to 300 mg  Essential for heart & blood pressure; larger dose for serious heart trouble or cancer; vital when taking a “statin” drug.  Body makes less when older (using most B vitamins and magnesium).  Safe but expensive ($1/100mg).  Doubly absorbed when chewed in oily food.
Vitamin F -with the F from Fat …
An old term that shouldn’t be lost.
α-Linolenic; omega-3 (ω-3 or n-3) type oil.

Linoleic; omega-6 (ω-6 or n-6) type oil.

Omega-3: 1 to 2 tea spoons flax/lin or fish, or 2 table spoons canola oil [like: colza, rape, raap, kool, mustard], or soy -only if you can’t find canola.Other types of omega-3 in fatty fish.

Most people get too much n-6.

True vitamins: needed for heart-health. The only 2 fat types (“poly”-unsaturates) the body can not make itself.Omega-3 type alpha-linolenic is scarce in the Western food supply but key to heart, general and mental health.  Fish oil works like a-linolenic, see: [Good Food] and point 1 in [31 Comments] and lowers triglycerides.

Omega-6 type linoleic (corn, sun, saff, soy, cotton) is rarely lacking and is often excessive in relation to n-3 linolenic.  Probably the most common “vitamin overdose” in Western diets at 2x-3x the ISSFAL maximum for most people.  The cancer-link keeps on popping up in the high omega-6 research.


*Minerals are complicated as there are many and it is possible to overdose.  Intakes depend on the degree of food processing and amounts in the soil.  Plants make vitamins but must mine their minerals -if not in the soil, it won’t be in the plant.  Here’s some info about their roles –not necessarily as supplements- in health and disease.
Selenium: vital: US Nat. Inst. of Health

200 mcg before and in HIV / AIDS & virus infections (book or free 700k pdf): low selenium lowers resistance -including to viruses that steal your selenium- making things seriously worse.Low selenium makes every infection worse since it’s needed in your T lymphocyte defense system.

NE, SE and NW N-Am. & North Europe, New Zealand, parts of China: under 50 mcg/day & often insufficient.Southern Europe and a central N-S band in N-Am. seem to have adequate amounts in the soil.  Large local differences (also: point 14 in Comments). 200-800mcg.

The higher dose is above what is generally accepted as safe but may well slash the US cancer death rate by about one quarter [my guess] as well as the spread of AIDS [someone else’s guess].

Zero reported deaths from supplements. Toxicity likely at 2500 mcg/d.

Cancer, heart disease, heart muscle, muscle, cataracts, blood pressure, some virus diseases, aging
Overdose risk -as per the top link in the left column- should be weighed against potentially 6 fewer cancer deaths per 100 N. Americans on high dose selenium.
Some whole grains, fish, Brazil nuts, kidney and, more reliably, supplements:Twinlab’s Daily One Cap, a Best Buy, almost uniquely contains an excellent 200 mcg, see [Nuts, Bolts] for all sources.


20 – 50 mg (not well absorbed) 5 – 10 mg or higher Bones, joints, heart, skin, poor (weak) collagen Unrefined plants and greens, whole grain, horsetail plant. Dietary fiber (oats, barley, and rice) and wine. 


30 mcg (US) often insufficient 200-400 mcg 
with selenium
Diabetes; helps insulin, cholesterol, acne, sugar use Liver, grains, root veggies, green pepper.
Vanadium 10 – 60 mg often insufficient 100 mcg+ Diabetes; higher doses replace insulin Shell fish, parsley, some processed foods, grains, beans.
Boron 1.5 mg often insufficient 3 – 9 mg Bone health, diabetes, infection, arthritis Water, fruits, veggies.
Manganese 2.5 – 4 mg often insufficient 5-15 mg Bone, cartilage, heart, epilepsy, diabetes, cataracts  Unrefined vegetarian; not in animal products. 

The ONLY nutrient deficiency known to raise LDL cholesterol.

Without it artery structure is not made, or repaired!

0.7 -1.5 mg often insufficient  1-2 mg (1/10th of your zinc intake) Like selenium & iron, don’t overdose on copper Heart, arthritis, hair color, artery bursts (aneurysm, stroke), bad collagen, high LDL, poor clotting, Parkinson’s Nuts, grains, bracelets, supplements.

Soft or acidic water: excessive amounts from copper pipes.
Zinc -Part of 300 enzymes, the nutritional screw drivers, hammers and pliers of our body (protein and fancy oils being the nuts, bolts and batteries, and glucose or fats the fuel). 7-14 mg Low intake is linked to 1.4% of the world’s deaths! [WHO]Rules 2000 cell functions in addition to those 300 enzymes! 10 – 30 mg Arthritis, skin, infection, bad collagen, vision, prostate, diabetes, etc.  Much more from BMJ; 2002-11-9. Shell fish, nuts, grains, beans, potatoes, fish and meat.
Molybdenum 75-250 mcg or less ? 75-250 mcg Organs, enzymes, cancer Whole grains, beans, liver.
U.S. (AIM; 2000-9-11):
young adults: 3.4 g/d; high fruit + veggies: 8 – 11 g/d; urban whites: 2.4 g/d; often elderly or Blacks: ~1 g/d.   20% of hospitalized patients have low potassium.
varies; often insufficient –in relation to sodium i.e. kitchen salt; lost in processing. 2 – 5.6 gr (US RDA)**Try to get it from your food 
Heart, heart failure, stroke, hypertension, cell function, sweating, diuretics, irregular heart beat**, muscle, fatigue, nerves, etc. etc. Bananas, celery, fruits (prune, orange) and veggies (potato, broccoli, beets), meat, fish, salt substitutes.Zero in: white flour, sugar & fats. 
Sodium (salt) most often high or excessive 1/10th of potassium Cell function, always sufficient; raises blood pressure Salted foods; source of vital iodine -check your area.


16 mg (Sweden) often insufficient 10 – 15 mg 
don’t overdose
Blood; premeno- pausal women only; some infants, teens & elderly Liver, nuts, grains & greens; vitamin C increases absorption
Magnesium 300 mg (Sweden)
often insufficient; very important
500 – 1000 mg (at least half of calcium intake) Heart, heart failure, irregular heart beat, bone, PMS, cramps, fatigue, diabetes, stroke, diuretic use, etc. Whole grains, nuts, soy, greens, root veggies & supplements


500 mg (Belgium)
often insufficient
1000 – 2000 mg (1-2g) Bone, heart, general, blood pressure Bone, greens, grains, nuts & milk. Not in meats. 

Mineral needs are complicated because each person’s situation is unique while you or your health-advisor will never know which minerals were in the soil where your food was grown, how much was taken up, or by how much milling and cooking reduced their amount.
Each nutrient is important and wise supplementation with some minerals is a practical way to insure that you get the optimum amounts. 
**POTASSIUMIt now appears quite possible that a lack of potassium in the coronary muscles may be the major cause of death from heart disease in humans ” [Adelle Davis, ’72].  95% of potassium is inside cells, as opposed to sodium, and magnesium keeps it there.  Because raw plant-based diets are high in potassium & low in sodium, well functioning kidneys remove potassium faster than sodium.  Disposal of vegetable cook-water, high salt or low magnesium diets, sweating and most diuretics can cause fatal depletions of potassium and/or magnesium.  References: 1.) irregular heart beat: JAMA; ’99-6-16; 2.) blood pressure: JAMA; ’97-5-28; 3.) stroke: NEJM;’87-1-29 [60% of risk at 4.3 vs. 2.4g/d]; 4.) review BMJ; ’01-9-1 [10 mmole = ~0.4 g].


Low Levels of Manganese in Welding Fumes Cause Parkinson’s-Like Neurological Problems

Summary: A new study reports exposure to airborne manganese in welding fumes contribute to Parkinson’s like neurological problems.

Source: WUSTL.

Current safety standards may not protect workers adequately.

Welders exposed to airborne manganese at estimated levels below federal occupational safety standards exhibit neurological problems similar to Parkinson’s disease, according to new research at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. Further, the more they are exposed to manganese-containing welding fumes, the faster the workers’ signs and symptoms worsen.

The findings, published Dec. 28 in Neurology, suggest that current safety standards may not adequately protect welders from the dangers of the job.

“We found that chronic exposure to manganese-containing welding fumes is associated with progressive neurological symptoms such as slow movement and difficulty speaking,” said Brad A. Racette, MD, a professor of neurology and the study’s senior author. “The more exposure you have to welding fumes, the more quickly those symptoms progress over time.”

At high levels, manganese – a key component of important industrial processes such as welding and steelmaking – can cause manganism, a severe neurologic disorder with symptoms similar to Parkinson’s disease, including slowness, clumsiness, tremors, mood changes, and difficulty walking and speaking. The risk of manganism drove the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) decades ago to set standards limiting the amount of manganese in the air at workplaces. While these safety standards are widely believed to have eliminated manganism as an occupational hazard, researchers who study the effects of manganese exposure have long suspected that there may still be some health effects at levels much lower than what is allowable per OSHA standards.

“Many researchers view what’s allowable as too high a level of manganese, but until now there really weren’t data to prove it,” said Racette, who also is executive vice chairman in the Department of Neurology. “This is the first study that shows clinically relevant health effects that are occurring at estimated exposures that are an order of magnitude lower than the OSHA limit.”

Racette and colleagues studied 886 welders at three worksites in the Midwest – two shipyards and one heavy-machinery fabrication shop. Each welder filled out a detailed job history questionnaire, which the researchers used to calculate each participant’s exposure by combining the estimated manganese exposure for specific job titles with the amount of time spent in each job.

Each participant also underwent at least two standardized clinical evaluations of motor function spaced a year or more apart and using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale. The evaluations were performed by trained neurologists looking for signs of neurological damage such as muscle stiffness, gait instability, reduced facial expressions and slow movement.

A score of 6 or lower was considered normal on the evaluation scale, and those with scores of 15 or higher were placed in the parkinsonism category. Parkinsonism is a set of neurological signs and symptoms similar to what is seen in Parkinson’s disease. At their first evaluation, the welders had an average score of 8.8, and 15 percent of the welders fell into the parkinsonism category.

Moreover, participants’ scores increased over time, and the welders exposed to the highest levels of manganese showed the biggest changes in their scores, an indication that their neurological problems were worsening faster than those of workers exposed to less manganese.

The scores for workers at the same sites who were not exposed to welding fumes did not change over time, suggesting that welding fumes, not aging, were responsible for the increasing scores.

Racette’s team did not directly measure the participants’ quality of life, but previous studies by his team have shown that higher parkinsonism scores in welders are associated with more difficulty with activities of daily life such as eating, mobility and writing.

“This is not something we can ignore,” Racette said. “I think a qualified neurologist would look at these clinical signs and say, ‘There’s something wrong here.’ This would be having an effect on people’s lives.”

Image shows a person welding.

The most worrisome aspect of the study, Racette said, is that the neurological signs showed up in people with an estimated exposure of only 0.14 milligrams of manganese per cubic meter of air, far below the safety standard set by OSHA at 5 milligrams per cubic meter.

In 2013, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists recommended a limit of 0.02 milligrams of manganese per cubic meter. Some companies already are attempting to keep their workers’ exposures below that level by improving ventilation, mandating personal protective equipment and using low-manganese welding wire. However, only OSHA’s standards are enforceable by law.

“We can make the workplace safer for welders,” Racette said. “Reducing OSHA’s allowable levels of manganese would probably make a big difference in terms of safety and help workers avoid such risks.”


Funding: Funding provided by National Institutes of Health, NIH/National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences, Michael J. Fox Foundation, NIH/National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke, National Center for Research Resources.

Source: Judy Martin Finch – WUSTL
Image Source: NeuroscienceNews.com image is in the public domain.
Original Research: Abstract for “Dose-dependent progression of parkinsonism in manganese-exposed welders” by Brad A. Racette, Susan Searles Nielsen, Susan R. Criswell, Lianne Sheppard, Noah Seixas, Mark N. Warden, and Harvey Checkoway in Neurophotonics. Published online December 28 2016 doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000003533

WUSTL “Low Levels of Manganese in Welding Fumes Cause Parkinson’s-Like Neurological Problems.” NeuroscienceNews. NeuroscienceNews, 28 December 2016.


Dose-dependent progression of parkinsonism in manganese-exposed welders

Objective: To determine whether the parkinsonian phenotype prevalent in welders is progressive, and whether progression is related to degree of exposure to manganese (Mn)-containing welding fume.

Methods: This was a trade union–based longitudinal cohort study of 886 American welding-exposed workers with 1,492 examinations by a movement disorders specialist, including 398 workers with 606 follow-up examinations up to 9.9 years after baseline. We performed linear mixed model regression with cumulative Mn exposure as the independent variable and annual change in Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor subsection part 3 (UPDRS3) as the primary outcome, and subcategories of the UPDRS3 as secondary outcomes. The primary exposure metric was cumulative Mn exposure in mg Mn/m3-year estimated from detailed work histories.

Results: Progression of parkinsonism increased with cumulative Mn exposure. Specifically, we observed an annual change in UPDRS3 of 0.24 (95% confidence interval 0.10–0.38) for each mg Mn/m3-year of exposure. Exposure was most strongly associated with progression of upper limb bradykinesia, upper and lower limb rigidity, and impairment of speech and facial expression. The association between welding exposure and progression appeared particularly marked in welders who did flux core arc welding in a confined space or workers whose baseline examination was within 5 years of first welding exposure.

Conclusions: Exposure to Mn-containing welding fume may cause a dose-dependent progression of parkinsonism, especially upper limb bradykinesia, limb rigidity, and impairment of speech and facial expression.

“Dose-dependent progression of parkinsonism in manganese-exposed welders” by Brad A. Racette, Susan Searles Nielsen, Susan R. Criswell, Lianne Sheppard, Noah Seixas, Mark N. Warden, and Harvey Checkoway in Neurophotonics. Published online December 28 2016 doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000003533

Artificially intelligent nanoarray analyzes 17 diseases from breaths


Schematic representation of the concept and design of the study. It involved collection of breath samples from 1404 subjects in 14 departments in nine clinical centers in five different countries (Israel, France, USA, Latvia, and China). The population included 591 healthy controls and 813 patients diagnosed with one of 17 different diseases: lung cancer, colorectal cancer, head and neck cancer, ovarian cancer, bladder cancer, prostate cancer, kidney cancer, gastric cancer, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, idiopathic Parkinson’s, atypical Parkinsonism, multiple sclerosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension, pre-eclampsia, and chronic kidney disease. One breath sample obtained from each subject was analyzed with the artificially intelligent nanoarray for disease diagnosis and classification, and a second was analyzed with GC-MS for exploring its chemical composition.

The present study reports on an artificially intelligent nanoarray based on molecularly modified gold nanoparticles and random network of single-wall carbon nanotubes for noninvasive diagnosis and classification of 17 different diseases from exhaled breath. The nanoarray was used for the practical evaluation of 1404 subjects in nine clinical settings worldwide. Blind experiments with the artificially intelligent nanoarray showed that 86% accuracy could be achieved, allowing discrimination between each pair of the diseases, and that each disease has its own unique volatile molecular print compared to both healthy controls and other diseases.

The artificially intelligent nanoarray had a low or no vulnerability to clinical and demographical confounding factors. The findings by nanoarray were examined by an independent analytical technique, GC-MS. This analysis found 13 exhaled VOCs associated with various diseases, and their composition differs from one disease to another, thereby validating the nanoarray results. While further and larger translational studies are required to validate these findings, this work provides a shuttling pad for in statu nascendi “volatolomics” field (the omics of volatile biomarkers), as well as a method for obtaining affordable, easy-to-use, inexpensive, and miniaturized tools for personalized screening, diagnosis, and follow-up of a range of diseases.

Control samples ruled out the possibility of coincidence and/or external biases. Of special importance, results from the artificially intelligent nanoarrays support the hypothesis that similarities in pathophysiological processes are expressed in quite similar breath patterns. The results also indicated that the adjustment for confounding factors was successful. The subgroups were not clustered according to similarities in demographic features or geographical location, which also stresses that the artificially intelligent nanoarray analysis is less sensitive to possible confounding factors since we have seen in some cases trends in the control groups that were like those seen among the diseases.

In some cases, two or more diseases shared the same control group, as in (1) Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and irritable bowel syndrome; (2) kidney and bladder cancer; and (3) idiopathic and atypical Parkinsonism. Therefore, the last analysis was not applicable in these cases (Figure 3, hatched boxes). In contrast to the high accuracy achieved among diseases (86%), the classification of the control samples resulted in random results with a total accuracy of 58%, ruling out the possibility of coincidence. In certain comparisons, the results were higher than the arbitrary classification of the control subjects.

In some cases, two or more diseases shared the same control group, as in (1) Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and irritable bowel syndrome; (2) kidney and bladder cancer; and (3) idiopathic and atypical Parkinsonism. Therefore, the last analysis was not applicable in these cases (Figure 3, hatched boxes). In contrast to the high accuracy achieved among diseases (86%), the classification of the control samples resulted in random results with a total accuracy of 58%, ruling out the possibility of coincidence. In certain comparisons, the results were higher than the arbitrary classification of the control subjects.

The artificially intelligent nanoarray analyzes the collective breath VOC patterns in a black-box approach. To identify and quantify the specific VOCs associated with each disease state, a second breath sample obtained from all participants was analyzed by GC-MS. This identified over 150 different VOCs in the different cohorts, but only 35 VOCs were selected for further investigation. The choice was made on the following criteria: (i) they were common to >70% of the total population (patients and controls); (ii) they were easily identified and verified by the analysis of pure standards; and (iii) they had concentrations in ambient air samples at least 10-fold lower (on average) than in the equivalent breath samples. Owing to the demographic differences between the groups, multiple linear regression for the abundance of each VOCs was first carried out to explore any possible correlation between abundance and the covariates (age, sex, location, and smoking status). The results indicate that the abundances of 15 VOCs were negatively correlated with age and/or smoking; three of them were also correlated with gender. However, there was no significant correlation between the abundance of those VOCs and the sampling site. Therefore, each VOC with significant correlations (p < 0.05) was adjusted according to the calculated coefficient corresponding to the confounding element (see SI, Table S16).

Regression models applied to the raw GC-MS data showed that the abundance of exhaled VOCs was affected by some common confounding factors. A number of the VOCs was affected by age and/or smoking habits (e.g., 2-ethylhexanol, 3-methylhexane, 5-ethyl-3-methyloctane, acetone, ethanol, ethyl acetate, ethylbenzene, isononane, isoprene, nonanal, styrene, toluene, and undecane), whereas three of them were also affected by the gender of the subject (isononane, nonanal, and undecane). This effect stemming from the first part of the VOCs could be explained by the relationship between the anatomical and physiological changes in the respiratory system and circulation associated with aging and/or smoking injury.(65) It includes stiffness and degeneration of the elastic fibers, fibrosis, aging-associated destruction of lung parenchyma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis, mainly among smokers.(66) These alterations could easily affect the diffusion of VOCs through the blood–air barrier by altering the thickness or permeability of the epithelium (the so-called membrane conductance) or by reducing the total surface area of the membrane.(66) These factors could easily alter the flux, according to Fick’s first law, affecting the diffusion of gases in the exhaled air, eventually reducing/stressing the expression and/or concentrations of a wide range of the exhaled VOC components.(5) The effect stemming from the second part of the VOCs might be attributed to hormonal or structural gender-related differences.(67)


Energy and Anatomy = Cancer and aging

Two types of people

  • Tightly coupled: Only needs to eat less to arrive at required energy level
  • Loosely coupled: Needs to eat more to arrive at required energy level

Sun energy and glucose for energy production

Nucleus is energy limited


Mitochondrial DNA crosstalk: 10% changes in mtDNA has a greater effect in epigenetic expression



Haplogroup U and H


Male bias mito DNA unique

male bias mito DNA unique.JPG

mtDNA background variation

mtDNA background variation.JPG

Human migration and Mitochondrial DNA Variation

Human migration.JPG

Selective mutation by Altitude

amino acid sub.JPG

Phenotypes of mitochondrial DNA depends on Context

al pk.JPG

Background and context are both important in mitochondrial DNA mutation

Nucleus normal, Parkinson type mutation , this is an Energetic Disease


Reactive Oxygen Species Toxicity


Nutrition and Stress in Hypoactive Heteroplasmic Species, Learning Disability




Top ten research priorities for the management of Parkinson’s

The top ten research priorities for the management of Parkinson’s:

  1. What treatments are helpful for reducing balance problems and falls in people with Parkinson’s?
  2. What approaches are helpful for reducing stress and anxiety in people with Parkinson’s?
  3. What treatments are helpful for reducing dyskinesias (involuntary movements, which are a side effect of some medications) in people with Parkinson’s?
  4. Is it possible to identify different types of Parkinson’s, eg, tremor dominant? And can we develop treatments to address these different types?
  5. What best treats dementia in people with Parkinson’s?
  6. What best treats mild cognitive problems such as memory loss, lack of concentration, indecision and slowed thinking in people with Parkinson’s?
  7. What is the best method of monitoring a person with Parkinson’s response to treatments?
  8. What is helpful for improving the quality of sleep in people with Parkinson’s?
  9. What helps improve the dexterity (fine motor skills or coordination of small muscle movements) of people with Parkinson’s so they can do up buttons, use computers, phones, remote controls etc?
  10. What treatments are helpful in reducing urinary problems (urgency, irritable bladder, incontinence) in people with Parkinson’s?


University of East Anglia

Telemedicine Improves Access to Specialty Parkinson’s Care

An additional Penn study being presented at the AAN meeting examined use of telemedicine visits to increase access to specialty care for Parkinson’s patients, in an effort to help remove barriers to specialty care experienced by many patients who live far from care or have disabilities that make it difficult to travel. A Penn Medicine team led by Jayne Wilkinson, MD, and Meredith Spindler, MD, conducted a randomized controlled trial using video telemedicine in the patient’s home or at a facility near the patient (in this case, VA Community Based Outpatient Clinics (CBOCs), connecting them to a neurologist specializing in movement disorders and Parkinson’s disease, based at the Parkinson’s Disease Research, Education, and Clinical Center (PADRECC) at the Philadelphia VA Medical Center. Early results demonstrate that the process of using telemedicine for Parkinson’s specialty care is feasible, provided similar quality of life, care and communication, and significantly decreased travel. This is the largest study to evaluate telemedicine in this Parkinson’s patient population.

Dr. Wilkinson and Spindler


University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

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