Keeping our brain healthy from birth to 100

Keeping our brain healthy from birth to 100

December 1,2018 at JCC in Palo Alto California

Speakers and event sponsors are welcome. All older adults are invited.

2-5pm, Bldg D room

Tips for healthy brain

Other speakers:
Connie Dello Buono – Health blogger and Motherhealth caregivers founder at www.clubalthea.com

Contact motherhealth@gmail.com for details or text 408-854-1883

Oshman Family Jewish Community Center, Room in Building D.

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Flyer

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Growth hormone (GH) , asthma meds and muscle quality

Growth hormone (GH) and muscle quality

GH production drops by 60% at age 60. A senior who had been taking asthma meds for a long time experienced severe neck and shoulder bone fracture from a fall.  Know that some meds can impair muscle quality.

The following factors influence GH secretion spike by the pituitary gland in the brain:

Factors Increasing GH Secretion Factors Decreasing GH Secretion
Physiological: Physiological:
Sleep Hyperglycemia
Fasting Elevated Blood Free Fatty Acids
Exercise Obesity
High Amino Acids
in the Blood
Hyper or Hypothyroidism
Low Blood Sugar  
Pharmacologic: Pharmacologic:
Any hypoglycemic agent GH itself
Estrogens Somatostatin
Alpha-agonists Alpha antagonists (yohimbine)
Beta antagonists Beta agonists (ephedrine, clenbuterol)
Serotonin Serotonin antagonists
Dopamine Dopamine antagonists
GABA  

Source: Basic and Clinical Endocrinology, 5th Edition

Muscle regeneration

Muscle growth and capacity to regenerate upon injury are faster for skeletal muscle but poor for cardiac muscle especially for young ones.

A greater capacity for regeneration of cardiac muscle is seen in fish. Fish oil, folate, Vitamin Bs, Coenzyme Q10 and omega 3 dietary supplements are important for our heart muscles.

Skeletal muscle has an excellent capacity for regeneration.  Inflammation and innervation makes regeneration suboptimal for seniors.

As we age, our cardiac muscles are easily affected even from those who have regular exercise and eat healthy.

Muscle regeneration is the process by which damaged skeletal, smooth or cardiac muscle undergoes biological repair and formation of new muscle in response to death of muscle cells.

Key Concepts:

  • Necrosis is required for muscle regeneration.
  • Inflammation is essential to remove necrotic tissue and initiate myogenesis.
  • New blood vessel formation is required after major injury of muscles.
  • Reinnervation is essential for functional recovery of skeletal muscle.

Adult skeletal muscle is a postmitotic tissue, accomplished by resident stem cells, satellite glial cells (SGCs). Current theories suggest that SGCs are important in controlling the microenvironment of the sympathetic ganglia.

SGCs role as a regulator of neuronal microenvironment is further characterized by its electrical properties which are very similar to those of astrocytes. Astrocytes have a well-studied and defined role in controlling the microenvironment within the brain.

First trimester health of fetus and leukemia, Leukemia inhibitory factor

This wiki info on Leukemia inhibitory factor details when this LIF cytokine is expressed:  LIF is normally expressed in the trophectoderm of the developing embryo.

My mother’s friend is an alcoholic and birthed a daughter who had leukemia later at 20 yrs old and a son with behavioral issues. She has survived leukemia. Her son is working but always fight with her.

I urged all new mothers to lead a healthy life before and during pregnancy since all medications, alcohol and the environment affects the growing embryo. And behavioural issues also happens later in the children’s life including cancer/leukemia.

Connie


From Wiki

Leukemia inhibitory factor, or LIF, is an interleukin 6 class cytokine that affects cell growth by inhibiting differentiation. When LIF levels drop, the cells differentiate.

Function

LIF derives its name from its ability to induce the terminal differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells, thus preventing their continued growth. Other properties attributed to the cytokine include: the growth promotion and cell differentiation of different types of target cells, influence on bone metabolism, cachexia, neural development, embryogenesis and inflammation. p53 regulated LIF has been shown to facilitate implantation in the mouse model and possibly in humans.[3] It has been suggested that recombinant human LIF might help to improve the implantation rate in women with unexplained infertility.[4]

Binding/activation

LIF binds to the specific LIF receptor (LIFR-α) which forms a heterodimer with a specific subunit common to all members of that family of receptors, the GP130 signal transducing subunit. This leads to activation of the JAK/STAT (Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription) and MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinase) cascades.[5]

Expression

LIF is normally expressed in the trophectoderm of the developing embryo, with its receptor LIFR expressed throughout the inner cell mass. As embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass at the blastocyst stage, removing them from the inner cell mass also removes their source of LIF.

Pregnancy

Leukemia inhibitory factor is a cytokine expressed in the uterus during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle, as well as expressed during a normal pregnancy.[6] Specifically, LIF is expressed in uterine endometrial glands and is under maternal control.[7]When the fertilized zygote has reached the blastocyst stage, the stromal cells surrounding the blastocyst produce leukemia inhibitory factor, which needed for the blastocyst to implant into the uterine endometrium.[6]

During pregnancy leukemia inhibitory growth factor is involved in decidualization of the maternal endometrium and implantation of the blastocyst to the endometrium.[6] LIF levels are highest on the fourth day of pregnancy indicating its involvement in implantation.[7]Implantation is critical in pregnancy in order to establish the placenta and maternal-fetal interface. Fetal endothelial cells also express the receptor for leukemia inhibitory factor, indicating it may be involved in placental angiogenesis.[8] There is also evidence leukemia inhibitory factor is involved in the survival and proliferation of primordial germ cells, which are the cellular origins of spermatozoa and oocytes.[9]

Decreased secretion of leukemia inhibitory factor is associated with poor or no implantation and, thus, pregnancy loss. Women with decreased production of LIF and other cytokines are fertile and able to become pregnant, but there is an increased risk for unexplained, recurrent miscarriages.[7][10]

Use in stem cell culture

Removal of LIF pushes stem cells toward differentiation, but they retain their proliferative potential or pluripotency. Therefore LIF is used in mouse embryonic stem cell culture. It is necessary to maintain the stem cells in an undifferentiated state, however genetic manipulation of embryonic stem cells allows for LIF independent growth, notably overexpression of the gene Nanog.

LIF is typically added to stem cell culture medium to reduce spontaneous differentiation.

Treatment gaps in rheumatoid arthritis

By Rita Baron-Faust, MPH

Even with health insurance, some patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may not be adequately treated. This news comes from an analysis of a large nationwide pharmaceutical claims database.

Analysis of claims data from 4.66 million American adults treated for RA between January 2005 and September 2008, finds that only two-thirds of patients with newly diagnosed disease received DMARD therapy during the first year after their diagnosis.

And 28% received no DMARDs at all, just treatment for symptoms.

Those patients receiving only symptomatic relief tended to be older and had more co-morbidities and contraindications to methotrexate, according to the industry-sponsored retrospective cohort study.

At the same time, the authors observe, “this population was arguably underserved because 38% of this inception cohort did not see a rheumatologist in year one, and 15% never saw one over a median of 2.3 years of follow-up.”

Although one-fifth did receive biologics within 12 months, there was extensive medication switching among the group, and a relatively rapid decline over time in patients who stayed on the drugs.

The analysis reveals a somewhat lower incidence of RA than other population studies, but a similar age and gender adjusted prevalence of RA (0.63% overall, and 0.33% in men and 0.92% in women).

While the data lack supporting clinical information, such administrative databases can reflect actual treatment patterns in daily clinical practice. The same patterns of treatment of RA have been seen in other studies, they note.

The study was aimed at determining whether physicians were following current American College of Rheumatology RA treatment guidelines.

There could be a number of reasons for the apparent under-treatment of patients, the study authors speculate: lack of physician awareness of, or disagreement with, treatment guidelines; and determinations that patients were too old, their disease too mild, or there were contraindications for therapy.

Patients may have also wanted to avoid drug treatment due to adverse effects or costs, they add.

Within 12 months after their diagnosis, 65%, 64%, and 20% of the incident cohort (those without an apparent prior diagnosis of arthritis) had been prescribed corticosteroids, non-biologic DMARDs, and TNF-inhibitors, respectively.