Education as Social Determinants of Health Visualization for male and female

edu health menedu health

http://ghdx.healthdata.org/record/global-educational-attainment-1970-2015

Zambia 2010 15 to 44 Females 6.89
Zambia 2010 25 plus Males 7.25
Zambia 2010 25 plus Females 4.85
Zambia 2010 25 plus Both 6.05
Zimbabwe 2010 15 to 44 Females 9.05
Zimbabwe 2010 25 plus Males 8.09
Zimbabwe 2010 25 plus Females 6.39
Zimbabwe 2010 25 plus Both 7.24
Afghanistan 2011 15 to 44 Females 1.16
Afghanistan 2011 25 plus Males 2.94
Afghanistan 2011 25 plus Females 0.53
Afghanistan 2011 25 plus Both 1.73
Angola 2011 15 to 44 Females 4.79
Angola 2011 25 plus Males 5.1
Angola 2011 25 plus Females 2.74
Angola 2011 25 plus Both 3.92
Albania 2011 15 to 44 Females 11.32
Albania 2011 25 plus Males 10.76
Albania 2011 25 plus Females 10.04
Albania 2011 25 plus Both 10.4
Andorra 2011 15 to 44 Females 14.6
Andorra 2011 25 plus Males 12.37
Andorra 2011 25 plus Females 12.21
Andorra 2011 25 plus Both 12.29
United Arab Emirates 2011 15 to 44 Females 11.53
United Arab Emirates 2011 25 plus Males 9.42
United Arab Emirates 2011 25 plus Females 7.22
United Arab Emirates 2011 25 plus Both 8.32
Argentina 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.1
Argentina 2011 25 plus Males 10.2
Argentina 2011 25 plus Females 10.69
Argentina 2011 25 plus Both 10.45
Armenia 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.12
Armenia 2011 25 plus Males 11.48
Armenia 2011 25 plus Females 11.49
Armenia 2011 25 plus Both 11.49
Antigua and Barbuda 2011 15 to 44 Females 13.99
Antigua and Barbuda 2011 25 plus Males 12.12
Antigua and Barbuda 2011 25 plus Females 13.2
Antigua and Barbuda 2011 25 plus Both 12.66
Australia 2011 15 to 44 Females 14.09
Australia 2011 25 plus Males 13.06
Australia 2011 25 plus Females 13.12
Australia 2011 25 plus Both 13.09
Austria 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.24
Austria 2011 25 plus Males 12.18
Austria 2011 25 plus Females 11.69
Austria 2011 25 plus Both 11.93
Azerbaijan 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.33
Azerbaijan 2011 25 plus Males 12.25
Azerbaijan 2011 25 plus Females 11.42
Azerbaijan 2011 25 plus Both 11.83
Burundi 2011 15 to 44 Females 3.65
Burundi 2011 25 plus Males 3.74
Burundi 2011 25 plus Females 2.13
Burundi 2011 25 plus Both 2.94
Belgium 2011 15 to 44 Females 13.54
Belgium 2011 25 plus Males 12.54
Belgium 2011 25 plus Females 12.58
Belgium 2011 25 plus Both 12.56
Benin 2011 15 to 44 Females 2.77
Benin 2011 25 plus Males 3.66
Benin 2011 25 plus Females 1.48
Benin 2011 25 plus Both 2.57
Burkina Faso 2011 15 to 44 Females 1.72
Burkina Faso 2011 25 plus Males 1.57
Burkina Faso 2011 25 plus Females 0.79
Burkina Faso 2011 25 plus Both 1.18
Bangladesh 2011 15 to 44 Females 4.8
Bangladesh 2011 25 plus Males 4.97
Bangladesh 2011 25 plus Females 2.69
Bangladesh 2011 25 plus Both 3.83
Bulgaria 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.38
Bulgaria 2011 25 plus Males 11.67
Bulgaria 2011 25 plus Females 11.89
Bulgaria 2011 25 plus Both 11.78
Bahrain 2011 15 to 44 Females 9.8
Bahrain 2011 25 plus Males 7.53
Bahrain 2011 25 plus Females 6.38
Bahrain 2011 25 plus Both 6.95
The Bahamas 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.89
The Bahamas 2011 25 plus Males 11.12
The Bahamas 2011 25 plus Females 11.61
The Bahamas 2011 25 plus Both 11.37
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2011 15 to 44 Females 10.4
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2011 25 plus Males 9.98
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2011 25 plus Females 8.95
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2011 25 plus Both 9.47
Belarus 2011 15 to 44 Females 13.58
Belarus 2011 25 plus Males 12.73
Belarus 2011 25 plus Females 12.99
Belarus 2011 25 plus Both 12.86
Belize 2011 15 to 44 Females 9.15
Belize 2011 25 plus Males 8.18
Belize 2011 25 plus Females 7.9
Belize 2011 25 plus Both 8.04
Bolivia 2011 15 to 44 Females 8.99
Bolivia 2011 25 plus Males 8.26
Bolivia 2011 25 plus Females 6.48
Bolivia 2011 25 plus Both 7.37
Brazil 2011 15 to 44 Females 8.6
Brazil 2011 25 plus Males 6.34
Brazil 2011 25 plus Females 6.7
Brazil 2011 25 plus Both 6.52
Barbados 2011 15 to 44 Females 10.55
Barbados 2011 25 plus Males 8.08
Barbados 2011 25 plus Females 7.88
Barbados 2011 25 plus Both 7.98
Brunei 2011 15 to 44 Females 13.98
Brunei 2011 25 plus Males 12.57
Brunei 2011 25 plus Females 11.36
Brunei 2011 25 plus Both 11.96
Bhutan 2011 15 to 44 Females 2.99
Bhutan 2011 25 plus Males 4.85
Bhutan 2011 25 plus Females 1.86
Bhutan 2011 25 plus Both 3.35
Botswana 2011 15 to 44 Females 8.15
Botswana 2011 25 plus Males 4.86
Botswana 2011 25 plus Females 5.05
Botswana 2011 25 plus Both 4.96
Central African Republic 2011 15 to 44 Females 3.72
Central African Republic 2011 25 plus Males 4.88
Central African Republic 2011 25 plus Females 1.99
Central African Republic 2011 25 plus Both 3.44
Canada 2011 15 to 44 Females 14.79
Canada 2011 25 plus Males 14.37
Canada 2011 25 plus Females 14.54
Canada 2011 25 plus Both 14.46
Switzerland 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.86
Switzerland 2011 25 plus Males 13.96
Switzerland 2011 25 plus Females 13.23
Switzerland 2011 25 plus Both 13.59
Chile 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.46
Chile 2011 25 plus Males 10.52
Chile 2011 25 plus Females 10.7
Chile 2011 25 plus Both 10.61
China 2011 15 to 44 Females 9.28
China 2011 25 plus Males 8.65
China 2011 25 plus Females 6.39
China 2011 25 plus Both 7.52
Cote d’Ivoire 2011 15 to 44 Females 3.49
Cote d’Ivoire 2011 25 plus Males 4.07
Cote d’Ivoire 2011 25 plus Females 1.86
Cote d’Ivoire 2011 25 plus Both 2.96
Cameroon 2011 15 to 44 Females 6.53
Cameroon 2011 25 plus Males 6.38
Cameroon 2011 25 plus Females 4.24
Cameroon 2011 25 plus Both 5.31
Democratic Republic of the Congo 2011 15 to 44 Females 5.6
Democratic Republic of the Congo 2011 25 plus Males 7.43
Democratic Republic of the Congo 2011 25 plus Females 3.84
Democratic Republic of the Congo 2011 25 plus Both 5.64
Congo 2011 15 to 44 Females 7.84
Congo 2011 25 plus Males 8.27
Congo 2011 25 plus Females 5.25
Congo 2011 25 plus Both 6.76
Colombia 2011 15 to 44 Females 9.91
Colombia 2011 25 plus Males 7.72
Colombia 2011 25 plus Females 7.87
Colombia 2011 25 plus Both 7.8
Comoros 2011 15 to 44 Females 5.03
Comoros 2011 25 plus Males 4.18
Comoros 2011 25 plus Females 2.31
Comoros 2011 25 plus Both 3.24
Cape Verde 2011 15 to 44 Females 5.79
Cape Verde 2011 25 plus Males 4.62
Cape Verde 2011 25 plus Females 2.84
Cape Verde 2011 25 plus Both 3.73
Costa Rica 2011 15 to 44 Females 10.11
Costa Rica 2011 25 plus Males 8.41
Costa Rica 2011 25 plus Females 8.75
Costa Rica 2011 25 plus Both 8.58
Cuba 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.42
Cuba 2011 25 plus Males 10.71
Cuba 2011 25 plus Females 10.52
Cuba 2011 25 plus Both 10.62
Cyprus 2011 15 to 44 Females 13.7
Cyprus 2011 25 plus Males 12.17
Cyprus 2011 25 plus Females 11.56
Cyprus 2011 25 plus Both 11.86
Czech Republic 2011 15 to 44 Females 13.35
Czech Republic 2011 25 plus Males 13.45
Czech Republic 2011 25 plus Females 13.15
Czech Republic 2011 25 plus Both 13.3
Germany 2011 15 to 44 Females 13.28
Germany 2011 25 plus Males 12.97
Germany 2011 25 plus Females 12.58
Germany 2011 25 plus Both 12.77
Djibouti 2011 15 to 44 Females 3.82
Djibouti 2011 25 plus Males 5.25
Djibouti 2011 25 plus Females 1.78
Djibouti 2011 25 plus Both 3.52
Dominica 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.01
Dominica 2011 25 plus Males 9.86
Dominica 2011 25 plus Females 10.37
Dominica 2011 25 plus Both 10.12
Denmark 2011 15 to 44 Females 13.99
Denmark 2011 25 plus Males 13.7
Denmark 2011 25 plus Females 13.82
Denmark 2011 25 plus Both 13.76
Dominican Republic 2011 15 to 44 Females 10.12
Dominican Republic 2011 25 plus Males 7.64
Dominican Republic 2011 25 plus Females 7.76
Dominican Republic 2011 25 plus Both 7.7
Algeria 2011 15 to 44 Females 7.04
Algeria 2011 25 plus Males 4.44
Algeria 2011 25 plus Females 3.12
Algeria 2011 25 plus Both 3.78
Ecuador 2011 15 to 44 Females 10.19
Ecuador 2011 25 plus Males 8.55
Ecuador 2011 25 plus Females 8.42
Ecuador 2011 25 plus Both 8.49
Egypt 2011 15 to 44 Females 8.07
Egypt 2011 25 plus Males 7.88
Egypt 2011 25 plus Females 5.15
Egypt 2011 25 plus Both 6.52
Eritrea 2011 15 to 44 Females 3.76
Eritrea 2011 25 plus Males 3.58
Eritrea 2011 25 plus Females 1.7
Eritrea 2011 25 plus Both 2.64
Spain 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.4
Spain 2011 25 plus Males 10.17
Spain 2011 25 plus Females 10.04
Spain 2011 25 plus Both 10.11
Estonia 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.86
Estonia 2011 25 plus Males 12.36
Estonia 2011 25 plus Females 13.09
Estonia 2011 25 plus Both 12.73
Ethiopia 2011 15 to 44 Females 3.6
Ethiopia 2011 25 plus Males 3.54
Ethiopia 2011 25 plus Females 1.49
Ethiopia 2011 25 plus Both 2.51
Finland 2011 15 to 44 Females 13.81
Finland 2011 25 plus Males 12.9
Finland 2011 25 plus Females 13.3
Finland 2011 25 plus Both 13.1
Fiji 2011 15 to 44 Females 11.32
Fiji 2011 25 plus Males 9.67
Fiji 2011 25 plus Females 9.56
Fiji 2011 25 plus Both 9.61
France 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.88
France 2011 25 plus Males 11.41
France 2011 25 plus Females 11.63
France 2011 25 plus Both 11.52
Federated States of Micronesia 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.27
Federated States of Micronesia 2011 25 plus Males 11.7
Federated States of Micronesia 2011 25 plus Females 10.54
Federated States of Micronesia 2011 25 plus Both 11.12
Global 2011 15 to 44 Females 8.53
Global 2011 25 plus Males 8.74
Global 2011 25 plus Females 7.28
Global 2011 25 plus Both 8.01
Gabon 2011 15 to 44 Females 9.21
Gabon 2011 25 plus Males 7.04
Gabon 2011 25 plus Females 6.39
Gabon 2011 25 plus Both 6.72
United Kingdom 2011 15 to 44 Females 14.07
United Kingdom 2011 25 plus Males 13.56
United Kingdom 2011 25 plus Females 13.63
United Kingdom 2011 25 plus Both 13.59
Georgia 2011 15 to 44 Females 13.55
Georgia 2011 25 plus Males 12.92
Georgia 2011 25 plus Females 13.01
Georgia 2011 25 plus Both 12.96
Ghana 2011 15 to 44 Females 6.67
Ghana 2011 25 plus Males 7.43
Ghana 2011 25 plus Females 4.86
Ghana 2011 25 plus Both 6.14
Guinea 2011 15 to 44 Females 2.05
Guinea 2011 25 plus Males 3
Guinea 2011 25 plus Females 0.96
Guinea 2011 25 plus Both 1.98
The Gambia 2011 15 to 44 Females 3.35
The Gambia 2011 25 plus Males 3.7
The Gambia 2011 25 plus Females 1.68
The Gambia 2011 25 plus Both 2.69
Guinea-Bissau 2011 15 to 44 Females 2.15
Guinea-Bissau 2011 25 plus Males 2.96
Guinea-Bissau 2011 25 plus Females 1.02
Guinea-Bissau 2011 25 plus Both 1.99
Equatorial Guinea 2011 15 to 44 Females 6.51
Equatorial Guinea 2011 25 plus Males 7.68
Equatorial Guinea 2011 25 plus Females 4.18
Equatorial Guinea 2011 25 plus Both 5.93
Greece 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.88
Greece 2011 25 plus Males 11.17
Greece 2011 25 plus Females 10.55
Greece 2011 25 plus Both 10.86
Grenada 2011 15 to 44 Females 10.55
Grenada 2011 25 plus Males 8.08
Grenada 2011 25 plus Females 7.88
Grenada 2011 25 plus Both 7.98
Guatemala 2011 15 to 44 Females 6.08
Guatemala 2011 25 plus Males 5.29
Guatemala 2011 25 plus Females 4.41
Guatemala 2011 25 plus Both 4.85
Guyana 2011 15 to 44 Females 10.22
Guyana 2011 25 plus Males 9.08
Guyana 2011 25 plus Females 8.92
Guyana 2011 25 plus Both 9
Honduras 2011 15 to 44 Females 7.81
Honduras 2011 25 plus Males 5.87
Honduras 2011 25 plus Females 5.87
Honduras 2011 25 plus Both 5.87
Croatia 2011 15 to 44 Females 11.17
Croatia 2011 25 plus Males 10.56
Croatia 2011 25 plus Females 9.94
Croatia 2011 25 plus Both 10.25
Haiti 2011 15 to 44 Females 5.94
Haiti 2011 25 plus Males 4.94
Haiti 2011 25 plus Females 3.62
Haiti 2011 25 plus Both 4.28
Hungary 2011 15 to 44 Females 13.04
Hungary 2011 25 plus Males 12.24
Hungary 2011 25 plus Females 12.22
Hungary 2011 25 plus Both 12.23
Indonesia 2011 15 to 44 Females 8.81
Indonesia 2011 25 plus Males 7.52
Indonesia 2011 25 plus Females 6.29
Indonesia 2011 25 plus Both 6.9
India 2011 15 to 44 Females 5.39
India 2011 25 plus Males 6.26
India 2011 25 plus Females 3.32
India 2011 25 plus Both 4.79
Ireland 2011 15 to 44 Females 13.74
Ireland 2011 25 plus Males 11.96
Ireland 2011 25 plus Females 12.41
Ireland 2011 25 plus Both 12.19
Iran 2011 15 to 44 Females 9.15
Iran 2011 25 plus Males 7.36
Iran 2011 25 plus Females 5.07
Iran 2011 25 plus Both 6.21
Iraq 2011 15 to 44 Females 6.86
Iraq 2011 25 plus Males 7.56
Iraq 2011 25 plus Females 4.52
Iraq 2011 25 plus Both 6.04
Iceland 2011 15 to 44 Females 13.27
Iceland 2011 25 plus Males 13.62
Iceland 2011 25 plus Females 13.46
Iceland 2011 25 plus Both 13.54
Israel 2011 15 to 44 Females 14.86
Israel 2011 25 plus Males 13.94
Israel 2011 25 plus Females 14
Israel 2011 25 plus Both 13.97
Italy 2011 15 to 44 Females 13.29
Italy 2011 25 plus Males 11.89
Italy 2011 25 plus Females 11.54
Italy 2011 25 plus Both 11.72
Jamaica 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.06
Jamaica 2011 25 plus Males 9.72
Jamaica 2011 25 plus Females 10.27
Jamaica 2011 25 plus Both 10
Jordan 2011 15 to 44 Females 11.52
Jordan 2011 25 plus Males 10.29
Jordan 2011 25 plus Females 8.15
Jordan 2011 25 plus Both 9.22
Japan 2011 15 to 44 Females 14.81
Japan 2011 25 plus Males 13.48
Japan 2011 25 plus Females 13.4
Japan 2011 25 plus Both 13.44
Kazakhstan 2011 15 to 44 Females 13
Kazakhstan 2011 25 plus Males 12.18
Kazakhstan 2011 25 plus Females 12.16
Kazakhstan 2011 25 plus Both 12.17
Kenya 2011 15 to 44 Females 8.02
Kenya 2011 25 plus Males 7.31
Kenya 2011 25 plus Females 5.1
Kenya 2011 25 plus Both 6.21
Kyrgyzstan 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.89
Kyrgyzstan 2011 25 plus Males 11.97
Kyrgyzstan 2011 25 plus Females 11.9
Kyrgyzstan 2011 25 plus Both 11.94
Cambodia 2011 15 to 44 Females 5.26
Cambodia 2011 25 plus Males 5.66
Cambodia 2011 25 plus Females 3.38
Cambodia 2011 25 plus Both 4.52
Kiribati 2011 15 to 44 Females 9.3
Kiribati 2011 25 plus Males 7.38
Kiribati 2011 25 plus Females 6.72
Kiribati 2011 25 plus Both 7.05
South Korea 2011 15 to 44 Females 13.72
South Korea 2011 25 plus Males 12.53
South Korea 2011 25 plus Females 10.8
South Korea 2011 25 plus Both 11.67
Kuwait 2011 15 to 44 Females 11.41
Kuwait 2011 25 plus Males 9.45
Kuwait 2011 25 plus Females 8.19
Kuwait 2011 25 plus Both 8.82
Laos 2011 15 to 44 Females 5.52
Laos 2011 25 plus Males 5.5
Laos 2011 25 plus Females 3.44
Laos 2011 25 plus Both 4.47
Lebanon 2011 15 to 44 Females 10.49
Lebanon 2011 25 plus Males 8.71
Lebanon 2011 25 plus Females 8.14
Lebanon 2011 25 plus Both 8.42
Liberia 2011 15 to 44 Females 3.89
Liberia 2011 25 plus Males 5.63
Liberia 2011 25 plus Females 2.35
Liberia 2011 25 plus Both 3.99
Libya 2011 15 to 44 Females 5.82
Libya 2011 25 plus Males 6.58
Libya 2011 25 plus Females 3.84
Libya 2011 25 plus Both 5.21
Saint Lucia 2011 15 to 44 Females 11.23
Saint Lucia 2011 25 plus Males 9.46
Saint Lucia 2011 25 plus Females 9.82
Saint Lucia 2011 25 plus Both 9.64
Sri Lanka 2011 15 to 44 Females 10.91
Sri Lanka 2011 25 plus Males 9.45
Sri Lanka 2011 25 plus Females 9.12
Sri Lanka 2011 25 plus Both 9.29
Lesotho 2011 15 to 44 Females 9.33
Lesotho 2011 25 plus Males 5.96
Lesotho 2011 25 plus Females 7.56
Lesotho 2011 25 plus Both 6.76
Lithuania 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.86
Lithuania 2011 25 plus Males 11.86
Lithuania 2011 25 plus Females 12.03
Lithuania 2011 25 plus Both 11.95
Luxembourg 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.74
Luxembourg 2011 25 plus Males 12.44
Luxembourg 2011 25 plus Females 11.97
Luxembourg 2011 25 plus Both 12.2
Latvia 2011 15 to 44 Females 13.26
Latvia 2011 25 plus Males 12.63
Latvia 2011 25 plus Females 13.17
Latvia 2011 25 plus Both 12.9
Morocco 2011 15 to 44 Females 4.29
Morocco 2011 25 plus Males 4.05
Morocco 2011 25 plus Females 2.18
Morocco 2011 25 plus Both 3.12
Moldova 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.96
Moldova 2011 25 plus Males 11.28
Moldova 2011 25 plus Females 11.45
Moldova 2011 25 plus Both 11.36
Madagascar 2011 15 to 44 Females 5.6
Madagascar 2011 25 plus Males 5.18
Madagascar 2011 25 plus Females 4.04
Madagascar 2011 25 plus Both 4.61
Maldives 2011 15 to 44 Females 6.95
Maldives 2011 25 plus Males 5.26
Maldives 2011 25 plus Females 4.56
Maldives 2011 25 plus Both 4.91
Mexico 2011 15 to 44 Females 9.89
Mexico 2011 25 plus Males 8.21
Mexico 2011 25 plus Females 7.6
Mexico 2011 25 plus Both 7.91
Marshall Islands 2011 15 to 44 Females 9.82
Marshall Islands 2011 25 plus Males 10.07
Marshall Islands 2011 25 plus Females 8.95
Marshall Islands 2011 25 plus Both 9.51
Macedonia 2011 15 to 44 Females 11.68
Macedonia 2011 25 plus Males 10.98
Macedonia 2011 25 plus Females 9.84
Macedonia 2011 25 plus Both 10.41
Mali 2011 15 to 44 Females 1.56
Mali 2011 25 plus Males 1.89
Mali 2011 25 plus Females 0.79
Mali 2011 25 plus Both 1.34
Malta 2011 15 to 44 Females 10.71
Malta 2011 25 plus Males 9.86
Malta 2011 25 plus Females 9.64
Malta 2011 25 plus Both 9.75
Myanmar 2011 15 to 44 Females 6.93
Myanmar 2011 25 plus Males 5.5
Myanmar 2011 25 plus Females 4.85
Myanmar 2011 25 plus Both 5.18
Montenegro 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.16
Montenegro 2011 25 plus Males 12
Montenegro 2011 25 plus Females 10.9
Montenegro 2011 25 plus Both 11.45
Mongolia 2011 15 to 44 Females 11.05
Mongolia 2011 25 plus Males 10.02
Mongolia 2011 25 plus Females 10.02
Mongolia 2011 25 plus Both 10.02
Mozambique 2011 15 to 44 Females 3.32
Mozambique 2011 25 plus Males 3.86
Mozambique 2011 25 plus Females 2.28
Mozambique 2011 25 plus Both 3.07
Mauritania 2011 15 to 44 Females 3.91
Mauritania 2011 25 plus Males 3.57
Mauritania 2011 25 plus Females 1.91
Mauritania 2011 25 plus Both 2.74
Mauritius 2011 15 to 44 Females 9.74
Mauritius 2011 25 plus Males 8.42
Mauritius 2011 25 plus Females 7.27
Mauritius 2011 25 plus Both 7.85
Malawi 2011 15 to 44 Females 4.6
Malawi 2011 25 plus Males 5.23
Malawi 2011 25 plus Females 2.93
Malawi 2011 25 plus Both 4.08
Malaysia 2011 15 to 44 Females 11.02
Malaysia 2011 25 plus Males 8.9
Malaysia 2011 25 plus Females 7.51
Malaysia 2011 25 plus Both 8.21
Namibia 2011 15 to 44 Females 8.78
Namibia 2011 25 plus Males 6.62
Namibia 2011 25 plus Females 6.44
Namibia 2011 25 plus Both 6.53
Niger 2011 15 to 44 Females 1.31
Niger 2011 25 plus Males 1.4
Niger 2011 25 plus Females 0.58
Niger 2011 25 plus Both 0.99
Nigeria 2011 15 to 44 Females 6.39
Nigeria 2011 25 plus Males 6.39
Nigeria 2011 25 plus Females 4.17
Nigeria 2011 25 plus Both 5.28
Nicaragua 2011 15 to 44 Females 8.19
Nicaragua 2011 25 plus Males 5.98
Nicaragua 2011 25 plus Females 6.01
Nicaragua 2011 25 plus Both 6
Netherlands 2011 15 to 44 Females 13.75
Netherlands 2011 25 plus Males 13.34
Netherlands 2011 25 plus Females 13.03
Netherlands 2011 25 plus Both 13.19
Norway 2011 15 to 44 Females 14.43
Norway 2011 25 plus Males 13.65
Norway 2011 25 plus Females 13.81
Norway 2011 25 plus Both 13.73
Nepal 2011 15 to 44 Females 3.47
Nepal 2011 25 plus Males 4.27
Nepal 2011 25 plus Females 1.38
Nepal 2011 25 plus Both 2.82
New Zealand 2011 15 to 44 Females 14.4
New Zealand 2011 25 plus Males 13.38
New Zealand 2011 25 plus Females 13.6
New Zealand 2011 25 plus Both 13.49
Oman 2011 15 to 44 Females 7.38
Oman 2011 25 plus Males 5.97
Oman 2011 25 plus Females 3.75
Oman 2011 25 plus Both 4.86
Pakistan 2011 15 to 44 Females 3.88
Pakistan 2011 25 plus Males 5.26
Pakistan 2011 25 plus Females 2.07
Pakistan 2011 25 plus Both 3.67
Panama 2011 15 to 44 Females 11.55
Panama 2011 25 plus Males 9.29
Panama 2011 25 plus Females 9.86
Panama 2011 25 plus Both 9.58
Peru 2011 15 to 44 Females 10.57
Peru 2011 25 plus Males 9.82
Peru 2011 25 plus Females 8.47
Peru 2011 25 plus Both 9.15
Philippines 2011 15 to 44 Females 10.84
Philippines 2011 25 plus Males 9.16
Philippines 2011 25 plus Females 9.43
Philippines 2011 25 plus Both 9.3
Papua New Guinea 2011 15 to 44 Females 5.52
Papua New Guinea 2011 25 plus Males 5.02
Papua New Guinea 2011 25 plus Females 3.13
Papua New Guinea 2011 25 plus Both 4.07
Poland 2011 15 to 44 Females 13.72
Poland 2011 25 plus Males 12.69
Poland 2011 25 plus Females 12.8
Poland 2011 25 plus Both 12.75
North Korea 2011 15 to 44 Females 10.96
North Korea 2011 25 plus Males 10.28
North Korea 2011 25 plus Females 8.18
North Korea 2011 25 plus Both 9.23
Portugal 2011 15 to 44 Females 10.27
Portugal 2011 25 plus Males 8.02
Portugal 2011 25 plus Females 7.89
Portugal 2011 25 plus Both 7.95
Paraguay 2011 15 to 44 Females 9.34
Paraguay 2011 25 plus Males 7.42
Paraguay 2011 25 plus Females 7.57
Paraguay 2011 25 plus Both 7.5
Palestine 2011 15 to 44 Females 10.27
Palestine 2011 25 plus Males 9.26
Palestine 2011 25 plus Females 7.07
Palestine 2011 25 plus Both 8.16
Qatar 2011 15 to 44 Females 10.16
Qatar 2011 25 plus Males 7.64
Qatar 2011 25 plus Females 7.68
Qatar 2011 25 plus Both 7.66
High-income Asia Pacific 2011 15 to 44 Females 14.42
High-income Asia Pacific 2011 25 plus Males 13.22
High-income Asia Pacific 2011 25 plus Females 12.7
High-income Asia Pacific 2011 25 plus Both 12.96
Western Europe 2011 15 to 44 Females 13.23
Western Europe 2011 25 plus Males 12.2
Western Europe 2011 25 plus Females 12.05
Western Europe 2011 25 plus Both 12.13
Andean Latin America 2011 15 to 44 Females 10.19
Andean Latin America 2011 25 plus Males 9.21
Andean Latin America 2011 25 plus Females 8.13
Andean Latin America 2011 25 plus Both 8.67
Central Latin America 2011 15 to 44 Females 9.65
Central Latin America 2011 25 plus Males 7.91
Central Latin America 2011 25 plus Females 7.57
Central Latin America 2011 25 plus Both 7.74
Southern Latin America 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.15
Southern Latin America 2011 25 plus Males 10.25
Southern Latin America 2011 25 plus Females 10.66
Southern Latin America 2011 25 plus Both 10.45
Tropical Latin America 2011 15 to 44 Females 8.62
Tropical Latin America 2011 25 plus Males 6.37
Tropical Latin America 2011 25 plus Females 6.72
Tropical Latin America 2011 25 plus Both 6.54
North Africa and Middle East 2011 15 to 44 Females 7.49
North Africa and Middle East 2011 25 plus Males 7.06
North Africa and Middle East 2011 25 plus Females 4.58
North Africa and Middle East 2011 25 plus Both 5.82
High-income North America 2011 15 to 44 Females 14.17
High-income North America 2011 25 plus Males 14.32
High-income North America 2011 25 plus Females 14.37
High-income North America 2011 25 plus Both 14.34
Oceania 2011 15 to 44 Females 6.59
Oceania 2011 25 plus Males 6.14
Oceania 2011 25 plus Females 4.52
Oceania 2011 25 plus Both 5.33
Central Sub-Saharan Africa 2011 15 to 44 Females 5.52
Central Sub-Saharan Africa 2011 25 plus Males 6.88
Central Sub-Saharan Africa 2011 25 plus Females 3.65
Central Sub-Saharan Africa 2011 25 plus Both 5.26
Eastern Sub-Saharan Africa 2011 15 to 44 Females 4.98
Eastern Sub-Saharan Africa 2011 25 plus Males 4.95
Eastern Sub-Saharan Africa 2011 25 plus Females 2.97
Eastern Sub-Saharan Africa 2011 25 plus Both 3.96
Central Asia 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.38
Central Asia 2011 25 plus Males 11.91
Central Asia 2011 25 plus Females 11.54
Central Asia 2011 25 plus Both 11.73
Southern Sub-Saharan Africa 2011 15 to 44 Females 10.13
Southern Sub-Saharan Africa 2011 25 plus Males 8.38
Southern Sub-Saharan Africa 2011 25 plus Females 8.12
Southern Sub-Saharan Africa 2011 25 plus Both 8.25
Western Sub-Saharan Africa 2011 15 to 44 Females 4.89
Western Sub-Saharan Africa 2011 25 plus Males 5.18
Western Sub-Saharan Africa 2011 25 plus Females 3.11
Western Sub-Saharan Africa 2011 25 plus Both 4.15
East Asia 2011 15 to 44 Females 9.37
East Asia 2011 25 plus Males 8.72
East Asia 2011 25 plus Females 6.49
East Asia 2011 25 plus Both 7.61
South Asia 2011 15 to 44 Females 5.06
South Asia 2011 25 plus Males 5.98
South Asia 2011 25 plus Females 3.07
South Asia 2011 25 plus Both 4.53
Southeast Asia 2011 15 to 44 Females 9.09
Southeast Asia 2011 25 plus Males 7.85
Southeast Asia 2011 25 plus Females 6.92
Southeast Asia 2011 25 plus Both 7.39
Australasia 2011 15 to 44 Females 14.14
Australasia 2011 25 plus Males 13.11
Australasia 2011 25 plus Females 13.2
Australasia 2011 25 plus Both 13.15
Caribbean 2011 15 to 44 Females 9.92
Caribbean 2011 25 plus Males 8.65
Caribbean 2011 25 plus Females 8.29
Caribbean 2011 25 plus Both 8.47
Central Europe 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.84
Central Europe 2011 25 plus Males 12.17
Central Europe 2011 25 plus Females 11.9
Central Europe 2011 25 plus Both 12.03
Eastern Europe 2011 15 to 44 Females 13.65
Eastern Europe 2011 25 plus Males 12.72
Eastern Europe 2011 25 plus Females 12.94
Eastern Europe 2011 25 plus Both 12.83
Romania 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.72
Romania 2011 25 plus Males 12.03
Romania 2011 25 plus Females 11.32
Romania 2011 25 plus Both 11.67
Russia 2011 15 to 44 Females 13.69
Russia 2011 25 plus Males 12.69
Russia 2011 25 plus Females 12.94
Russia 2011 25 plus Both 12.82
Rwanda 2011 15 to 44 Females 4.68
Rwanda 2011 25 plus Males 4.21
Rwanda 2011 25 plus Females 2.76
Rwanda 2011 25 plus Both 3.49
High-income 2011 15 to 44 Females 13.68
High-income 2011 25 plus Males 12.98
High-income 2011 25 plus Females 12.85
High-income 2011 25 plus Both 12.92
Central Europe, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia 2011 15 to 44 Females 13.14
Central Europe, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia 2011 25 plus Males 12.41
Central Europe, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia 2011 25 plus Females 12.41
Central Europe, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia 2011 25 plus Both 12.41
Sub-Saharan Africa 2011 15 to 44 Females 5.51
Sub-Saharan Africa 2011 25 plus Males 5.61
Sub-Saharan Africa 2011 25 plus Females 3.7
Sub-Saharan Africa 2011 25 plus Both 4.66
North Africa and Middle East 2011 15 to 44 Females 7.49
North Africa and Middle East 2011 25 plus Males 7.06
North Africa and Middle East 2011 25 plus Females 4.58
North Africa and Middle East 2011 25 plus Both 5.82
South Asia 2011 15 to 44 Females 5.06
South Asia 2011 25 plus Males 5.98
South Asia 2011 25 plus Females 3.07
South Asia 2011 25 plus Both 4.53
Southeast Asia, East Asia, and Oceania 2011 15 to 44 Females 9.26
Southeast Asia, East Asia, and Oceania 2011 25 plus Males 8.48
Southeast Asia, East Asia, and Oceania 2011 25 plus Females 6.59
Southeast Asia, East Asia, and Oceania 2011 25 plus Both 7.53
Latin America and Caribbean 2011 15 to 44 Females 9.33
Latin America and Caribbean 2011 25 plus Males 7.47
Latin America and Caribbean 2011 25 plus Females 7.33
Latin America and Caribbean 2011 25 plus Both 7.4
Saudi Arabia 2011 15 to 44 Females 8.4
Saudi Arabia 2011 25 plus Males 8.38
Saudi Arabia 2011 25 plus Females 4.42
Saudi Arabia 2011 25 plus Both 6.4
Sudan 2011 15 to 44 Females 5
Sudan 2011 25 plus Males 4.75
Sudan 2011 25 plus Females 2.56
Sudan 2011 25 plus Both 3.66
Senegal 2011 15 to 44 Females 2.9
Senegal 2011 25 plus Males 3.29
Senegal 2011 25 plus Females 1.58
Senegal 2011 25 plus Both 2.44
Singapore 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.97
Singapore 2011 25 plus Males 10.74
Singapore 2011 25 plus Females 9.27
Singapore 2011 25 plus Both 10.01
Solomon Islands 2011 15 to 44 Females 7.25
Solomon Islands 2011 25 plus Males 6.86
Solomon Islands 2011 25 plus Females 5.08
Solomon Islands 2011 25 plus Both 5.97
Sierra Leone 2011 15 to 44 Females 2.79
Sierra Leone 2011 25 plus Males 3.3
Sierra Leone 2011 25 plus Females 1.45
Sierra Leone 2011 25 plus Both 2.38
El Salvador 2011 15 to 44 Females 8.34
El Salvador 2011 25 plus Males 7.17
El Salvador 2011 25 plus Females 6.52
El Salvador 2011 25 plus Both 6.85
Somalia 2011 15 to 44 Females 1.88
Somalia 2011 25 plus Males 2.95
Somalia 2011 25 plus Females 1.05
Somalia 2011 25 plus Both 2
Serbia 2011 15 to 44 Females 11.77
Serbia 2011 25 plus Males 11.35
Serbia 2011 25 plus Females 10.7
Serbia 2011 25 plus Both 11.02
South Sudan 2011 15 to 44 Females 1.16
South Sudan 2011 25 plus Males 2.08
South Sudan 2011 25 plus Females 0.59
South Sudan 2011 25 plus Both 1.34
Sao Tome and Principe 2011 15 to 44 Females 5.56
Sao Tome and Principe 2011 25 plus Males 5.3
Sao Tome and Principe 2011 25 plus Females 3.17
Sao Tome and Principe 2011 25 plus Both 4.24
Suriname 2011 15 to 44 Females 9.27
Suriname 2011 25 plus Males 8.57
Suriname 2011 25 plus Females 8.03
Suriname 2011 25 plus Both 8.3
Slovakia 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.5
Slovakia 2011 25 plus Males 12.38
Slovakia 2011 25 plus Females 11.89
Slovakia 2011 25 plus Both 12.14
Slovenia 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.82
Slovenia 2011 25 plus Males 12.12
Slovenia 2011 25 plus Females 11.8
Slovenia 2011 25 plus Both 11.96
Sweden 2011 15 to 44 Females 14.45
Sweden 2011 25 plus Males 12.91
Sweden 2011 25 plus Females 13.34
Sweden 2011 25 plus Both 13.12
Swaziland 2011 15 to 44 Females 8.95
Swaziland 2011 25 plus Males 7.15
Swaziland 2011 25 plus Females 6.6
Swaziland 2011 25 plus Both 6.88
Seychelles 2011 15 to 44 Females 10.61
Seychelles 2011 25 plus Males 8.96
Seychelles 2011 25 plus Females 8.99
Seychelles 2011 25 plus Both 8.98
Syria 2011 15 to 44 Females 7.44
Syria 2011 25 plus Males 7.07
Syria 2011 25 plus Females 4.5
Syria 2011 25 plus Both 5.79
Chad 2011 15 to 44 Females 1.63
Chad 2011 25 plus Males 2.71
Chad 2011 25 plus Females 0.74
Chad 2011 25 plus Both 1.72
Togo 2011 15 to 44 Females 4.14
Togo 2011 25 plus Males 5.12
Togo 2011 25 plus Females 2.2
Togo 2011 25 plus Both 3.66
Thailand 2011 15 to 44 Females 9.57
Thailand 2011 25 plus Males 7.91
Thailand 2011 25 plus Females 7.38
Thailand 2011 25 plus Both 7.65
Tajikistan 2011 15 to 44 Females 10.96
Tajikistan 2011 25 plus Males 11.19
Tajikistan 2011 25 plus Females 9.77
Tajikistan 2011 25 plus Both 10.48
Turkmenistan 2011 15 to 44 Females 13.1
Turkmenistan 2011 25 plus Males 11.66
Turkmenistan 2011 25 plus Females 11.01
Turkmenistan 2011 25 plus Both 11.33
Timor-Leste 2011 15 to 44 Females 6.08
Timor-Leste 2011 25 plus Males 4.3
Timor-Leste 2011 25 plus Females 2.81
Timor-Leste 2011 25 plus Both 3.55
Tonga 2011 15 to 44 Females 11.24
Tonga 2011 25 plus Males 10.25
Tonga 2011 25 plus Females 10.11
Tonga 2011 25 plus Both 10.18
Trinidad and Tobago 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.62
Trinidad and Tobago 2011 25 plus Males 10.39
Trinidad and Tobago 2011 25 plus Females 10.53
Trinidad and Tobago 2011 25 plus Both 10.46
Tunisia 2011 15 to 44 Females 8.13
Tunisia 2011 25 plus Males 7.71
Tunisia 2011 25 plus Females 4.82
Tunisia 2011 25 plus Both 6.26
Turkey 2011 15 to 44 Females 8.03
Turkey 2011 25 plus Males 7.93
Turkey 2011 25 plus Females 5.66
Turkey 2011 25 plus Both 6.8
Taiwan 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.93
Taiwan 2011 25 plus Males 11.37
Taiwan 2011 25 plus Females 9.98
Taiwan 2011 25 plus Both 10.67
Tanzania 2011 15 to 44 Females 6.27
Tanzania 2011 25 plus Males 5.79
Tanzania 2011 25 plus Females 3.85
Tanzania 2011 25 plus Both 4.82
Uganda 2011 15 to 44 Females 5.61
Uganda 2011 25 plus Males 6.24
Uganda 2011 25 plus Females 3.54
Uganda 2011 25 plus Both 4.89
Ukraine 2011 15 to 44 Females 13.7
Ukraine 2011 25 plus Males 12.95
Ukraine 2011 25 plus Females 13.07
Ukraine 2011 25 plus Both 13.01
Uruguay 2011 15 to 44 Females 11.12
Uruguay 2011 25 plus Males 9.38
Uruguay 2011 25 plus Females 10.06
Uruguay 2011 25 plus Both 9.72
United States 2011 15 to 44 Females 14.1
United States 2011 25 plus Males 14.31
United States 2011 25 plus Females 14.35
United States 2011 25 plus Both 14.33
Uzbekistan 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.18
Uzbekistan 2011 25 plus Males 11.8
Uzbekistan 2011 25 plus Females 11.3
Uzbekistan 2011 25 plus Both 11.55
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2011 15 to 44 Females 10.55
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2011 25 plus Males 8.08
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2011 25 plus Females 7.88
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2011 25 plus Both 7.98
Venezuela 2011 15 to 44 Females 10.66
Venezuela 2011 25 plus Males 8.52
Venezuela 2011 25 plus Females 8.53
Venezuela 2011 25 plus Both 8.52
Vietnam 2011 15 to 44 Females 9.07
Vietnam 2011 25 plus Males 8.53
Vietnam 2011 25 plus Females 7.14
Vietnam 2011 25 plus Both 7.84
Vanuatu 2011 15 to 44 Females 8.29
Vanuatu 2011 25 plus Males 7.57
Vanuatu 2011 25 plus Females 6.58
Vanuatu 2011 25 plus Both 7.07
Samoa 2011 15 to 44 Females 12.69
Samoa 2011 25 plus Males 10.66
Samoa 2011 25 plus Females 10.94
Samoa 2011 25 plus Both 10.8
Yemen 2011 15 to 44 Females 2.13
Yemen 2011 25 plus Males 3.77
Yemen 2011 25 plus Females 0.83
Yemen 2011 25 plus Both 2.3
South Africa 2011 15 to 44 Females 10.5
South Africa 2011 25 plus Males 8.66
South Africa 2011 25 plus Females 8.57
South Africa 2011 25 plus Both 8.61
Zambia 2011 15 to 44 Females 7.03
Zambia 2011 25 plus Males 7.37
Zambia 2011 25 plus Females 4.96
Zambia 2011 25 plus Both 6.17
Zimbabwe 2011 15 to 44 Females 9.21
Zimbabwe 2011 25 plus Males 8.22
Zimbabwe 2011 25 plus Females 6.53
Zimbabwe 2011 25 plus Both 7.38
Afghanistan 2012 15 to 44 Females 1.2
Afghanistan 2012 25 plus Males 3.01
Afghanistan 2012 25 plus Females 0.55
Afghanistan 2012 25 plus Both 1.78
Angola 2012 15 to 44 Females 4.92
Angola 2012 25 plus Males 5.21
Angola 2012 25 plus Females 2.82
Angola 2012 25 plus Both 4.01
Albania 2012 15 to 44 Females 11.48
Albania 2012 25 plus Males 10.9
Albania 2012 25 plus Females 10.2
Albania 2012 25 plus Both 10.55
Andorra 2012 15 to 44 Females 14.73
Andorra 2012 25 plus Males 12.5
Andorra 2012 25 plus Females 12.37
Andorra 2012 25 plus Both 12.43
United Arab Emirates 2012 15 to 44 Females 11.7
United Arab Emirates 2012 25 plus Males 9.57
United Arab Emirates 2012 25 plus Females 7.36
United Arab Emirates 2012 25 plus Both 8.46
Argentina 2012 15 to 44 Females 12.25
Argentina 2012 25 plus Males 10.33
Argentina 2012 25 plus Females 10.85
Argentina 2012 25 plus Both 10.59
Armenia 2012 15 to 44 Females 12.27
Armenia 2012 25 plus Males 11.61
Armenia 2012 25 plus Females 11.65
Armenia 2012 25 plus Both 11.63
Antigua and Barbuda 2012 15 to 44 Females 14.13
Antigua and Barbuda 2012 25 plus Males 12.25
Antigua and Barbuda 2012 25 plus Females 13.35
Antigua and Barbuda 2012 25 plus Both 12.8
Australia 2012 15 to 44 Females 14.23
Australia 2012 25 plus Males 13.19
Australia 2012 25 plus Females 13.27
Australia 2012 25 plus Both 13.23
Austria 2012 15 to 44 Females 12.39
Austria 2012 25 plus Males 12.3
Austria 2012 25 plus Females 11.84
Austria 2012 25 plus Both 12.07
Azerbaijan 2012 15 to 44 Females 12.48
Azerbaijan 2012 25 plus Males 12.38
Azerbaijan 2012 25 plus Females 11.58
Azerbaijan 2012 25 plus Both 11.98
Burundi 2012 15 to 44 Females 3.75
Burundi 2012 25 plus Males 3.83
Burundi 2012 25 plus Females 2.2
Burundi 2012 25 plus Both 3.01
Belgium 2012 15 to 44 Females 13.69
Belgium 2012 25 plus Males 12.67
Belgium 2012 25 plus Females 12.74
Belgium 2012 25 plus Both 12.7
Benin 2012 15 to 44 Females 2.85
Benin 2012 25 plus Males 3.74
Benin 2012 25 plus Females 1.53
Benin 2012 25 plus Both 2.64
Burkina Faso 2012 15 to 44 Females 1.78
Burkina Faso 2012 25 plus Males 1.61
Burkina Faso 2012 25 plus Females 0.82
Burkina Faso 2012 25 plus Both 1.21
Bangladesh 2012 15 to 44 Females 4.92
Bangladesh 2012 25 plus Males 5.07
Bangladesh 2012 25 plus Females 2.77
Bangladesh 2012 25 plus Both 3.92
Bulgaria 2012 15 to 44 Females 12.52
Bulgaria 2012 25 plus Males 11.79
Bulgaria 2012 25 plus Females 12.04
Bulgaria 2012 25 plus Both 11.92
Bahrain 2012 15 to 44 Females 9.95
Bahrain 2012 25 plus Males 7.65
Bahrain 2012 25 plus Females 6.51
Bahrain 2012 25 plus Both 7.08
The Bahamas 2012 15 to 44 Females 13.04
The Bahamas 2012 25 plus Males 11.26
The Bahamas 2012 25 plus Females 11.77
The Bahamas 2012 25 plus Both 11.51
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2012 15 to 44 Females 10.58
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2012 25 plus Males 10.12
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2012 25 plus Females 9.12
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2012 25 plus Both 9.62
Belarus 2012 15 to 44 Females 13.73
Belarus 2012 25 plus Males 12.87
Belarus 2012 25 plus Females 13.15
Belarus 2012 25 plus Both 13.01
Belize 2012 15 to 44 Females 9.31
Belize 2012 25 plus Males 8.31
Belize 2012 25 plus Females 8.05
Belize 2012 25 plus Both 8.18
Bolivia 2012 15 to 44 Females 9.16
Bolivia 2012 25 plus Males 8.39
Bolivia 2012 25 plus Females 6.62
Bolivia 2012 25 plus Both 7.5
Brazil 2012 15 to 44 Females 8.76
Brazil 2012 25 plus Males 6.46
Brazil 2012 25 plus Females 6.84
Brazil 2012 25 plus Both 6.65
Barbados 2012 15 to 44 Females 10.71
Barbados 2012 25 plus Males 8.21
Barbados 2012 25 plus Females 8.04
Barbados 2012 25 plus Both 8.13
Brunei 2012 15 to 44 Females 14.12
Brunei 2012 25 plus Males 12.7
Brunei 2012 25 plus Females 11.51
Brunei 2012 25 plus Both 12.11
Bhutan 2012 15 to 44 Females 3.08
Bhutan 2012 25 plus Males 4.95
Bhutan 2012 25 plus Females 1.91
Bhutan 2012 25 plus Both 3.43
Botswana 2012 15 to 44 Females 8.31
Botswana 2012 25 plus Males 4.96
Botswana 2012 25 plus Females 5.17
Botswana 2012 25 plus Both 5.07
Central African Republic 2012 15 to 44 Females 3.82
Central African Republic 2012 25 plus Males 4.98
Central African Republic 2012 25 plus Females 2.05
Central African Republic 2012 25 plus Both 3.52
Canada 2012 15 to 44 Females 14.91
Canada 2012 25 plus Males 14.48
Canada 2012 25 plus Females 14.67
Canada 2012 25 plus Both 14.57
Switzerland 2012 15 to 44 Females 13.01
Switzerland 2012 25 plus Males 14.07
Switzerland 2012 25 plus Females 13.38
Switzerland 2012 25 plus Both 13.72
Chile 2012 15 to 44 Females 12.61
Chile 2012 25 plus Males 10.66
Chile 2012 25 plus Females 10.86
Chile 2012 25 plus Both 10.76
China 2012 15 to 44 Females 9.44
China 2012 25 plus Males 8.78
China 2012 25 plus Females 6.53
China 2012 25 plus Both 7.66
Cote d’Ivoire 2012 15 to 44 Females 3.58

Alcohol, Erectile Dysfunction and more

  • Did you know, for example, that men who exercise 30 minutes a day are 40% less likely to have ED than sedentary men?

  • Or that ED is twice as prevalent among men with depression?

  • Or that men with high HDL cholesterol are far less likely to have ED than men with low HDL cholesterol?

What are lifestyle changes that can help you sidestep or reverse Erectile Dysfunction?

  • Lessen alcohol consumption
  • Lessen stress
  • Exercise
  • Whole foods
  • Adequate sleep
  • Timing
  • Others

Non-alcoholic beer has some health benefits.

Aloe Vera

Oral aloe vera has anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-hyperglycemic effects. A recent study found that in type 2 diabetes patients with bad blood lipids and excessive fasting blood sugar levels, a 300 mg capsule of aloe vera gel taken every twelve hours for two months lowered LDL, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol. No adverse effects were reported, and liver and kidney function tests checked out.

An extract of aloe vera even shows promise as a promoter of dental pulp cell proliferation (the stem cells that “turn into” teeth) and the mineralization and formation of dentin. The study involved capping the exposed upper molars of rats in either the aloe extract (acemannan) or a control for 28 days, so it’s not as simple as swishing with aloe vera juice every night.

Aloe is certainly good as a laxative, but there’s no concrete evidence that I’m aware of for its use in healing damaged stomach tissue. You could give it a shot in an experiment of one, of course. Just note that chronic oral aloe vera consumption has been linked to hepatic toxicity in some cases. Doses of between 250 and 500 mg per day were cited – a not unheard of amount, so use caution.

Maca

If aloe’s supposed aphrodisiac effects are based in obscure folk wisdom, maca has actual clinical trials. Maca appears to be that rare substance that actually works as advertised. Most importantly, it increases sexual desire, function, and fertility in both men and women.

In men with mild erectile dysfunction, maca root increased subjective perceptions of general and sexual well-being, beating out the placebo group.
In men and women suffering from SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction (disinterest, low libido, inability to attain arousal), patients taking maca root experienced significant improvements. Libido increased and arousal became possible on both 1.5 grams per day and 3 grams per day, though the larger dose was more effective.
In post menopausal women suffering from sexual dysfunction, 3.5 grams a day of powdered maca reduced anxiety, depression, and sexual dysfunction when compared to a placebo. Interestingly, these effects were independent of any changes in hormonal profiles (neither androgenic nor estrogenic).
In men aged 21-56, both 1.5 and 3 grams per day of maca root increased sexual desire, with the larger dose having the greater effect. As with the previous study on postmenopausal women, the increase in libido was independent of any changes to male hormonal profiles.
Maca also increases sperm count, sperm motility, and ejaculate volume without affecting serum hormone levels in men.
Maca also has some neuroprotective effects, at least in rodents, but the sex angle is the most studied.

If you decide to try it, don’t necessarily rush out and buy the raw maca. Traditionally, maca root was eaten as a root vegetable in Peru – cooked, boiled, mashed, or turned into flour. It wasn’t eaten raw to “preserve enzymes” or some other such thing. Raw maca is generally less expensive than gelatinized maca, but the latter is more concentrated with the starch removed, and perhaps more effective. Furthermore, since maca is in the brassica family (along with cabbage, broccoli, and kale), it has goitrogenic qualities that increase the requirement for iodine. Raw maca is going to have more goitrogenic activity than heat-treated maca.

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Women Retain Verbal Memory Skills Longer Than Men in Early Stages of Alzheimer’s

Women may have a better memory for words than men despite evidence of similar levels of shrinkage in areas of the brain that show the earliest signs of Alzheimer’s disease, according to a study published in the March 16, 2016, online issue of Neurology.

According to study author Erin E. Sundermann, PhD, of Albert Einstein College of Medicine in Bronx, NY, “One way to interpret the results is that because women have better verbal memory skills than men throughout life, women have a buffer of protection against loss of verbal memory before the effects of Alzheimer’s disease kick in. Because verbal memory tests are used to diagnose people with Alzheimer’s disease and its precursor, mild cognitive impairment, these tests may fail to detect mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease in women until they are further along in the disease.”

The study included participants from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: 235 people with Alzheimer’s disease, 694 people with mild cognitive impairment that included memory problems, and 379 people with no memory or thinking problems. The groups’ performance on a test of verbal memory was compared to the size of the hippocampal area of the brain, which is responsible for verbal memory and affected in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease.

Women performed better than men on the tests of both immediate recall and delayed recall among those showing evidence of minimal to moderate amounts of hippocampal shrinkage. At the high level of hippocampal shrinkage, there was no difference in the scores of men and women. At the score that indicates the start of verbal memory impairment, or 37 on a scale of zero to 75 for immediate recall, women showed greater evidence of hippocampal shrinkage (ratio of hippocampal volume to total brain volume multiplied by 103 was 5 compared to 6 for men).

Photo of an elderly lady.

Mary Sano, PhD, of Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York, NY, and a member of the American Academy of Neurology, said in a corresponding editorial, “At a public policy level, the potential health care cost for under-detection or delayed diagnosis of women with Alzheimer’s disease or its early stages is staggering and should motivate funding in this area.”

“If these results are confirmed, then we may need to adjust memory tests to account for the difference between men and women in order to improve our accuracy in diagnosis,” said Sundermann.

ABOUT THIS ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE RESEARCH

Funding: The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative was supported by the National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, Alzheimer’s Association, Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Foundation, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Abbott, Amorfix Life Sciences, AstraZeneca, Bayer HealthCare, BioClinica, Biogen Idec, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eisai, Elan Pharmaceuticals, Eli Lilly, F. Hoffmann-La Roche and Genentech, GE Healthcare, Innogenetics, IXICO, Janssen Alzheimer Immunotherapy Research and Development, Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Medpace, Merck, Meso Scale Diagnostics, Novartis Pharmaceuticals; Pfizer, Servier, Synarc and Takeda Pharmaceutical.

Source: Michelke Uher – AAN
Image Source: The image is in the public domain.
Original Research: Abstract for “Better verbal memory in women than men in MCI despite similar levels of hippocampal atrophy” by Erin E. Sundermann, Anat Biegon, Leah H. Rubin, Richard B. Lipton, Wenzhu Mowrey, Susan Landau, Pauline M. Maki, and For the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative in Neurology. Published online March 16 2016 doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000002570


Abstract

Better verbal memory in women than men in MCI despite similar levels of hippocampal atrophy

Objective: To examine sex differences in the relationship between clinical symptoms related to Alzheimer disease (AD) (verbal memory deficits) and neurodegeneration (hippocampal volume/intracranial volume ratio [HpVR]) across AD stages.

Methods: The sample included 379 healthy participants, 694 participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and 235 participants with AD and dementia from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative who completed the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using linear regression to examine the interaction between sex and HpVR on RAVLT across and within diagnostic groups adjusting for age, education, and APOE ε4 status.

Results: Across groups, there were significant sex × HpVR interactions for immediate and delayed recall (p < 0.01). Women outperformed men among individuals with moderate to larger HpVR, but not among individuals with smaller HpVR. In diagnosis-stratified analyses, the HpVR × sex interaction was significant in the aMCI group, but not in the control or AD dementia groups, for immediate and delayed recall (p < 0.01). Among controls, women outperformed men on both outcomes irrespective of HpVR (p < 0.001). In AD dementia, better RAVLT performance was independently associated with female sex (immediate, p = 0.04) and larger HpVR (delayed, p = 0.001).

Conclusion: Women showed an advantage in verbal memory despite evidence of moderate hippocampal atrophy. This advantage may represent a sex-specific form of cognitive reserve delaying verbal memory decline until more advanced disease stages.

“Better verbal memory in women than men in MCI despite similar levels of hippocampal atrophy” by Erin E. Sundermann, Anat Biegon, Leah H. Rubin, Richard B. Lipton, Wenzhu Mowrey, Susan Landau, Pauline M. Maki, and For the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative in Neurology. Published online March 16 2016 doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000002570

Study offers genetic explanation why cancer occurs commonly in males than females

In a new study, a group of Boston scientists, including researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, offer a genetic explanation for the age-old conundrum of why cancer is more common in males than females.

Females, it turns out, carry an extra copy of certain protective genes in their cells – an additional line of defense against the cells growing out of control – the investigators report in a paper published online today by Nature Genetics. Though not solely responsible for cancer’s “bias” toward males, the duplicate copies likely account for some of the imbalance, including up to 80 percent of the excess male cases in some tumor types, report the study authors, based at Dana-Farber, the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, and Massachusetts General Hospital.

“Across virtually every type of cancer, occurrence rates are higher in males than in females. In some cases, the difference might be very small – just a few percent – but in certain cancers, incidence is two or three times higher in males,” said Andrew Lane, MD, PhD, of Dana-Farber, the co-senior author of the study with Gad Getz, PhD, of the Broad Institute and Massachusetts General Hospital. “Data from the National Cancer Institute show that males carry about a 20 percent higher risk than females of developing cancer. That translates into 150,000 additional new cases of cancer in men every year.”

Despite the size of the gap, the reasons for this divergence have been difficult to discern. The historic explanation – that men were more likely to smoke cigarettes and be exposed to hazardous chemicals in the work environment – has proven inadequate, because even as smoking rates have dropped and occupational patterns changed, men still outpace women in developing many cancers, including some associated with tobacco use such as kidney, renal, bladder, and oral cancers, Lane said. The disparity is present among boys and girls, as well as men and women.

Previous research found that in one form of leukemia, the cancer cells often carried a mutation in a gene called KDM6A, located on the X chromosome – one of the sex chromosomes that determine whether an individual is male or female. (Females cells carry two X chromosomes; males carry an X chromosome and a shorter, smaller Y chromosome.) If KDM6A is a tumor-suppressor gene – responsible for preventing cell division from spinning out of control – the mutation could lead to cancer by crippling that restraint system.

One might expect female cells to be just as vulnerable to the mutation. During embryo formation, one of the X chromosomes in female cells shuts down and remains off-line for life. A mutation in KDM6A on the active X chromosome, therefore, should lead to the same cell-division havoc as it does in males. Unexpectedly, KDM6A mutations were detected more often in male cancers. It turns out that some genes on the inactivated X chromosome in female cells “escape” that dormant state and function normally. One of those awakened genes happens to be a working copy of KDM6A. The “good” copy of the gene is sufficient to prevent the cell from turning cancerous.

The new study explored whether this phenomenon – fully functional tumor-suppressor genes on an otherwise idle X chromosome – underlies the broader phenomenon of cancer’s partiality toward male cells. The researchers dubbed such genes “EXITS,” for Escape from X-Inactivation Tumor Suppressors.

“Under this theory, one of the reasons cancer is more common in males is that male cells would need a harmful mutation in only one copy of an EXITS gene to turn cancerous,” Lane said. “Female cells, by contrast, would need mutations in both copies.”

To test this hypothesis, researchers at the Broad Institute scanned the genomes of more than 4,000 tumor samples, representing 21 different types of cancer, looking for various types of abnormalities, including mutations. They then examined whether any of the irregularities they found were more common in male cells or female cells.

The results were striking. Of nearly 800 genes found solely on the X chromosome, six were more frequently mutated – and incapacitated – in males than females. Of more than 18,000 other genes, none showed a gender imbalance in mutation rates.

Of the six genes more likely to be mutated in males, five were known to escape X chromosome inactivation, making them strong candidates to be EXITS genes.

“The fact that the very genes which are more often mutated in males are found exclusively on the X chromosome – and that several of them are known to be tumor-suppressors and escape X-inactivation – is compelling evidence of our theory,” Lane remarked. “The protection afforded by the working copies of these genes in female cells may help explain the lower incidence of many cancers in women and girls.”

One of the implications of the finding is that many cancers may arise through different molecular pathways in men and women. To circumvent the added genetic safeguards against cancer in female cells, tumors in women may employ alternate genetic circuits than in men.

To explore this possibility, the study authors recommend that future clinical studies of cancer treatments be “statistically powered” ¬- that is, involve enough patients and tumor tissue samples – to understand whether men and women respond differently to treatment because of genetic differences in their tumors.

Source:

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

Calorie Calculator

calorie-calc

http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/the-6-principles-of-getting-lean.html

Connie’s comments:

  • Your food choices should include whole foods and raw foods with this ratio: 40% Protein, 30% carbs and 30% fat.
  • You can still eat meals prepared based on your cultural practise but add exercise in your routine and avoid sugar, exposure to smoking, excessive alcohol and avoid processed foods.

Women:

  • Women can increase their calories from fat (35%) and reduce carbs (25%) to create a balance.
  • Eat heavy meal 3-4hrs before bedtime. 9pm bedtime would mean that dinner is at around 6pm.
  • Normal sleep pattern for women based on their hormones is between 9pm to 5am.

Strive to eat plant-based diets (although they have low content of Leucine, Methaionine, Arganine) to live longer:

  • Glycotoxins
  • One in a Thousand: Ending the Heart Disease Epidemic
  • Food Antioxidants, Stroke, Cancer and Heart Disease
  • Nuts May Help Prevent Death
  • Increased Lifespan From Beans

 

2010 Tax Statistics in the USA

taxpayers stat.JPG

More women between the ages of  55 under 60 yrs of age worked in 2010 compared to the number of men in the same age group.

In both men and women, the top earning age group is between the ages of 46 under 55 yrs of age. Disparity in income between men and women is almost double in favor of men.

738k men are still working past age 76 yrs of age and contributed to about $7M in taxes.

 

 

 

Health data on Diabetes and Alzheimer’s

The mean age of the cohort was 75.6 years (standard deviation 5.9); 68.9 percent of the subjects were women. Forty-five percent of the subjects were Hispanic, and 32 percent were Black.

The prevalence of diabetes was 9.6 percent in Whites, 21.2 percent in Blacks, and 24.1 percent in Hispanics.

There were 213 incident cases of dementia in the cohort. Of these, 157 cases (74 percent) were due to Alzheimer’s disease, 36 cases (17 percent) were due to stroke, and 20 cases (9 percent) were due to other causes.

The incidence of dementia was 1.4 per 1,000 person-years in Whites (33 cases: 23 Alzheimer’s disease, four stroke-associated dementia, and six other), 2.4 per 1,000 person-years in Blacks (80 cases: 62 Alzheimer’s disease, 14 stroke-associated dementia, and four other), and 2.3 per 1,000 person-years in Hispanics (100 cases: 72 Alzheimer’s disease, 18 stroke-associated dementia, and 10 other).

The hazard ratio for nondementia cognitive impairment without stroke in persons with diabetes, as compared with persons without diabetes, was 1.3 (95 percent CI: 0.8, 1.9). The hazard ratio for nondementia cognitive impairment with stroke in relation to diabetes was 1.6 (95 percent CI: 0.6, 4.4) (table 2). Persons with nondementia cognitive impairment have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease compared with persons without nondementia cognitive impairment (40); therefore, we conducted an analysis examining the relation between diabetes and a composite outcome of Alzheimer’s disease and nondementia cognitive impairment (without stroke). The hazard ratio for this composite outcome in relation to diabetes, as compared with the absence of diabetes, was 1.6 (95 percent CI: 1.2, 2.1).

http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/154/7/635.full

diabetes AD

Table 1 shows a comparison of characteristics between all subjects in the sample and subjects with Alzheimer’s disease, stroke-associated dementia, nondementia cognitive impairment without stroke, and nondementia cognitive impairment with stroke. Persons with Alzheimer’s disease were older, had fewer years of education, had a higher proportion of Blacks, and had a higher prevalence of heart disease than persons without Alzheimer’s disease.

Persons with stroke-associated dementia were older and had a higher prevalence of diabetes, a higher level of low density lipoprotein cholesterol, a higher prevalence of hypertension, and a higher prevalence of heart disease than persons without stroke-associated dementia.

After the exclusion of 174 cases of nondementia cognitive impairment at baseline, there were 1,088 persons left for the analysis of nondementia cognitive impairment.

Persons with nondementia cognitive impairment without stroke were older and had fewer years of education, a higher proportion of ever smokers, and a higher proportion of Hispanics than persons without it.

Persons with nondementia cognitive impairment with stroke had a higher prevalence of hypertension and heart disease than persons without it.

diabetes stat

http://www.statisticbrain.com/diabetes-statistics/