How do the lungs and brain interact?

Ken Saladin
Ken Saladin, Emeritus professor of biology

Rhythm of Breathing Affects Memory and Fear

Rhythm of Breathing Affects Memory and Fear

Source: Northwestern University.

Breathing is not just for oxygen; it’s now linked to brain function and behavior.

Northwestern Medicine scientists have discovered for the first time that the rhythm of breathing creates electrical activity in the human brain that enhances emotional judgments and memory recall.

These effects on behavior depend critically on whether you inhale or exhale and whether you breathe through the nose or mouth.

In the study, individuals were able to identify a fearful face more quickly if they encountered the face when breathing in compared to breathing out. Individuals also were more likely to remember an object if they encountered it on the inhaled breath than the exhaled one. The effect disappeared if breathing was through the mouth.

“One of the major findings in this study is that there is a dramatic difference in brain activity in the amygdala and hippocampus during inhalation compared with exhalation,” said lead author Christina Zelano, assistant professor of neurology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. “When you breathe in, we discovered you are stimulating neurons in the olfactory cortex, amygdala and hippocampus, all across the limbic system.”

The study was published Dec. 6 in the Journal of Neuroscience.

The senior author is Jay Gottfried, professor of neurology at Feinberg.

Northwestern scientists first discovered these differences in brain activity while studying seven patients with epilepsy who were scheduled for brain surgery. A week prior to surgery, a surgeon implanted electrodes into the patients’ brains in order to identify the origin of their seizures. This allowed scientists to acquire electro-physiological data directly from their brains. The recorded electrical signals showed brain activity fluctuated with breathing. The activity occurs in brain areas where emotions, memory and smells are processed.

This discovery led scientists to ask whether cognitive functions typically associated with these brain areas — in particular fear processing and memory — could also be affected by breathing.

Image shows the location of the amygdala in the brain.

The amygdala is strongly linked to emotional processing, in particular fear-related emotions. So scientists asked about 60 subjects to make rapid decisions on emotional expressions in the lab environment while recording their breathing. Presented with pictures of faces showing expressions of either fear or surprise, the subjects had to indicate, as quickly as they could, which emotion each face was expressing.

When faces were encountered during inhalation, subjects recognized them as fearful more quickly than when faces were encountered during exhalation. This was not true for faces expressing surprise. These effects diminished when subjects performed the same task while breathing through their mouths. Thus the effect was specific to fearful stimuli during nasal breathing only.

In an experiment aimed at assessing memory function — tied to the hippocampus — the same subjects were shown pictures of objects on a computer screen and told to remember them. Later, they were asked to recall those objects. Researchers found that recall was better if the images were encountered during inhalation.

The findings imply that rapid breathing may confer an advantage when someone is in a dangerous situation, Zelano said.

“If you are in a panic state, your breathing rhythm becomes faster,” Zelano said. “As a result you’ll spend proportionally more time inhaling than when in a calm state. Thus, our body’s innate response to fear with faster breathing could have a positive impact on brain function and result in faster response times to dangerous stimuli in the environment.”

Another potential insight of the research is on the basic mechanisms of meditation or focused breathing. “When you inhale, you are in a sense synchronizing brain oscillations across the limbic network,” Zelano noted.

ABOUT THIS MEMORY RESEARCH ARTICLE

Other Northwestern authors include Heidi Jiang, Guangyu Zhou, Nikita Arora, Dr. Stephan Schuele and Dr. Joshua Rosenow.

Funding: The study was supported by grants R00DC012803, R21DC012014 and R01DC013243 from the National Institute on Deafness and Communication Disorders of the National Institutes of Health.

Source: Marla Paul – Northwestern University
Image Source: NeuroscienceNews.com image is in the public domain.
Video Source: The video is credited to NorthwesternU.
Original Research: Abstract for “Nasal Respiration Entrains Human Limbic Oscillations and Modulates Cognitive Function” by Christina Zelano, Heidi Jiang, Guangyu Zhou, Nikita Arora, Stephan Schuele, Joshua Rosenow and Jay A. Gottfried in Journal of Neuroscience. Published online December 7 2016 doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2586-16.2016

Abstract

Nasal Respiration Entrains Human Limbic Oscillations and Modulates Cognitive Function

The need to breathe links the mammalian olfactory system inextricably to the respiratory rhythms that draw air through the nose. In rodents and other small animals, slow oscillations of local field potential activity are driven at the rate of breathing (∼2–12 Hz) in olfactory bulb and cortex, and faster oscillatory bursts are coupled to specific phases of the respiratory cycle. These dynamic rhythms are thought to regulate cortical excitability and coordinate network interactions, helping to shape olfactory coding, memory, and behavior. However, while respiratory oscillations are a ubiquitous hallmark of olfactory system function in animals, direct evidence for such patterns is lacking in humans. In this study, we acquired intracranial EEG data from rare patients (Ps) with medically refractory epilepsy, enabling us to test the hypothesis that cortical oscillatory activity would be entrained to the human respiratory cycle, albeit at the much slower rhythm of ∼0.16–0.33 Hz.

Our results reveal that natural breathing synchronizes electrical activity in human piriform (olfactory) cortex, as well as in limbic-related brain areas, including amygdala and hippocampus. Notably, oscillatory power peaked during inspiration and dissipated when breathing was diverted from nose to mouth. Parallel behavioral experiments showed that breathing phase enhances fear discrimination and memory retrieval. Our findings provide a unique framework for understanding the pivotal role of nasal breathing in coordinating neuronal oscillations to support stimulus processing and behavior.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Animal studies have long shown that olfactory oscillatory activity emerges in line with the natural rhythm of breathing, even in the absence of an odor stimulus. Whether the breathing cycle induces cortical oscillations in the human brain is poorly understood. In this study, we collected intracranial EEG data from rare patients with medically intractable epilepsy, and found evidence for respiratory entrainment of local field potential activity in human piriform cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus. These effects diminished when breathing was diverted to the mouth, highlighting the importance of nasal airflow for generating respiratory oscillations. Finally, behavioral data in healthy subjects suggest that breathing phase systematically influences cognitive tasks related to amygdala and hippocampal functions.

“Nasal Respiration Entrains Human Limbic Oscillations and Modulates Cognitive Function” by Christina Zelano, Heidi Jiang, Guangyu Zhou, Nikita Arora, Stephan Schuele, Joshua Rosenow and Jay A. Gottfried in Journal of Neuroscience. Published online December 7 2016 doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2586-16.2016

Asparagus soup

CREAM OF ASPARAGUS SOUP

 

 

I LOVE cream of asparagus soup, it’s pure comfort in a bowl and so simple to make. This recipe is made with just 5 ingredients, not counting salt and pepper and is ready under 25 minutes!

Skinnytastes.com

My senior client loves it too and helps him with his lung cancer and constipation.

Connie of Motherhealth caregivers 408-854-1883

INGREDIENTS:

  • 2 lbs asparagus (2 bunches), tough ends snapped off
  • 1 tbsp unsalted butter
  • 1 medium onion, chopped
  • 6 cups reduced sodium chicken broth
  • 2 tbsp low fat sour cream
  • kosher salt and fresh pepper, to taste

DIRECTIONS:

  1. Melt butter over low heat in a large pot. Add onion and sauté until soft, about 2-minutes.
  2. Cut the asparagus in half and add to the pot along with chicken broth and black pepper, to taste. Bring to a boil, cover and cook low about 20 minutes or until asparagus is very tender.
  3. Remove from heat, add sour cream and using your hand held blender, puree until smooth (or in two batches in a large blender).

NUTRITION INFORMATION

Yield: 6 servings, Serving Size: 1 1/4 cups

  • Amount Per Serving:
  • Freestyle Points: 1
  • Points +: 2
  • Calories: 81 calories
  • Total Fat: 3g
  • Saturated Fat: 2g
  • Cholesterol: 7mg
  • Sodium: 576mg
  • Carbohydrates: 10g
  • Fiber: 4g
  • Sugar: 1g
  • Protein: 6g
All images and text ©Gina Homolka for Skinnytaste

Read more at https://www.skinnytaste.com/cream-of-asparagus-soup-2/#QvWG3MWxVODuSWyJ.99

Cream of asparagus soup

Cream of asparagus soup
Cream of broccoli soup
Carrot soup
Leek soup
Mixed Vegetable Soup
Lentil soup
Squash soup
% Daily Value*
Total Fat 20 g 30%
Saturated fat 8 g 40%
Polyunsaturated fat 5 g
Monounsaturated fat 5 g
Cholesterol 54 mg 18%
Sodium 2,528 mg 105%
Potassium 873 mg 24%
Total Carbohydrate 40 g 13%
Dietary fiber 1.8 g 7%
Protein 15 g 30%
Vitamin A 29% Vitamin C 16%
Calcium 42% Iron 11%
Vitamin B-6 10% Vitamin B-12 20%
Magnesium 12%
*Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs.

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Antacids TUMs , UTI, stroke, impaired kidney function

THE FOUR COMMON ANTACIDS AND THE HEALTH RISKS THEY POSE

    

Many people experience the fiery chest pain of heartburn or the chronic bitter taste in the mouth or burning sensation in the throat when waking up in the morning.  For them, these conditions are a daily trial and they often turn to antacids to douse these maladies.  Although generally effective and safe for occasional use, antacids do have side effects that you need to know about.

Antacids are sold over the counter under many brand names and are available in chewable, liquid, and tablet form.  Doctors say that all of them work by neutralizing gastroesophageal reflux disease (commonly known as GERD), which occurs when stomach acid backs up into the esophagus and causes that burning sensation in the chest.  For the fastest relief, liquid products are probably the best choice, although all forms work relatively quickly, quelling symptoms in a matter of minutes.

Health experts say that when used only occasionally or on a short-term basis, antacids usually pose no risk, but sometimes they cause more problems than they solve.  Because they contain different active ingredients, each type may affect you differently.  If, for instance, you find that relief is only temporary and that your heartburn returns with a vengeance in an hour or so, you may be suffering from acid rebound.  According to medical experts, this condition sometimes occurs when your antacid contains large amounts of calcium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate.  The solution may be as simple as switching to a different antacid.

It is important to be aware of the side effects caused by the four common antacids:

1. Aluminum compounds (Amphojel, Rolaids).  These antacids are effective at providing relief, though slower-acting than some other antacids.  Frequent use often causes constipation.  Long-term use may also promote mineral deficiencies, particularly of calcium.  There is some evidence that increased aluminum intake may increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

2. Calcium carbonate (Calcium-Rich Rolaids, Titralac, Tums).  Quick relief is provided by the high calcium content of these antacids.  They can be taken daily.  But for some people, daily use may cause severe constipation.  Also may cause acid rebound.  There is some evidence that excess calcium may promote the formation of kidney stones or impair kidney function.

3. Magnesium compounds (Gaviscon, Maalox, Mylanta, Riopan).  These antacids provide quick relief.  They may have a laxative effect, except when mixed with other ingredients.  Products often include aluminum or calcium to offset the laxative effect of the magnesium, but these minerals may also cause adverse effects.  This group of antacids is not recommended for people with kidney disease.  Use among elderly people, particularly those with diabetes, may result in hypertension and/or cardiac problems.

4. Sodium bicarbonate (Alka Seltzer, Bromo Seltzer, Rolaids).  The main ingredient, baking soda, provides quick relief, but these antacids should be limited to short-term use.  Taken too often, these antacids may cause kidney and heart malfunction, an increase in urinary tract infections, and disruption of the body’s mineral balance.  Their high sodium content may also make them dangerous for those who have high blood pressure or who are on a sodium-restricted diet.

Experts warn not to take antacids if you have chronic, severe heartburn.  You may mask a condition that should be treated by a doctor.  When left untreated, chronic heartburn can eventually lead to ulceration and bleeding of the esophagus, breathing difficulties, and even esophageal cancer.

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