Health data on Diabetes and Alzheimer’s

The mean age of the cohort was 75.6 years (standard deviation 5.9); 68.9 percent of the subjects were women. Forty-five percent of the subjects were Hispanic, and 32 percent were Black.

The prevalence of diabetes was 9.6 percent in Whites, 21.2 percent in Blacks, and 24.1 percent in Hispanics.

There were 213 incident cases of dementia in the cohort. Of these, 157 cases (74 percent) were due to Alzheimer’s disease, 36 cases (17 percent) were due to stroke, and 20 cases (9 percent) were due to other causes.

The incidence of dementia was 1.4 per 1,000 person-years in Whites (33 cases: 23 Alzheimer’s disease, four stroke-associated dementia, and six other), 2.4 per 1,000 person-years in Blacks (80 cases: 62 Alzheimer’s disease, 14 stroke-associated dementia, and four other), and 2.3 per 1,000 person-years in Hispanics (100 cases: 72 Alzheimer’s disease, 18 stroke-associated dementia, and 10 other).

The hazard ratio for nondementia cognitive impairment without stroke in persons with diabetes, as compared with persons without diabetes, was 1.3 (95 percent CI: 0.8, 1.9). The hazard ratio for nondementia cognitive impairment with stroke in relation to diabetes was 1.6 (95 percent CI: 0.6, 4.4) (table 2). Persons with nondementia cognitive impairment have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease compared with persons without nondementia cognitive impairment (40); therefore, we conducted an analysis examining the relation between diabetes and a composite outcome of Alzheimer’s disease and nondementia cognitive impairment (without stroke). The hazard ratio for this composite outcome in relation to diabetes, as compared with the absence of diabetes, was 1.6 (95 percent CI: 1.2, 2.1).

diabetes AD

Table 1 shows a comparison of characteristics between all subjects in the sample and subjects with Alzheimer’s disease, stroke-associated dementia, nondementia cognitive impairment without stroke, and nondementia cognitive impairment with stroke. Persons with Alzheimer’s disease were older, had fewer years of education, had a higher proportion of Blacks, and had a higher prevalence of heart disease than persons without Alzheimer’s disease.

Persons with stroke-associated dementia were older and had a higher prevalence of diabetes, a higher level of low density lipoprotein cholesterol, a higher prevalence of hypertension, and a higher prevalence of heart disease than persons without stroke-associated dementia.

After the exclusion of 174 cases of nondementia cognitive impairment at baseline, there were 1,088 persons left for the analysis of nondementia cognitive impairment.

Persons with nondementia cognitive impairment without stroke were older and had fewer years of education, a higher proportion of ever smokers, and a higher proportion of Hispanics than persons without it.

Persons with nondementia cognitive impairment with stroke had a higher prevalence of hypertension and heart disease than persons without it.

diabetes stat

Preventable hospitalizations among racial groups, 2003

In 2003, racial and ethnic dis-parities existed in the rates of preventable hospitalizations, with blacks generally having the highest rates and Hispanics the second highest rates.

  • The disparities were greatest for hospitalizations for chronic conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and asthma. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, rates of admission for these conditions were about 3 to 5 times greater among blacks, and approximately 2 to 3 times greater among Hispanics.
  • Compared with non-Hispanic whites, blacks had higher rates of preventable hospitalizations for 15 of 17 indicators, and Hispanics had higher rates of preventable hospitalizations for 14 of 17 indicators.
  • Asians were less likely than non-Hispanic whites to be ad-mitted for preventable hospitali-zations, with 9 of 17 indicators being lowest in Asians.
  • Blacks had the highest rates of preventable hospitalizations for all indicators related to diabetes and circulatory diseases. Hospi-talization rates for hypertension and for diabetes without compli-cations were 5 times higher for blacks than for non-Hispanic whites. Hospitalization rates for pediatric asthma, adult asthma, perforated appendix, dehydra-tion, and low birth weight were also highest among blacks.
  • Hispanics had the highest rates of admission for elderly asthma, pediatric gastroenteritis, and urinary tract infection.
  • Admissions for asthma among patients 65 and older were 1.8 times more likely for Asians than for non-Hispanic whites—the only indicator where hospitaliza-tion rates were higher in Asians.

This Statistical Brief is based on PQI Version 2.1, revision 3. This PQI version includes measures for hospital admission rates for the following 16 ambulatory care-sensitive conditions:

– Lower-extremity amputations among patients with diabetes (a specific, serious, long-term complication of diabetes)

– Diabetes, long-term complications (i.e., chronic conditions such as renal, visual, neurological, and circulatory disorders, including lower-extremity amputations)

– Diabetes, short-term complications (i.e., acute conditions such as diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolarity, and coma)

– Uncontrolled diabetes without complications

– Angina without procedure

– Hypertension

– Congestive heart failure

– Pediatric asthma

– Adult asthma

– Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

– Pediatric gastroenteritis

– Perforated appendix

– Urinary tract infections

– Dehydration

– Bacterial pneumonia

– Low-birth weight

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Billions saved if obesity, tobacco and alcohol are controlled

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Do not fear about the election, the truth will come out and all young healthy people in the USA will vote for their future.

Healthy future generation knows that major deaths in the USA are contributed by the following: obesity, tobacco use and alcohol use.

1965 vs 2008: More people are aware of the effects of tobacco and obesity that death statistics showed lower number of deaths in many heart and cardio-vascular related deaths.

Please take care of your health so we can save billions in health spending.

The Great Stagnation of the American Education by Robert Gordon

For most of American history, parents could expect that their children would, on average, be much better educated than they were. But that is no longer true. This development has serious consequences for the economy.

The epochal achievements of American economic growth have gone hand in hand with rising educational attainment, as the economists Claudia Goldin and Lawrence F. Katz have shown. From 1891 to 2007, real economic output per person grew at an average rate of 2 percent per year — enough to double every 35 years. The average American was twice as well off in 2007 as in 1972, four times as well off as in 1937, and eight times as well off as in 1902. It’s no coincidence that for eight decades, from 1890 to 1970, educational attainment grew swiftly. But since 1990, that improvement has slowed to a crawl.

Companies pay better-educated people higher wages because they are more productive. The premium that employers pay to a college graduate compared with that to a high school graduate has soared since 1970, because of higher demand for technical and communication skills at the top of the scale and a collapse in demand for unskilled and semiskilled workers at the bottom.

As the current recovery continues at a snail’s pace, concerns about America’s future growth potential are warranted. Growth in annual average economic output per capita has slowed from the century-long average of 2 percent, to 1.3 percent over the past 25 years, to a mere 0.7 percent over the past decade. As of this summer, per-person output was still lower than it was in late 2007. The gains in income since the 2007-9 Great Recession have flowed overwhelmingly to those at the top, as has been widely noted. Real median family income was lower last year than in 1998.

There are numerous causes of the less-than-satisfying economic growth in America: the retirement of the baby boomers, the withdrawal of working-age men from the labor force, the relentless rise in the inequality of the income distribution and, as I have written about elsewhere, a slowdown in technological innovation.

Education deserves particular focus because its effects are so long-lasting. Every high school dropout becomes a worker who likely won’t earn much more than minimum wage, at best, for the rest of his or her life. And the problems in our educational system pervade all levels.

The surge in high school graduation rates — from less than 10 percent of youth in 1900 to 80 percent by 1970 — was a central driver of 20th-century economic growth. But the percentage of 18-year-olds receiving bona fide high school diplomas fell to 74 percent in 2000, according to the University of Chicago economist James J. Heckman. He found that the holders of G.E.D.’s performed no better economically than high school dropouts and that the rising share of young people who are in prison rather than in school plays a small but important role in the drop in graduation rates.

Then there is the poor quality of our schools. The Program for International Student Assessment tests have consistently rated American high schoolers as middling at best in reading, math and science skills, compared with their peers in other advanced economies.

At the college level, longstanding problems of quality are joined with the issues of affordability. For most of the postwar period, the G.I. Bill, public and land-grant universities and junior colleges made a low-cost education more accessible in the United States than anywhere in the world. But after leading the world in college completion, America has dropped to 16th. The percentage of 25- to 29-year-olds who hold a four-year bachelor’s degree has inched up in the past 15 years, to 33.5 percent, but that is still lower than in many other nations.

The cost of a university education has risen faster than the rate of inflation for decades. Between 2008 and 2012 state financing for higher education declined by 28 percent. Presidents of Ivy League and other elite schools point to the lavish subsidies they give low- and middle-income students, but this leaves behind the vast majority of American college students who are not lucky or smart enough to attend them.

While a four-year college degree still pays off, about one-quarter of recent college graduates are currently unemployed or underemployed. Meanwhile, total student debt now exceeds $1 trillion.

Heavily indebted students face two kinds of risks. One is that they fall short of their income potential, through some combination of unemployment and inability to find a job in their chosen fields. Research has shown that on average a college student taking on $100,000 in student debt will still come out ahead by age 34. But that break-even age goes up if future income falls short of the average.

There is also completion risk. A student who takes out half as much debt but drops out after two years never breaks even because wages of college dropouts are little better than those of high school graduates. These risks are acute for high-achieving students from low-income families: Caroline M. Hoxby, a Stanford economist, found that they often don’t apply to elite colleges and wind up at subpar ones, deeply in debt.

Two-year community colleges enroll 37 percent of American undergraduates. The Center on International Education Benchmarking reports that only 13 percent of students in two-year colleges graduate in two years; that figure rises to a still-dismal 28 percent after four years. These students are often working while taking classes and are often poorly prepared for college and required to take remedial courses.

Our subpar performance in schooling our kids hurts our economy’s capacity to grow.

Federal programs like No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top have gone too far in using test scores to evaluate teachers. Many children are culturally disadvantaged, even if one or both parents have jobs, have no books at home, do not read to them, and park them in front of a TV set or a video game in lieu of active in-home learning. Compared with other nations where students learn several languages and have math homework in elementary school, the American system expects too little. Parental expectations also matter: homework should be emphasized more, and sports less.

Poor academic achievement has long been a problem for African-Americans and Hispanics, but now the achievement divide has extended further. Isabel V. Sawhill, an economist at the Brookings Institution, has argued that “family breakdown is now biracial.” Among lower-income whites, the proportion of children living with both parents has plummeted over the past half-century, as Charles Murray has noted.

Are there solutions? The appeal of American education as a destination for the world’s best and brightest suggests the most obvious policy solution. Shortly before his death, Steve Jobs told President Obama that a green card conferring permanent residency status should be automatically granted to any foreign student with a degree in engineering, a field in which skills are in short supply..

Richard J. Murnane, an educational economist at Harvard, has found evidence that high school and college completion rates have begun to rise again, although part of this may be a result of weak labor markets that induce students to stay in school rather than face unemployment. Other research has shown that high-discipline, “no-excuses” charter schools, like those run by the Knowledge Is Power Program and the Harlem Children’s Zone, have erased racial achievement gaps. This model suggests that a complete departure from the traditional public school model, rather than pouring in more money per se, is needed.

Early childhood education is needed to counteract the negative consequences of growing up in disadvantaged households, especially for children who grow up with only one parent. Only one in four American 4-year-olds participate in preschool education programs, but that’s already too late. In a remarkable program, Reach Out and Read, 12,000 doctors, nurses and other providers have volunteered to include instruction on the importance of in-home reading to low-income mothers during pediatric checkups.

Even in today’s lackluster labor market, employers still complain that they cannot find workers with the needed skills to operate complex modern computer-driven machinery. Lacking in the American system is a well-organized funnel between community colleges and potential blue-collar employers, as in the renowned apprenticeship system in Germany.

How we pay for education shows, in the end, how much we value it. In Canada, each province manages and finances education at the elementary, secondary and college levels, thus avoiding the inequality inherent in America’s system of local property-tax financing for public schools. Tuition at the University of Toronto was a mere $5,695 for Canadian arts and science undergraduates last year, compared with $37,576 at Harvard. It should not be surprising that the Canadian college completion rate is about 15 percentage points above the American rate. As daunting as the problems are, we can overcome them. Our economic growth is at stake.

Connie’s comments: More vocational schools and city colleges. More economics, finance and money management subjects. Let’s raise the financial IQ of our youth. Our future should be  filled with middle class who can transition to the wealthy bracket.

Now hiring network marketers, part time, to grow the economy and help each other achieve goals and dreams. 408-854-1883 ;