Vitamin A deficient lung – COPD – hospice in home senior care

Last night, I massaged the chest and back of an 80-yr old male hospice senior in the bay area with apricot oil with essential oil of eucalyptus and lemon. Vitamin A deficiency is prevalent among those with lung disease. I instructed the caregiver to get sunshine in the morning and continue on healing massage in other parts of the body too especially the heart, feet, lungs, and liver area.

vit a

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Natural Remedies

As we’ve mentioned above, holistic medicine is the practice of treating the body itself to treat the illness. For example, in treating a headache, a holistic method of treatment might be to try hydrotherapy, which involves water for pain relief. In the case of chronic lung diseases, a variety of natural remedies may be used to promote airway clearance and to reduce mucus such as:

  • Lobelia– believed to stimulate the adrenal glands to release epinephrine, in effect, this relaxes the airways and allows for easier breathing.
  • Osha root– has been used to relieve congestion and make breathing easier.
  • Lungwort– known to reduce irritation and provide soothing qualities.
  • Elecampane– used to relieve coughs.
  • Oregano– known to benefit the respiratory tract, coughing reflex, and nasal passage airflow.
  • Orange peel– provides support for the respiratory system by breaking down and expelling congestion.
  • Chaparral– protects the body from harmful bacterial agents.
  • Eucalyptus– strengthens the immune system against infection.
  • Ginger– relieves congestion and improves circulation within the lungs.
  • Rosemary– contains healing vitamins A and C, and minerals calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium, sodium and zinc and helps blood flow.

Remember, however, to always consult with your primary doctor or physician before adding any new natural remedies to your diet.

4. Natural Supplements

In the case of natural supplements for COPD, there are a variety of vitamins and nutrients used by the body to reduce inflammation within the airways as well as promote more natural breathing from within. Here are a few examples with their properties and benefits:

  • NAC (N-Acetylcysteine) – a powerful antioxidant that has been shown to reduce inflammation, phlegm and cough, as well as thin mucus and ease expectoration.
  • Vitamin D – a sun-derived vitamin that has been linked to better lung function tests.
  • Bromelain – a chemical enzyme found in pineapple juice, believed to reduce inflammation and has shown in some studies to be an effective supplement for COPD relief.


Lung Cancer genes

lung-cancer-genesMolecular Profiling of Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related mortality in the United States, with an estimated 224,390 new cases and 158,080 deaths anticipated in 2016 (ACS 2016). Classically, treatment decisions have been empiric and based upon histology of the tumor. Platinum based chemotherapy remains the cornerstone of treatment. However, survival rates remain low. Novel therapies and treatment strategies are needed.

Lung cancer is comprised of two main histologic subtypes: non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Over the past decade, it has become evident that subsets of NSCLC can be further defined at the molecular level by recurrent ‘driver’ mutations that occur in multiple oncogenes, including AKT1, ALK, BRAF, EGFR, HER2, KRAS, MEK1, MET, NRAS, PIK3CA, RET, and ROS1 (Table 1). Another altered kinase gene involves MET. ‘Driver’ mutations lead to constitutive activation of mutant signaling proteins that induce and sustain tumorigenesis. These mutations are rarely found concurrently in the same tumor. Mutations can be found in all NSCLC histologies (including adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and large cell carcinoma) and in current, former, and never smokers (defined by individuals who smoked less than 100 cigarettes in a lifetime). Never smokers with adenocarcinoma have the highest incidence of EGFR, HER2, ALK, RET, and ROS1 mutations. Importantly, targeted small molecule inhibitors are currently available or being developed for specific molecularly defined subsets of lung cancer patients.

Historically, efforts at characterizing the molecular underpinnings of SCC of the lung have lagged behind those of adenocarcinoma of the lung. Many of the ‘driver’ mutations found in lung adenocarcinoma are only rarely found in lung SCC. Moreover, newer agents, such as bevacizumab (Avastin) and pemetrexed (Alimta) are not approved for or exhibit diminished efficacy in SCC (Sandler et al. 2006; Scagliotti et al. 2008). Thus, patients with metastatic SCC have fewer treatment options than those with non-squamous NSCLC. Despite these caveats, however, ‘driver’ mutations that may be linked to outcomes with targeted therapies in SCC are emerging. Altered genes include FGFR1 and DDR2 as well as PIK3CA. In addition, results from a recent large genomic study in lung SCC have added a variety of potential therapeutic targets that await validation in prospective clinical trials (Hammerman et al. 2012).

The following text is meant to provide a broad overview of several of the oncogenes known to be important for lung cancer pathogenesis. Where possible, the presence of a specific mutation is correlated to clinical parameters as well as response to both conventional chemotherapy and targeted agents. At present, only data for treatment of advanced (stage IIIB/IV) disease is presented.

Table 1. Frequency of Mutations and Availability of Targeted Therapies in NSCLC.

Gene Alteration Frequency in NSCLC
AKT1 Mutation 1%
ALK Rearrangement 3–7%
BRAF Mutation 1–3%
DDR2 Mutation ~4%
EGFR Mutation 10–35%
FGFR1 Amplification 20%
HER2 Mutation 2–4%
KRAS Mutation 15–25%
MEK1 Mutation 1%
METa Amplification 2–4%
NRAS Mutation 1%
PIK3CA Mutation 1–3%
PTEN Mutation 4–8%
RET Rearrangement 1%
ROS1a Rearrangement 1%

Drugs approved in NSCLC.
Drugs approved in NSCLC but for other molecular subtype.
Drugs approved in other cancer.
Drugs in clinical development.

Note: a Crizotinib is a dual ALK/MET tyrosine kinase inhibitor which is currently FDA approved for ALK positive and ROS1 positive NSCLC. However, there is a case report of a patient with NSCLC harboring MET amplification who responded to this agent (Ou et al. 2011). In addition, one patient with NSCLC harboring a ROS1 gene rearrangement had a partial response to crizotinib, which has ‘off-target’ anti-ROS1 activity (Bergethon et al. 2012).


Contributors: Christine M. Lovly, M.D., Ph.D., Leora Horn, M.D., M.Sc., William Pao, M.D., Ph.D. (through April 2014)

Suggested Citation: Lovly, C., L. Horn, W. Pao. 2016. Molecular Profiling of Lung Cancer. My Cancer Genome (Updated March 28).

Last Updated: March 28, 2016

Disclaimer: The information presented at is compiled from sources believed to be reliable. Extensive efforts have been made to make this information as accurate and as up-to-date as possible. However, the accuracy and completeness of this information cannot be guaranteed. Despite our best efforts, this information may contain typographical errors and omissions. The contents are to be used only as a guide, and health care providers should employ sound clinical judgment in interpreting this information for individual patient care.

Dietary needs of toxic lungs

Avoid the following to create an anti-fungal or anti-mold diet that helps detox your lungs

  • Alcoholic beverages: Alcohol is the mycotoxin of Saccharomyces yeast (brewer’s yeast), and often contains other mycotoxins from mold-containing fruits and grains
  • Wheat and all wheat products
  • Rye
  • Peanuts: Often contaminated with dozens of mold types, one of which is cancer-causing aflatoxin (also in 4-day old RICE)
  • Cottonseed and cottonseed oil
  • Corn: Universally contaminated with a variety of fungal toxins
  • Barley
  • Sorghum: Used in a variety of grain products and alcoholic beverages
  • Sugar from sugar cane and sugar beets
  • Hard cheeses. Discard dairy.

What to eat

  • Include probiotics such as pickled veggies and probiotic such as raw garlic.

Garlic is a potent antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, immune system stimulant, and detoxification agent. Garlic also helps clean out the respiratory tract. The best form is raw, whole garlic, rather than a supplement derived from garlic, as it is the synergism of the whole food that makes it so clinically active. Eat the cloves whole, or run them through your juicer alongside your veggies.

Garlic has remained a staple for various natural health practices because of its anti-inflammatory properties. The high level of allicin reduces inflammation and fight infection. It destroys free radicals and may help to improve asthma. It can help to reduce the risk for lung cancer.

  • Increase intake of Vitamin C and/or Vit C rich foods such as citrus/lemons.

Rosemary herb (rich in Vit C, like lemon and citrus fruits) and add the following ingredients in your salad: bunch watercress, cucumber, turnip, large carrots, clove garlic, lemon and mint leaves.

  • Green papaya added in soups of chicken broth/grass-fed beef.

My father drink a juice of green papaya and green apples during her bout with lung cancer.

  • Ginger

Ginger is also an antifungal and antibacterial. It helps dislodge congestion in your respiratory tract, and is also a great digestive aid. Ginger also makes a great addition to fresh juice.

This spice is incredibly easy to incorporate into your meal for an added flavor and health boost. The anti-inflammatory function clears your lungs of lingering pollution that could lead to health issues. You may also be interested to read my article how to use ginger as a medicine for great health.

  • Cayenne

Cayenne is a catalyst for the other herbs.

  • Goldenseal

Goldenseal, with its active ingredient berberine, has antibacterial and immune-enhancing properties. However, it should not be used for long periods of time.

  • Lifestyle: The best way to avoid most chemicals, GMOs, artificial sweeteners, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), excess sugar and bad salt is to eliminate junk and processed foods and sodas. Minimize meat, dairy and wheat to reduce excess mucus. Adding ginger, onions, garlic and cayenne helps eliminate excess mucus as well.
  • Exercise more outdoors, away from traffic if possible. Breathing exercises can be used to help strengthen lung tissue. Yoga offers some, and there are others as well. Natural News has a plethora of information here (
  • Eliminate household toxins that are part of detergents, cleansers, bleaches and chemically scented “air fresheners” (

There are many chemical free substitutes available at health food stores, even Target has a few on hand. Ditto for cosmetics and bodycare products. Buy only aluminum free deodorants for starters.

Pesticides must go as well, and there are alternatives that aren’t toxic for humans.

All toxic commercial pesticides emit caustic gases or vapors (off-gassing) that irritate the lungs.

  • Improve your indoor air, which can be even worse than outdoor air. Try to replace carpeting with other flooring or at least vacuum and steam clean often. Beware of furniture or clothing that’s been fire proofed. Flame retardants off-gas carcinogenic compounds.

You may want to look into commercial air cleaners . Or simply get some nice indoor plants that add life to your dwelling while removing toxins .

  • Herbal remedies for lung issues are abundant. You’ll need to determine which type of herb is appropriate for your situation.

Antitussive herbs reduce respiratory spasms; expectorant herbs loosen mucus; demulcent herbs sooth irritated tissue; and antimicrobial herbs resolve infections.

  •  Detoxing is necessary for any regeneration or rebuilding. Eliminating or reducing your toxic load relieves your immune system and allows the process of growing new tissue to occur.
  • Cilantro foods such as chlorella and cilantro consumed often can help detoxify heavy metals, especially from the liver. Zeolite in its raw powder form (not liquid) is very useful.
  • Make sure you drink plenty of purified fluoride free water and find ways to sweat more. If you can, use a far infrared sauna somewhere; you’ll have the best level of sauna. But conventional sauna’s still do the job.
  • Serrapeptase enzymes are very powerful enzymes capable of eating up scar tissue, heavily calcified tissue or hardened mucus deposits. It provided a dramatic turn-around for a British emphysema patient a few years ago.
  • Cruciferous Vegetables

A cruciferous vegetable is any food that is a member of the cabbage family. They are generally packed with antioxidants that naturally help your body cleanse toxins. Some of the most popular choices for people pursuing lung health is broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage. Read also my article about the incredible health benefits of cruciferous vegetables.

  • Foods With Carotenoids

Carotenoid is an orange antioxidant pigment that have been shown to cut the risks of developing lung cancer.  Carotenoids are found in fruits and vegetables characterized with orange or red colors. Carrots are a great option because of the beta-carotene in them. This antioxidant is converted to vitamin A which can help reduce the incident of asthma.

Bring on the green tea! Drink carrot juice.  Get your potassium kick.  Load on the antioxidants.

  • Foods With Omega-3 Fatty Acids

This fatty acid is crucial for your overall health. Preliminary studies suggest that foods that are rich in the fatty acid have beneficial effect on asthma. If you can’t get enough of it through fish, nuts or flaxseed, try taking one of the many supplements available. See also my article about the amazing health benefits of omega 3 fish oil. Taking omega 3 is also one of the 70 habits featured in my e-book 70 Powerful Habits For A Great Health which will guide you how to take positive steps to improve your wellness and overall health.

  • Foods With Folate

These foods are great for fighting the process of lung carcinogens and preventing forms of cancer. Some great choices include spinach, asparagus, beets, and lentils.

  • Foods With Vitamin C

Foods that contain high amounts of vitamin C help your lungs effectively transport oxygen throughout the body. Foods that are good sources of vitamin C and popular choices for lung health are: kiwifruit, red and green capsicums (bell peppers), citrus fruits like oranges, lemons, and grapefruits, vegetable and tomato juice, strawberries, broccoli, pineapples, mango and cantaloupe melon.

  • Berries

Berries are one of the richest antioxidant fruits, containing the polyphenols anthocyanins and the flavonoids beta-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin. These antioxidants protect your lungs from cancer, disease and infection. Livestrong website mentions that fruit juice that contains dark berries such as raspberries, blackberries or blueberries, may help to reduce the risk of developing lung cancer. You can find more information about the amazing healing properties of berries in my e-book The Healing Berry Guide. This e-book will teach you how to transform your health with berries, and is a must for berry lovers.

  • Apples

Now we have yet another use for this nutrient packed fruit. The flavonoids and variety of vitamins maintain healthy respiratory function and prevent the development of lung diseases. Apple is also one of the superfoods mentioned in my e-book about superfoods which is part of the Natural Health Revolution Program. This program will help you to achieve your health, nutrition and weight loss goals.

  • Turmeric

This spice is similar to ginger in its lung health benefits with anti-inflammatory properties. As an added bonus the high amounts of curcumin can lead to the elimination of cancer cells. Find here more about the fantastic health benefits of turmeric.

  • Grapefruit

If you can stomach the bitter taste of this fruit, you will benefit from the wealth of lung supporting vitamins and minerals in it. Health experts suggest that the flavonoids in the fruit are great for cleaning out lungs that have been effected by carcinogens. DO NOT TAKE WITH MEDICATIONS.

  • Pomegranates

This fruit contains many antioxidants that are good to include into your diet. The nutritionally dense properties of this tasty fruit can slow down the development of lung issues including tumor development.

  • Foods With Magnesium

Magnesium is a mineral that is commonly recommended to people who suffer from asthma issues. It can increase lung capacity and build on the efficiency of the respiratory process. An easy way to get this mineral is through seeds, nuts, or beans.

  • Water

Once again, when it comes to natural health the number one remedy will usually be water. Though it may seem bland, our bodies crave it for many different reasons. More water in your diet can make your circulatory process working while keeping your lungs hydrated and ready to flush out unwanted toxins.

  • ASupplements
    • Glutathione is mentioned by Kurt and Lee Ann Billings as being helpful. Glutathione is your body’s most powerful antioxidant and has even been called the “master antioxidant” because it maximizes the activity of all the other antioxidants. The best way to increase your glutathione level is by consuming a high quality whey protein. It should be cold pressed, undenatured, derived from grass-fed cows, and free of hormones, chemicals and sugar.
    • Omega-3 fats are also very important, from a mixture of plant and animal sources. The best source of animal-based omega-3s comes from krill oil.
    • Artichoke leaf extract: A study published in the Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry in 20044 found that extract of artichoke leaf was toxic to many types of fungi, including both molds and yeasts.
    • Vitamin D: Research suggests vitamin D may prevent mold allergies, so make sure your vitamin D levels are optimal.
  • Herbs

    Licorice root is one that pretty much covers all those attributes. It can create side effects for some because of its glycyrrhizin content. But licorice extract products are available with the glycyrrhizin removed. This is known as deglycyrrhizinated licorice or DGL licorice.  Lobelia, ironically known as Indian tobacco, helps clear the airways for easier breathing. It even works for asthma attacks (

  • Amino Acids for lung disease

According to some researchers and there are a few amino acids for lung disease that exist and may help such issues. COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is one of these lung conditions may be aided by amino acid supplements; in particular, those with even severe COPD. This lung disease affects the ability to breath and also reduces energy levels in those who have it. COPD may have different causes, but it can be a result of smoking cigarettes long term, as well as conditions such as emphysema. 

According to one study by RW Dal Negro, A Testa, et al., in Italy it was amino acids for lung disease that helped the patients with COPD. By supplementing COPD patients with certain essential amino acids they were able to determine if pulmonary rehabilitation might have improved health status and produce higher rates of physical performance.

Essential amino acids are several of the 22 commonly known amino acids. “Essential” means that they have to be gotten through diet since the body cannot produce them on its own. The list of essential amino acids may include:Valine, Threonine, Methionine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Phenylalanine, Tryptophan, Lysine, and Histidine.

Amino acids for lung disease – chronic COPD

A total of 88 COPD out-patients who had a 23 BMI (body mass index) or less were selected randomly to receive essential amino acids for lung disease (COPD) for a period of three months. After 12 weeks of the test period the patients receiving amino acids for lung disease had showed significant improvements in physical performance.

Also, the COPD patients scored higher on the SGRQ score (which measures breathing). Additionally, other areas were affected positively, as compared to the placebo group, who had taken the essential amino acids for lung disease (COPD), including improvements in: fat-free mass, serum albumin, increased muscle strength, oxygen saturation, and cognitive dysfunction.

The results produced greater confidence levels in the patients and the researchers for improvements in these symptoms that COPD usually negatively affects its patients. Essential amino acids may, then, help reduce symptoms of COPD, so it is clear that amino acids for lung disease can aid the patient in breathing easier as well as help their physical performance in a number of areas.


Lung disease: COPD among white and black women

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Change in death rate among white women in the USA:

  • Klamath, OR: +16%
  • Dallas, TX: +20%
  • SF: -29%
  • LA: -18%
  • Tulsa OK: +20%
  • Salt Lake, UT: +9%
  • Fresno, CA: +8%
  • Santa Clara: -15%

44% History of Asthma ; 38% smokers

10M white women with COPD, 1.4M Black women, 1M Hispanic women

1991-1995: Heart disease death rate: Asian, white, black and Hispanic women (shown in the pictures above)

Dr Axe wrote:

  • Eucalyptus oil can be very helpful for people with COPD. A study in Respiratory Research showed that cineole, the main constituent of eucalyptus essential oil, actually reduced exacerbations in people with COPD. It also reduced dyspnea (shortness of breath), and improved lung function as well as health status overall. Furthermore, the research suggested that cineole is an active controller and reducer of airway inflammation in COPD. To get the benefits of cineole, you can use eucalyptus oil in a diffuser and/or humidifier and breath in the anti-inflammatory air.
  • Consume Ginseng: Ginseng is an herbal supplement that improves lung function and also decrease bacteria in the lungs. Panax ginseng in particular has a long history of use in Chinese medicine for respiratory conditions, including asthma and COPD.  A recent study published in the journal Complementary Therapies in Medicine highlighted therapeutic ginseng benefits. Panax ginseng and ginsenosides (active components of ginseng) appear to inhibit processes related to the development of COPD. (10)
  • Take N-Acetylcysteine (NAC): Supplementing with NAC helps decrease the severity and frequency of asthma attacks and improves overall lung function by increasing glutathione levels and thinning bronchial mucus. Glutathione fights against oxidative stress in the respiratory tract, which can make NAC a powerful and effective natural treatment for COPD.  Inhaled Nebulized Glutathione


Dr. Jonathan V. Wright from the Tahoma Medical Clinic wrote about COPD in the August 2002 “Nutrition and Healing”  COPD Natural Treatments Jonathan V Wright Aug 2002.  The mainstay of his treatment for COPD is nebulized glutathione, a natural treatment which restores glutathione levels to the lung tissue.

Altered Glutathione Levels is Primary Abnormality in COPD

“Alterations in alveolar and lung GSH (glutathione) metabolism are widely recognized as a central feature of many inflammatory lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).”  (14)

Inhaled Glutathione: Inhaled Glutathione may be taken in a nebulizer.  Originally, the glutathione is made up by a compounding phamacy and shipped to the user.  “Inhaled glutathione requires a prescription and is available from compounding pharmacies such as McGuff Compounding Pharmacy and Wellness Pharmacy. The usual starting dose is 300 mg of glutathione (200 mg/cc, draw 1.5 cc and place in nebulizer) twice a day.  ” (7)  Quote from Julian Whitaker’s newsletter (7).

Glutathione capsules: A more practical method has been devised by Dr Bishop, using capsules.  (Glutathione  capsules from Thera Naturals ) .  Dr. Sircus wrote an article on  Glutathione & Bicarbonate Nebulization using the Glutathione capsules.

Clark T. Bishop, M.D. devised this protocol: Protocol for Augmentation of GSH Levels in Cystic Fibrosis Patients, and Related Information.  Here is a clinical study on the use of Glutathione: by Dr Alfredo Visca, and Clark Bishop, et al. Improvement in clinical markers in CF patients using a reduced glutathione Clark Bishop 2008  Journal of Cystic Fibrosis 7.5 (2008): 433-436.  (8-12)

SSKI to Liquify Secretions: 004001 SSKI (Potassium Iodide Oral Solution, USP), 1gm per mL, 240mL Dropper Bottle McGuffMedical.comThe second treatment is SSKI to liquify secretions and allow clearance of mucous,  SSKI stands for super saturated potassium iodine, an old remedy which works quite well.  Although SSKI has been available at the corner drug store for over 80 years, and is generally considered safe, iodine can suppress thyroid function with an increase in the TSH lab value on thyroid testing.  This elevation of TSH is usually temporary and returns to normal after discontinuing the SSKI. (6)    There is much misinformation or disinformation about the safety of SSKI (see this news report).  The elevation of TSH from SSKI is not life  threatening and is of little or no clinical consequence.  As with most other medical treatments, it is best to work with a knowledgeable doctor who can monitor thyroid function while under treatment.   Left image bottle of SSKI courtesy of McGuff medical Supply.

Resveratrol:  An extract from grapes, Resveratrol, is useful in COPD. see: Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol in airway disease. by Wood .   “We conclude that resveratrol has potential as a therapeutic agent in respiratory disease”.  Buy Resveratrol.

Dr Wright’s List of recommended treatments for COPD

  • 120-200 milligrams of nebulized, inhaled Glutathione, two times per day
  • 500 milligrams of N-acetylcysteine, three times per day
  • 30 milligrams of Zinc Picolinate per day
  • Three to six drops of potassium iodide (SSKI) per day
  • 200-400 milligrams of Goldenseal twice a day
  • 2 grams of vitamin C twice a day
  • 300-400 milligrams of Magnesium per day (in the form of magnesium citrate, aspartate, taurate, or glycinate)
  • 50,000 units of vitamin A per day
  • 1 1/2 tablespoons of lecithin per day
  • 1 1/2 tablespoons of flaxseed oil per day
  • 400-600 units of vitamin E per day
  • 2 milligrams of copper glycinate per day
  • multiple vitamin-mineral supplement

Serrapeptidase: mucolytic enzyme shown to be useful in COPD.  see:

Effect of the proteolytic enzyme Serrapeptase in patients with chronic airway disease. by Nakamura S Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tokyo. Respirology. 2003 Sep;8(3):316-20.

Oregano Oil Joy of the Mountains Oregano Oil: Oregano Oil has antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory qualities, and is of use in COPD to prevent pulmonary infection and reduce pulmonary inflammation.

The Oregano oil may be diluted in juice or mixed with olive oil to dilute further.  Start with one drop and gradually work up as tolerates.  Some people report good results with inhaled organo oil in a steamer or nebulizer.  However use with caution as the oil may be very strong undiluted.

Useful Books on Natural Treatments for COPD

  • Natural Therapies for COPD and Emphysema: Natural Therapies for Emphysema and COPD: Relief and Healing for Chronic Pulmonary Disorders April 4, 2007, by Robert J. Green Jr.

Credit and Thanks goes to Dr. Jonathan Wright and Dr Julian Whitaker for much of the information in this article.

Jeffrey Dach MD

7450 Griffin Road Suite 190

Davie, Fl 33314


Links and References

  • 2001 Jun;119(6):1661-70. Salmeterol plus theophylline combination therapy in the treatment of COPD. ZuWallack RL1, Mahler DA, Reilly D, Church N, Emmett A, Rickard K, Knobil K.


Patients with COPD often require multiple therapies to improve lung function and decrease symptoms and exacerbations. Salmeterol and theophylline are indicated for the treatment of COPD, but the use of these agents in combination has not been extensively studied.

OBJECTIVES:  To compare the efficacy and safety of salmeterol plus theophylline vs either agent alone in COPD.

METHODS:  Randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group trial in 943 patients with COPD. After an open-label theophylline titration period (serum levels, 10 to 20 microg/mL), patients were randomly assigned to receive salmeterol (42 microg bid) plus theophylline, salmeterol (42 microg bid), or theophylline for 12 weeks. Serial pulmonary function tests were completed on day 1 and treatment week 12. Patients kept diary cards and noted their peak flow rates, symptom scores, and albuterol use, and periodically completed quality-of-life and dyspnea questionnaires.

RESULTS:  All three groups significantly improved compared with baseline. Combination treatment with salmeterol plus theophylline provided significantly (p < or = 0.045) greater improvements in pulmonary function; significantly (p < or = 0.048) greater decreases in symptoms, dyspnea, and albuterol use; and significantly fewer COPD exacerbations (p = 0.023 vs theophylline). In general, treatment with salmeterol provided greater improvement in lung function and satisfaction with treatment compared with theophylline. Salmeterol treatment was also associated with significantly fewer drug-related adverse events (p < or = 0.042) than either treatment that included theophylline. The safety profile (adverse events, vital signs, and ECG findings) of the two treatments that included theophylline were similar.

CONCLUSION:  Patients with COPD may benefit from combination treatment with salmeterol plus theophylline, without a resulting increase in adverse events or other adverse sequelae.

Links and References

  • Medications for COPD: A Review of Effectiveness. GIL C. GRIMES, MD; JOHN L. MANNING, MD; PARITA PATEL, MD, and R. MARC VIA, MD Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Temple, Texas Am Fam Physician. 2007 Oct 15;76(8):1141-1148.
  • James F. Donohue “Combination Therapy for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease“, Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society, Vol. 2, SYMPOSIUM: THE SCIENCE OF COPD: OPPORTUNITIES FOR COMBINATION THERAPY (2005), pp. 272-281.
  • Thorax 1999;54:730-736 doi:10.1136/thx.54.8.730
  • Long acting β2 agonists and theophylline in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Mario Cazzola, Claudio Ferdinando Donner, Maria Gabriella Matera
  • Nebulized Glutathione for Emphysema Davis Lamson Alt Med Review 2000: a Case Report Davis W. Lamson, ND, Matthew S. Brignall, ND
  • Alternative Medicine Review. 2000;5(5):429-431)
  • JUBIZ, WILLIAM, SHIRLEY CARLILE, and LYNN D. LAGERQUIST. “Serum thyrotropin and thyroid hormone levels in humans receiving chronic potassium iodide.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 44.2 (1977): 379-382.
  • Natural Treatments for COPD by Dr. Julian Whitaker:
  • Inhaled glutathione requires a prescription and is available from compounding pharmacies such as McGuff Compounding Pharmacy and Wellness Pharmacy. The usual starting dose is 300 mg of glutathione (200 mg/cc, draw 1.5 cc and place in nebulizer) twice a day.
  • Help for COPD Julian Whitaker, MD ;
  • Glutathione Articles – COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) & Lung Disorders
  • Glutathione & Bicarbonate Nebulization Posted by Dr Sircus on December 9, 2010 | Filed under Glutathione, Medicine, Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda) ; Reduced L Glutathione Plus Thera Naturals
  • Clark T. Bishop, M.D.: Protocol for Augmentation of GSH Levels in Cystic Fibrosis Patients, and Related Information
  • Visca, Alfredo, et al. Improvement in clinical markers in CF patients using a reduced glutathione Clark Bishop 2008 “Improvement in clinical markers in CF patients using a reduced glutathione regimen: an uncontrolled, observational study.” Journal of Cystic Fibrosis 7.5 (2008): 433-436.
  • Leonard Nimoy, Also Known As Dr. Spock Dies of COPD 30 Years After Giving UP Smoking –
  • Lung glutathione and oxidative stress: implications in cigarette smoke-induced airway disease. Irfan Rahman , William MacNee
  • American Journal of Physiology – Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology Published 1 December 1999 Vol. 277 no. 6, L1067-L1088
  • Alterations in alveolar and lung GSH metabolism are widely recognized as a central feature of many inflammatory lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Link to this page:

Source:  Jeffrey Dach

Caring for parents by gen X

sandwich gen xnurses and caregivers

Most common issues with ailing parents, age 70 to 100 are: lack of appetite, lack of sleep, chronic conditions such as cough, pain, constipation, UTI, anxiety, depression, pneumonia, kidney and liver health issues from polypharmacy, med addiction, arthritis, inflammation and other degenerative health issues. It is very difficult when a spouse care for her ailing husband. She forgets to care for herself. It is also harder for Generation X, the sandwich generation to care for their parents and children at the same time and care for themselves at 50s who are experiencing more health issues.

Contact Motherhealth at or text at 408-854-1883 when you need a live in caregiver in the bay area for your home bound seniors.

In the US, health care costs are higher and meds are more expensive.

health over 65

There are many ways,tools, and support group that we can use to care for ourselves and our parents. Caregivers hourly or live in can provide respite when we need to rest from caring for our parents. Nutrition drinks such as Glucerna, Ensure or Boost can be used to provide nourishment to our seniors who do not have big appetite but needs to eat every 3 hours.

Medications have many side effects so review the timing of meds which can make our seniors pee more often at night which interrupt their sleep and so they nap more during the day when they need to get sunshine and walking exercise and daily routine of 3 meals, stimulation and snacks.

Our dietary supplements should be taken during the day as they are mostly stimulants to get us more sleep during the night. Calcium and magnesium and melatonin which help us sleep more should be taken late afternoon.

The goal of many in home caregivers is to allow our seniors to thrive and be active in the comfort of their homes. We use short-stay nursing homes for respite care, care homes for longer stay in company of 6 other senior clients with two caregivers. A hospice nurse or care attends to senior in care homes or in their own homes. Many times when we stop all meds because the senior is under hospice care, they live for more than 2 years instead 6months which their doctor told them so.  Many seniors in care homes who have taken so many meds every day and for many years, have easily bruised tissues because of the acidity of medications.

We can learn from each other in the way we care for our parents. Please email your stories to .

Remember to use your memory or lose it, use your muscles or lose it and experience life each day with less worries but with more learning and activity to nourish the soul and body. Children and grandparents should share their lives more with each other.

Older adults caring for their parents should seek caregiving support. In the bay area, 408-854-1883 is for caring caregivers 4hrs or live in.  Also call if you need referrals to care homes in the bay area since your seniors decided to downsize and sell their homes and stay in assisted living senior apartments or care homes instead.

Do visit our seniors in care homes, take them out every Sunday and give them massage for 20min or more.  Hospice means our parents do not or cannot eat anymore with diminishing health issues and the doctor or care home admin suggests for hospice care. Dying at home is the most preferred way for many surrounded by love ones.

hospice death

It is very challenging to live with others in a senior care facility. Private rooms are more expensive but 24 hr care is available with meals and many other caregiving services that would help families with other obligations at work, their own children and just visit their our parents in care homes or nursing homes.

sad stories in nursing homes

No matter where you want to spend your sick days, at home or care home or nursing home, plan your health early with support or network of providers and please do not over medicate.   Signs of cancer include: lose of sleep, lose of appetite and chronic health issues such as coughing and pain. Signs of Alzheimer and Dementia are lose of memory. Signs of stroke are inability to talk, move muscles in the body and face, eyes health issues and more. Do inspect your feet and eyes often as your feet and eyes tell more about your health issues than other parts of your body.