Ketogenic Diet Improves Lifespan and Memory in Aging Mice

Ketogenic Diet Improves Lifespan and Memory in Aging Mice

Summary: Researchers report mice that were put on a ketogenic diet showed significant improvements in memory and were more likely to survive to older ages than those on different diets.

Source: Buck Institute.

Study on the effects of ketone bodies opens up new area of inquiry in aging research.

A ketogenic diet significantly improved memory in aging mice and increased the animal’s chances of surviving to old age. Results of the study from Eric Verdin’s lab at the Buck Institute for Research on Aging in Novato, CA are published in the September 5th issue of Cell Metabolism.

Eating a ketogenic diet – which is high fat, low protein, and low carbohydrates – ramps up the production of the ketone body beta-hydroxybutyrate acid (BHB). While small studies in humans with cognitive impairment have suggested that BHB could improve memory, senior scientist and Buck President and CEO, Eric Verdin MD, says this is the first study in aging mammals which details the positive effects of BHB on memory and lifespan. “This opens up a new field in aging research,” said Verdin. “We think the health benefits of BHB may go beyond memory and could affect tissues and organ systems.” Verdin added that the results also support efforts in his lab to translate the findings to the clinic. “We’re looking for drug targets. The ultimate goal is to find a way for humans to benefit from BHBs without having to go on a restrictive diet.”

The study was designed by lead scientist John Newman, MD, PhD, who is both a researcher in the Verdin lab and a geriatrician at University of California San Francisco. He wanted to study the long-term effects of a ketogenic diet in mice, while addressing one of the major issues that crop up in research involving diet – variability. “When studying a diet intervention, you have to pay attention to every detail,” he said. Newman carefully designed three diets that were matched in every way except fat and carbohydrate content: a normal high-carbohydrate diet, a zero-carbohydrate ketogenic diet, and a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that was not ketogenic. Mice were fed the ketogenic diet intermittently to prevent them from becoming obese, starting at one year old – middle age for mice.

The ketogenic diet-fed mice had a lower risk of dying as they aged from one to two years old, although their maximum lifespan was unchanged. Another group of mice underwent memory testing at both middle age (one year old) and old age (two years old). Mice that had been eating a ketogenic diet performed at least as well on memory tests at old age as they did at middle age, while mice eating the normal diet showed an expected age-associated decline. Mice who ate the ketogenic diet also explored more, and their improved memory was confirmed with another test a few months later. Newman noted that the mice were off the ketogenic diet and did not have any BHB in their blood during the testing period. “We were careful to have all of the mice eating a normal diet during the actual memory testing which suggests the effects of the ketogenic diet were lasting. Something changed in the brains of these mice to make them more resilient to the effects of age,” he said. “Determining what this is, is the next step in the work.”

graphic abstract.

Newman said gene expression could explain the cognitive improvement. “Looking at gene expression, the ketogenic diet suppressed the longevity-related TOR pathway and insulin signaling and up-regulated the fasting-related transcription factor PPAR-alpha, a master regulator that helps the body more efficiently metabolize fat.”

Verdin said the study will open the door to new therapies for the cognitive problems of aging. “As we gain a deeper understanding of what BHB does in our body and our brain, we can intelligently design therapies to capture individual benefits while minimizing harms.” The Verdin lab is currently exploring beneficial effects of a similar ketogenic diet in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease.

The research has many caveats for humans eager to utilize diet to improve their odds of maintaining cognitive ability — it involved a single strain and sex of mice living in an environment where it’s easy to control every aspect of the diet. Ketogenic diets are used clinically for life-threatening conditions like epilepsy, and most people should consult a health care professional before trying it on their own, said Verdin. “Exercise also creates ketone bodies – that may be one of the mechanisms why it shows such protective effects on brain function and on healthspan and lifespan,” he said.

ABOUT THIS NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH ARTICLE

Other Buck Institute collaborators include Anthony J. Covarrubias, Minghao Zhao, and Che-Ping Ng. Other collaborators include Xinxing Yu, UCSF Division of Geriatrics, San Francisco, CA; Philip Gut, Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, San Francisco, CA; and Yu Huang and Saptarsi Haldar from the Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, San Francisco, CA.

Funding: The work was supported by grants from National Institutes of Health, K08AG048354 and R24DK085610; Gladstone Institutes intramural funds, Buck Institute intramural funds, and funds from the Larry L. Hillblom Foundation, Glenn Foundation for Medical Research, the American Federal for Aging Research and the Buck Institute Impact Circle.

Source: Verena Müller – Buck Institute
Image Source: NeuroscienceNews.com image is credited to Newman et al./Cell Metabolism.
Original Research: Full open access research for “Ketogenic Diet Reduces Midlife Mortality and Improves Memory in Aging Mice” by John C. Newman, Anthony J. Covarrubias, Minghao Zhao, Xinxing Yu, Philip Gut, Che-Ping Ng, Yu Huang, Saptarsi Haldar, Eand ric Verdin in Cell Metabolism. Published online September 5 2017 doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2017.08.004

CITE THIS NEUROSCIENCENEWS.COM ARTICLE
Buck Institute “Ketogenic Diet Improves Lifespan and Memory in Aging Mice.” NeuroscienceNews. NeuroscienceNews, 5 September 2017.
<http://neurosciencenews.com/ketogenic-diet-aging-7419/&gt;.

Abstract

Ketogenic Diet Reduces Midlife Mortality and Improves Memory in Aging Mice

Highlights

•Feeding isoprotein ketogenic diet to mice every other week (Cyclic KD) avoids obesity
•Cyclic KD reduces midlife mortality with no change in maximum lifespan
•Cyclic KD prevents memory decline with modest other healthspan effects
•Gene expression of KD is similar to high-fat diet, except for activation of PPARα targets

Summary
Ketogenic diets recapitulate certain metabolic aspects of dietary restriction such as reliance on fatty acid metabolism and production of ketone bodies. We investigated whether an isoprotein ketogenic diet (KD) might, like dietary restriction, affect longevity and healthspan in C57BL/6 male mice. We find that Cyclic KD, KD alternated weekly with the Control diet to prevent obesity, reduces midlife mortality but does not affect maximum lifespan. A non-ketogenic high-fat diet (HF) fed similarly may have an intermediate effect on mortality. Cyclic KD improves memory performance in old age, while modestly improving composite healthspan measures. Gene expression analysis identifies downregulation of insulin, protein synthesis, and fatty acid synthesis pathways as mechanisms common to KD and HF. However, upregulation of PPARα target genes is unique to KD, consistent across tissues, and preserved in old age. In all, we show that a non-obesogenic ketogenic diet improves survival, memory, and healthspan in aging mice.

“Ketogenic Diet Reduces Midlife Mortality and Improves Memory in Aging Mice” by John C. Newman, Anthony J. Covarrubias, Minghao Zhao, Xinxing Yu, Philip Gut, Che-Ping Ng, Yu Huang, Saptarsi Haldar, Eand ric Verdin in Cell Metabolism. Published online September 5 2017 doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2017.08.004

Nutrients for Epilepsy

A ketogenic diet is good for Epilepsy as it is contains healthy brain food. The medicines that control seizures may interfere with the body’s ability to use certain nutrients including vitamin Dvitamin Kcalciummagnesium, manganese and folic acid. Vitamin B complex, Vit D and E and calcium, magnesium and potassium are important vitamins and minerals.

I recommend AgeLOC future serum for epilepsy dietary supplementation:

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future serum

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

The diagnosis of pyridoxine dependency should be suspected in every infant with convulsions in the first eighteen months of life. Certain clinical features may be indicative, including:

  • Seizures of unknown origin in a previously normal infant without an abnormal gestational or perinatal history.
  • A history of severe convulsive disorders, in both the family and the individual.
  • The occurrence of long-lasting focal or unilateral seizures, often with partial preservation of consciousness.
  • Irritability, restlessness, crying and vomiting preceding the actual seizure.*

If large amounts of B6 alone are given, the need for other B vitamins, particularly vitamin B2 and pantothenic acid, is so increased that harm can be done unless they too are supplied.

*Morello, Gaetano. (1996) “Treating Epilepsy Effectively,” American Journal of Natural Medicine (October), 14-20.

Calcium

Calcium is a very important mineral for the normal functioning of brain cells, and low levels of calcium can cause seizures. A deficiency of magnesium, a mineral that interacts with calcium, may cause low blood calcium and therefore seizures.*

*Ibid., 151a

Carnitine

Carnitine is not an amino acid in the strictest sense; it’s actually related to the B vitamins. But because it has a chemical structure similar to that of amino acids, it is usually grouped with them. It helps transport fatty acids into the mitochondria, part of the cell that contains enzymes responsible for the conversion of food into usable energy.

Carnitine deficiency is not uncommon in patients with epilepsy. Research has found carnitine levels to be lowest in patients taking sodium valproate (epilim), but levels may be low in those taking other anticonvulsants, too. This can be a cause of concern because more than one hundred people have died from valproate-induced hepatic (liver) failure.*

About 90% of total body carnitine is in muscle tissue, much higher than in the blood, so a normal blood carnitine level reading may be misleading. Symptoms of carnitine deficiency include listlessness, hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), heart failure, and muscle weakness. People low in carnitine benefit from supplementation. Many nutritionalists believe that acetyl-carnitine has better brain penetration than L-carnitine and also enhances brain levels of acetylcholine.

*Konig, S., et al. (1994) “Severe Hepatoxity During Valproate Therapy: An Update and Report of Eight New Fatalities,” Epilepsia (35) 1005-1015.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is important both in its own right and as helping the absorption of calcium. Anticonvulsant drugs interfere with vitamin D and calcium metabolism in some manner not well understood.*

Vitamin D is found in most oily fish and some animal products, especially in cheese and fortified milks. It is important to expose your child to sunlight (about half an hour daily) as it is an excellent source of vitamin D. In one study, supplementing the diet of twenty-three people with epilepsy with vitamin D resulted in a significant decrease in the number of seizures, indicating a possible theraputic effect.**

*Flodin, N. W. (1988) Pharmacology of Micronutrients. New York: Alan R. Liss.
** Christiansen, C. (1974) “Anticonvulsant Action of Vitamin D,” British Medical Journal (ii), 2589.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is important for oxygen flow round the body. In a double-blind trial, twenty-four children with epilepsy received vitamin E or a placebo. There was a significant reduction in the number of seizures in ten out of the twelve patients given vitamin E, compared to none of the twelve given a placebo.*

This study suggests that adjunctive treatment with vitamin E can be of value for people with difficult to treat epilepsy. At Great Ormond Street Hospital for Sick Children, a study conducted on children found that shortly after specific food allergies had been identified and the allergen(s) removed, migraine headaches and epilepsy disappeared in 78% out of 88% children.**

The exact mechanism is unknown, but vitamin E is non-toxic and should perhaps be considered for those whose epilepsy cannot be controlled by conventional treatment. Such therapy might also allow reduction in doses of anticonvulsant medications.

*Ogunmekan, A., and P. A. Hwang. (1989) “A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of D-alpha-tocopheryl Acetate (Vitamin E) as Add-On Therapy, for Epilepsy in Children,” Epilepsia (30) 84-89.Â
**Marshall, Fiona (1999) Epilepsy: The Natural Way. Boston: Element Books, 78.

Folic Acid

Folic acid deficiency appears to play a role in seizure activity, but there is conflicting information. While some anticonvulsants can deplete your body in folic acid, please be aware that folic acid supplementation may cause and increase seizure activity. You must ensure that you discuss any concerns you have on folic acid deficiency with a qualified health practitioner.

Magnesium

Magnesium deficiency can result in lowered immunity, improper muscle function, and impaired digestion. Without adequate magnesium, your nerves can become ragged and ultra sensitive to pain and production of new protein is impaired. Magnesium requires adequate amounts of vitamin B6 in order to be absorbed by the tissues. (Testing the blood for magnesium levels is not an accurate way to determine tissue and brain levels of magnesium). People with epilepsy have been shown to have significantly lower serum magnesium levels as compared to the general population, with seizure activity correlating with the level of hypomagnesemia. Magnesium has been shown, in uncontrolled trial studies, to be of benefit in the control of seizures. Carl Pfeiffer, M.D., found that a magnesium deficiency induces muscle tremors and convulsive seizures; he reported success in controlling the seizure activity of thirty patients with epilepsy using magnesium.*

30 children with epilepsy experiencing tonic-clonic or absence seizures were given 450mg of magnesium daily, and their anticonvulsant medications were discontinued. 29 reportedly showed significant improvements in seizure control. One 13 year old child who had a ten year history of uncontrollable seizures had shown signs of retardation. After receiving magnesium, his seizures stopped and his mental capacity improved.**

*Pfeiffer, Carl. Mental and Elemental Nutrients. New Canaan, CT: Keats, 278, 402-408.
*Barnet, L. B. (1959) Journal of Clinical Physiology (I), 25.

Selenium

Since selenium and vitamin E function synergistically, both must be taken to correct a deficiency in either. Because studies have shown that people with epilepsy have low levels of selenium, supplementation with selenium and vitamin E results in fewer seizures. Selenium is an excellent antioxidant. One study found that patients with epilepsy had significantly lower selenium levels than any other group except those with cancer.*

* Smith, Op. Cit.

Taurine

This is an amino acid that helps inhibit neuronal activity and some people with epilepsy are found to be deficient in this. Dr. Atkins also says some patients have discontinued seizure medication while using taurine.*

*Atkins, Robert C. (1998) Dr. Atkins’ Vita-Nutrient Solution: Nature’s Answers to Drugs. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Zinc

Zinc plays an important role in blood sugar balance, protein synthesis, brain function, and the immune system, as well as other aspects of health. Children with epilepsy have been found to have significantly lower levels of serum zinc, especially those with West or Lennox-Gastault syndrome. More important, it appears that people with epilepsy may have elevated copper-to-zinc ratio. Seizures may be triggered when zinc levels fall, as in the absence of adequate taurine.* Although the exact role of zinc, or the copper-to-zinc ratio, is not clearly understood, it appears that anticonvulsants may cause zinc deficiency, either by reducing zinc absorption in the intestines or by causing diarrhoea. Therefore, zinc supplementation may be warranted.

* Barbeau, A., and J. Donaldson. (1974) “Zinc, Taurine, and Epilepsy,” Archives of Neurology (30) 52-58.

Excitotoxins

The following two categories are not vitamins or minerals but we have decided to include them in this section as we felt they fell under the area of nutrition, of sorts!

Aspartame ,  an excitotoxin

Aspartame is an artificial sweetener, found in enormous amounts of sugar free products. Please be aware that Aspartame can trigger seizures in some children, due to the fact that it excites the brain cells. Each time I gave Daisy something with this product in she would seize within half an hour of eating/drinking it. So just be aware and please be very careful. Even people who don’t have seizure disorders have had seizures after eating foods containing aspartame. More than six hundred commercial airline pilots have reported symptoms, including some reports of tonic-clonic seizures in the cockpit, after eating food containing aspartame.*

*Gold, Mark. (1995) “The Bitter Truth About Artificial Sweeteners,” Nexus (December-January), 71-75.

Monosodium Glutamate , an  excitotoxin

There’s a class of chemicals used as food additives that neuroscientists have dubbed excitotoxins, so named because they over stimulate neurons in the brain. This poses a distinct danger, especially to people with epilepsy. The most common excitotoxins are glutamate, found in monosodium glutamate (MSG), and aspartate, found in aspartame products. When the amount of glutamate and aspartate rises above certain levels, too many neurons get excited and fire. Without inhibitory transmitters to balance their firing, they fire and fire until they are damaged or die. This is especially worrisome because a child’s developing brain is four times more sensitive to excitoxins than an adult brain.*

*Olney, J. W. (1988) “Excitoxic Food Additives: Functional Teratological Aspects, ” Progressive Brain Research (18), 283-294.

Diet and Obesity

diet obesity

A low-glycemic diet rich in whole grains , high fat (coconut oil, walnuts, avocado), low carbs is beneficial in losing more weight. Get adequate sleep, exercise and eat whole foods. I recommend the following supplementation:

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agelok

High HDL less heart attacks

Why Is Cholesterol Important?

Your blood cholesterol level has a lot to do with your chances of getting heart disease. High blood cholesterol is one of the major risk factors for heart disease. A risk factor is a condition that increases your chance of getting a disease. In fact, the higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk for developing heart disease or having a heart attack. Heart disease is the number one killer of women and men in the United States. Each year, more than a million Americans have heart attacks, and about a half million people die from heart disease.

How Does Cholesterol Cause Heart Disease?

When there is too much cholesterol (a fat-like substance) in your blood, it builds up in the walls of your arteries. Over time, this buildup causes “hardening of the arteries” so that arteries become narrowed and blood flow to the heart is slowed down or blocked. The blood carries oxygen to the heart, and if enough blood and oxygen cannot reach your heart, you may suffer chest pain. If the blood supply to a portion of the heart is completely cut off by a blockage, the result is a heart attack.

High blood cholesterol itself does not cause symptoms, so many people are unaware that their cholesterol level is too high. It is important to find out what your cholesterol numbers are because lowering cholesterol levels that are too high lessens the risk for developing heart disease and reduces the chance of a heart attack or dying of heart disease, even if you already have it. Cholesterol lowering is important for everyone–younger, middle age, and older adults; women and men; and people with or without heart disease.

What Do Your Cholesterol Numbers Mean?

Everyone age 20 and older should have their cholesterol measured at least once every 5 years. It is best to have a blood test called a “lipoprotein profile” to find out your cholesterol numbers. This blood test is done after a 9- to 12-hour fast and gives information about your:

  • Total cholesterol
  • LDL (bad) cholesterol–the main source of cholesterol buildup and blockage in the arteries
  • HDL (good) cholesterol–helps keep cholesterol from building up in the arteries
  • Triglycerides–another form of fat in your blood

If it is not possible to get a lipoprotein profile done, knowing your total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol can give you a general idea about your cholesterol levels. If your total cholesterol is 200 mg/dL* or more or if your HDL is less than 40 mg/dL, you will need to have a lipoprotein profile done. See how your cholesterol numbers compare to the tables below.

Total Cholesterol Level Category
Less than 200 mg/dL Desirable
200-239 mg/dL Borderline High
240 mg/dL and above High

* Cholesterol levels are measured in milligrams (mg) of cholesterol per deciliter (dL) of blood.

LDL Cholesterol Level LDL-Cholesterol Category
Less than 100 mg/dL Optimal
100-129 mg/dL Near optimal/above optimal
130-159 mg/dL Borderline high
160-189 mg/dL High
190 mg/dL and above Very high

HDL (good) cholesterol protects against heart disease, so for HDL, higher numbers are better. A level less than 40 mg/dL is low and is considered a major risk factor because it increases your risk for developing heart disease. HDL levels of 60 mg/dL or more help to lower your risk for heart disease.

Triglycerides can also raise heart disease risk. Levels that are borderline high (150-199 mg/dL) or high (200 mg/dL or more) may need treatment in some people.

What Affects Cholesterol Levels?

A variety of things can affect cholesterol levels. These are things you can do something about:

  • Diet. Saturated fat and cholesterol in the food you eat make your blood cholesterol level go up. Saturated fat is the main culprit, but cholesterol in foods also matters. Reducing the amount of saturated fat and cholesterol in your diet helps lower your blood cholesterol level.
  • Weight. Being overweight is a risk factor for heart disease. It also tends to increase your cholesterol. Losing weight can help lower your LDL and total cholesterol levels, as well as raise your HDL and lower your triglyceride levels.
  • Physical Activity. Not being physically active is a risk factor for heart disease. Regular physical activity can help lower LDL (bad) cholesterol and raise HDL (good) cholesterol levels. It also helps you lose weight. You should try to be physically active for 30 minutes on most, if not all, days.

Things you cannot do anything about also can affect cholesterol levels. These include:

  • Age and Gender. As women and men get older, their cholesterol levels rise. Before the age of menopause, women have lower total cholesterol levels than men of the same age. After the age of menopause, women’s LDL levels tend to rise.
  • Heredity. Your genes partly determine how much cholesterol your body makes. High blood cholesterol can run in families.

What Is Your Risk of Developing Heart Disease or Having a Heart Attack?

In general, the higher your LDL level and the more risk factors you have (other than LDL), the greater your chances of developing heart disease or having a heart attack. Some people are at high risk for a heart attack because they already have heart disease. Other people are at high risk for developing heart disease because they have diabetes (which is a strong risk factor) or a combination of risk factors for heart disease. Follow these steps to find out your risk for developing heart disease.

Step 1: Check the table below to see how many of the listed risk factors you have; these are the risk factors that affect your LDL goal.

Major Risk Factors That Affect Your LDL Goal

  • Cigarette smoking
  • High blood pressure (140/90 mmHg or higher or on blood pressure medication)
  • Low HDL cholesterol (less than 40 mg/dL)*
  • Family history of early heart disease (heart disease in father or brother before age 55; heart disease in mother or sister before age 65)
  • Age (men 45 years or older; women 55 years or older)

* If your HDL cholesterol is 60 mg/dL or higher, subtract 1 from your total count.

Even though obesity and physical inactivity are not counted in this list, they are conditions that need to be corrected.

Step 2: How many major risk factors do you have? If you have 2 or more risk factors in the table above, use the attached risk scoring tables (which include your cholesterol levels) to find your risk score. Risk score refers to the chance of having a heart attack in the next 10 years, given as a percentage. My risk score is ________%.

Step 3: Use your medical history, number of risk factors, and risk score to find your risk of developing heart disease or having a heart attack in the table below.

If You Have You Are in Category
Heart disease, diabetes, or risk score more than 20%* I. High Risk
2 or more risk factors and risk score 10-20% II. Next Highest Risk
2 or more risk factors and risk score less than 10% III. Moderate Risk
0 or 1 risk factor IV. Low-to-Moderate Risk

* Means that more than 20 of 100 people in this category will have a heart attack within 10 years.

My risk category is ______________________.

Ketosis: anti-brain fog, neurotransmitters, dietary protein, and the gut microbiome

Ketosis: anti-brain fog, neurotransmitters, dietary protein, and the gut microbiome

Treatment for dietary protein-induced brain fog: dark chocolate with 3% GOS and 10% MCTs.  Who’s in?

#IntermediaryMetabolism (bear with me here)
Ketosis from liver’s perspective:  increased fatty acid influx & [partial] oxidation causes acetyl-CoA levels to rise dramatically.  Concomitantly, gluconeogenesis redirects oxaloacetate (OAA) away from combining with acetyl-CoA via TCA cycle citrate synthesis and toward gluconeogenesis.  Since the acetyl-CoA doesn’t have much OAA with which to couple, it does itself to make acetoacetate.  Ergo, ketosis, and fortunately liver lacks ketolytic apparatus.

ketosis

Brain is singing a different tune.  Ketones provide ample acetyl-CoA and are efficiently metabolized in the TCA cycle.  Ketolysis is not ketogenesis in reverse, else liver would consume ketones.keto metabolism

Teleologically speaking (and I don’t really know what that word means), ketones are meant to spare glucose for the brain by replacing glucose as a fuel for peripheral tissues like skeletal muscle and displacing some brain glucose utilization.  The former is vital as one of the few sources of “new” glucose is skeletal muscle amino acids, and they would be exhausted in a short amount of time if skeletal muscle kept burning glucose –> incompatible with survival.  Getting some of that fuel from fatty acids, ie, ketones, is just way better.  Thus, the “glucose sparing effect of fat-derived fuel.”  And by “glucose,” I mean “muscle;” and by “fat-derived fuel,” I mean “ketones.”  There are numerous intracellular signaling events and biochemical pathways pwned, but that’s the gist of it.

Running brain on ketones considerably impacts amino acid metabolism, or more specifically neurotransmitters.  Ketogenic diets –> neuroprotective and improve cognitive functionimprove behavior in epileptic children, and even efficacious in bipolar disorder.  Many of these effects could be attributable to alterations in glutamate and gaba signaling.  Excitotoxicity.  brain fog.

Glutamate and gaba are two of the most quantitatively important neurotransmitters.  Glutamate can come from a transamination reaction or glutamine via phosphate-activated glutaminase.  It’s an expensive enzyme; one in which a few miscalculations in the lab can literally waste thousands of  a few of your tax bucks (ie, the kind of stuff that could’ve theoretically happened here) (sorry).  As it goes, glutamine is deaminated to glutamate, which is transaminated to alpha-ketoglutarate (aKG) or decarboxylated to gaba.  Glutamine is a precursor for glutamate and consequentially, gaba.  Glutamatergic neurons convert glutamine into glutamate, and gabaergic neurons convert glutamine to glutamate then via GAD to gaba (both of which can be recycled back to glutamine in astrocytes).Glutamine gaba

In liver, OAA is siphoned off for gluconeogenesis making it unavailable to facilitate fatty acid oxidation which leads to ketogenesis.  In brain, OAA effectively combines with ketone-derived acetyl-CoA, making it unavailable for transamination with aspartate (OAA + glutamate –> aspartate + aKG).

This could lead to elevated levels of glutamate (bad; excitotoxicity), but during ketosis, brain glutamate metabolism is apparently biased toward glutamine synthetase and GAD instead (both good).

Glutamine synthetase (GS)  mops up excess ammonia, which is thought to be a cause of brain fog at moderate levels and encephalopathy at high levels.  GS also detoxifies excitotoxic glutamate.  And GAD produces the calming neurotransmitter gaba.brain fog

Why no stellar data showing dramatic changes in vivo?  Speculation: said changes would be small and restricted to specific brain regions.  Total levels of glutamate & gaba might not even be altered, just flux and secretion patterns which would be difficult to detect.  However, this hasn’t stopped some review articles from saying these changes occur unequivocally (eg, Ruskin 2012), so maybe I’m wrong.  I’m still not going to bother trying to find studies where they dunk poor unsuspecting mouse into liquid nitrogen to prevent stress or anesthesia-induced alterations in extracellular neurotransmitters.   They probably exist, but I’m basing these assumptions on #IntermediaryMetabolism.

I suspect ammonia & glutamate are rather important in the etiology of brain fog due to the high sensitivity of Jane Plain’s brain to ketosis and dietary protein.

Glutamate and gaba are two ways ketosis may impact brain fog, but dietary protein might do so by a different mechanism: ammonia.

Ketogenic diets don’t include many bifidogenic foods.  Subtle alterations like this can lead to big changes in the way food is metabolized – some bugs love protein but hate nitrogen, or at least get rid of it via urease which creates ammonia.  Too much of this  = brain fog.  Forgetfulness, confusion, irritability.  Insomnia.  Ketogenic diet-induced increase in brain glutamine synthetase could likely take care of some, but may not be enough if dietary protein is too high.  And it isn’t frank encephalopathy, but rather some form of “clouding of consciousness.”   Although perhaps not so coincidentally, one way of managing hepatic encephalopathy is the bifidogenic laxative lactulose.

What about brain fog, treatment?  Ketogenic low protein diet, just like Mrs. Spratt (certainly not her husband)… although we suspect her problems were caused by an inherited disorder in the urea cycle.  Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) would work here because they have a strong potential to reduce urease-producing microbes.  And in at least one study (Malaguarnera 2007), bifidobacteria plus inulin worked for brain fog, which they called “minimal hepatic encephalopathy” probably because “clouding of consciousness” sounds ridiculous

[to journal editors who don’t understand medical conditions at which you can’t throw a statin or PPI (the latter being far worse in this case)].

Given that finding, I’m confident GOS would work better for two reasons: 1) supplementing live bifidobacteria requires financially restrictive doses to have an impact; and 2) GOS is far more bifidogenic than both inulin and actual bifidobacteria-based probiotics.

HT Purposelessness –> “Melancholic microbes: a link between gut microbiota and depression?” <–

In sufferers of brain fog, the tolerable level of dietary protein might just be dependent on architecture of the gut microbiome and degree of ketonemia.  Zhang and colleagues showed a linear relationship between brain ketone usage and blood ketone levels, and higher ketone usage could enhance clearance of glutamate and ammonia (2013).

To this end, MCTs or coconut oil may even facilitate the tolerance of brain fog to more dietary protein.  Throw in some galactooligosaccharides and we just might be on to something… I’m thinking a dark chocolate product supplemented with 3% GOS & 10% MCTs.

Dark chocolate is an optimal vessel for prebiotics.

Those percentages are negotiable, but 100 grams would provide a dose of GOS that is well-tolerated and remarkably bifidogenic.  MCTs at 10% should be OK, but if you love too much of this delicious chocolate, then too much more could cause digestive problems.

Ketosis: anti-brain fog. Neurotransmitters, dietary protein, and the gut microbiome.

Dr Mercola’s book – Fat for Fuel

Dr Mercola’s book ‘Fat for Fuel’ book is a revolutionary diet to combat cancer, boost brain power and increase your energy.


Dr Mercola’s story…

In 1995, my understanding of chronic disease took a quantum leap. I was introduced to Dr. Ron Rosedale and his breakthrough views on clinical metabolic biochemistry.

In a nutshell, Dr. Rosedale taught me that defective metabolic processes in your mitochondria, not your genetic makeup, cause cancer and nearly all other chronic diseases, including accelerated aging.

And what causes these faulty processes?

Insulin and leptin receptor resistance from too many net carbs and activation of the mTOR metabolic signaling pathway by too much protein.

Let me put this into more easily understood terms…

When you eat too many sugars and carbs without fiber, along with too much protein, you can ignite a cascade of metabolic events that includes:

  • Widespread inflammation and cellular damage, especially your mitochondria, or your cells’ power factories
  • Faster aging and a greater risk of all cancers from the activation of your body’s most important signaling pathway from eating excess protein
  • An increase in insulin resistance that can progress to prediabetes or Type 2 diabetes because your cells have lost their ability to respond to insulin effectively
  • Overeating due to the loss of control over your appetite and knowing when you’re “full”
  • An inability to lose weight because your body is holding on to fat instead of burning it for fuel

So how can you take what I’ve learned and put it to good use? That’s the idea behind my new book, Fat for Fuel – to help you take control over obesity and chronic disease, including advanced cancer.

Why Cancer Is One Of The Most Manageable Diseases We Know Of Today

“Once you realize what cancer is, that it’s a metabolic disease, you can take charge of those kinds of things. In other words, getting cancer is not God’s will. It’s not bad luck.”

— Thomas Seyfried, Ph.D.

Human Mitochondria
An artist’s view of human mitochondria inside a cell

I believe, along with many of the experts I interviewed for Fat for Fuel, more than 90 percent of cancer cases are either preventable or treatable.
That should be very welcome news to most people – even if you’re not currently fighting cancer or have a friend or family member who is.

But here’s something that I think should be even more reassuring…

Many people don’t realize that their chances of developing cancer are slim if their mitochondria are healthy and functional.

Researcher Dr. Peter Pederson from Johns Hopkins, recently made a fascinating discovery:

One characteristic that cancer cells share with one another is that they have a radically reduced number of fully functional mitochondria.

Maybe you remember learning about mitochondria in science class…

These tiny organelles, originally thought to have evolved from bacteria, exist in nearly all your cells. Most cells have several thousands of them, and can comprise up to 50 percent of your cells’ volume!

Your mitochondria are truly your body’s lifeline. They supply over 90 percent of your body’s energy needs by converting the food you eat and the air you breathe into usable energy.

Powerful Strategies For Repairing And Nurturing Your Mitochondria

As you age, your body produces fewer mitochondria, so that makes taking care of the ones you have all the more important.

When a significant percentage of your mitochondria stops functioning properly, your health can falter and leave you more vulnerable to cancer and other chronic diseases.

However, we now know there are powerful strategies that can repair and improve the health of your mitochondria.

What I believe to be the most valuable strategy for repairing your mitochondria is the main subject of my newest book:
Fat for Fuel: A Revolutionary Diet to Combat Cancer, Boost Brain Power, and Increase Your Energy.

You see, everything you eat affects your mitochondria – positively or negatively.

When you make food choices that boost your mitochondrial health, you reduce the risk of damage to your cells’ genetic material or DNA that can lead to disease or cancer.

In Fat for Fuel, here’s just a sampling of what you will learn:

  • How to trigger powerful changes in your health in just a few days
  • How to avoid feeding cancer cells’ mitochondria while repairing your healthy mitochondria
  • How to starve out cancer cells (and not harm your healthy cells!)
  • How to permanently shed unwanted pounds and inches faster than you ever thought possible
  • How to feel sharper mentally and improve your memory just by changing how and when you eat
  • How to boost your physical stamina and endurance
  • How to eliminate excessive hunger pangs and food cravings
  • How to explain to your friends, family, and doctor exactly what you’re doing and get their unwavering support
  • How to monitor your progress and find the least expensive supplies

Beyond Ketogenic Diets: The Eating Program That Can Heal Your Mitochondria

“A truly revolutionary program. . . Fat for Fuel will change the way you think about nutrition and your health.”

— Leo Galland, M.D.

Author of The Allergy Solution

Let me be very clear… you don’t need to be sick, overweight, or have cancer, heart disease or Alzheimer’s to benefit from the information in Fat for Fuel.

This book is designed for anyone wishing to improve his or her health. There’s tremendous value in repairing and nurturing damaged mitochondria just to feel more energetic and to help live a long life free from disease.

However, the sicker you are or the older you are (because you now have fewer mitochondria), the more you stand to benefit from the strategies I present in Fat for Fuel.

My program, Mitochondrial Metabolic Therapy, or MMT, is a system of eating that aims to heal the root cause of chronic disease and aging – and your mitochondria themselves.

MMT Benefits
Greater energy and stamina are just two benefits of MMT

It does this by shifting your metabolism from burning glucose as your primary fuel to burning fat instead.

When you replace carbs with fat for fuel, potentially:

  • You optimize your mitochondrial function
  • You turn on your body’s ability to burn body fat
  • Your metabolism runs more efficiently
  • You enjoy long-lasting energy and stamina
  • Your brain functions more efficiently and you feel sharper mentally

Glucose is a “dirty” fuel, while fat burns much cleaner. So by replacing carbs with healthy fats, your cells’ mitochondria are less likely to suffer damage from free radicals that are caused by reactive oxygen species or ROS.

Since 90 percent or more of the total ROS in your body are produced within your mitochondria, these fragile components of your cells are continually under siege when there are excessive ROS. Some are needed for crucial cellular functions, but too many cause devastating damage.

Previously, it was thought excessive ROS could be addressed by taking antioxidants, but we now know that this was a flawed strategy and it is far better to prevent their production by eating an optimal fuel mixture.

MMT can help your cells’ mitochondria reach the “Goldilocks” zone for producing ROS — not too much and not too little, but just the “right” amounts for healthy cellular and mitochondrial function.

Why You Need Mitochondrial Metabolic Therapy (MMT)

What many people may not realize is that switching over to fat-burning is not an instantaneous “aha” moment. Nor is it a one-size-fits-all plan.

That may be why, if you’ve ever tried a ketogenic diet, you weren’t able to reach or remain in ketosis long enough to produce significant health effects.

My MMT program is a highly customizable, multi-step process that can take a few days or as long as a few months to become fully fat-adapted. Everyone is different.

Fat for Fuel walks you through the complete step-by-step process. You learn which foods and practices work best for you.

My goal is to help you get there smoothly and as easily as possible, identifying and removing potential challenges ahead of time that can derail you off course.
 

Ketogenic Diet Plan
You’ll receive my step-by-step plan for reaching nutritional ketosis

Here are some of the valuable insights you’ll gain from Fat for Fuel to help you succeed:

  • The 7 most common symptoms to expect while shifting to fat burning and simple ways to ward them off
  • How to use timing and spacing of meals to propel your results
  • The weight loss bonus that will hook you in your first few days on MMT
  • How to overcome emotional roadblocks that may arise before and during MMT
  • One simple way to tell if you’re exercising too much (or too little) while adjusting to fat burning
  • The 7 most common challenges people face when adopting a fat-burning eating plan and how to face them head on
  • How to customize MMT for you so you’ll want to continue it for life (although you’ll most likely be convinced that long-term is for you once you experience how much better you feel when eating this way!)
  • Why your brain loves ketones (Hint: it has to do with how easily they are whisked across your blood-brain barrier into your brain tissue)
  • Why it’s easier to lose weight on a ketogenic diet (and especially my MMT plan) and keep it off
  • The greatest tool I’ve found to help keep on track, pinpoint nutritional deficiencies in my diet – and to stay motivated
  • The effective and inexpensive long-term alternative to blood tests for monitoring ketones
  • My guidelines for long-term optimum fat-burning, including the ideal amount of protein to eat at any meal to avoid activating mTOR
  • The other side of eating that most people ignore, yet it’s equally important for your body to function at its best (it happens to be the oldest dietary intervention in the world!)
  • Why taking too many antioxidants can be dangerous and actually aid the survival of cancer cells
  • The popular cooking oils that can harm your cell membranes and threaten your mitochondrial health
  • Why it may be a big mistake to follow your conventional doctor’s advice about fat in your diet

Why MMT Is One Of The Most Powerful Strategies For Lasting Weight Loss And Much More…

“Beautifully lays out the history—and the myths—behind the high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet that has been at the root of so much illness and death in the last half-century.”

— Ron Rosedale, M.D.

Weight Loss
Your waistline measurement is your greatest gauge of health

As a healthy child, you had healthy metabolic flexibility. When you ate a limited amount of sugar and net carbs (carbs minus the fiber) and greater amounts of healthy fat, you were easily able to burn clean burning fats as your primary fuel.

After eating a high net-carb diet, your body loses its ability to switch effortlessly from glucose-burning to fat-burning. And, if you’re like the majority of adults, your health — especially your metabolic health — has suffered as a result.
One visual gauge of your current metabolic health is the amount of body fat you’re carrying, especially around your waistline. This is largely unhealthy visceral fat.

You need a certain amount of body fat to protect your organs, but too much puts you at higher risk for chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes and heart disease.

By making MMT part of your everyday life, you can regain that long-lost metabolic advantage. And that puts you squarely into control of your health – and weight – like no other step you could possibly take!

Similar to a ketogenic diet, MMT is a high-fat, low-carb, and moderate-protein eating plan. But unlike a ketogenic diet, it emphasizes on high-quality, unprocessed whole foods.

Since your body was designed to run more efficiently on fats than on carbs, when you successfully shift over to what’s called nutritional ketosis, you optimize your mitochondrial function and your body’s ability to burn body fat.

While fitting into your favorite skinny jeans is certainly a valuable side effect of MMT, my plan’s primary aim goes much deeper – to heal your metabolism at the cellular level and ward off the development of most common chronic diseases and premature aging, including:

  • Cancer
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Atherosclerosis and heart disease
  • Cataracts

And of course, that includes the core causes of obesity!

Please Don’t Confuse Paleo With My Advanced Version Of Ketogenic…

Meat Protein
Paleo promotes far too much protein

Paleo diets are one of the hottest eating trends today. Many people claim eating that way helps them feel more energetic. Others swear by them for weight loss.

But it’s not the same thing as MMT…

While there are many advantages to the Paleo diet – it’s certainly a big step above the typical American diet – it doesn’t initially control net carbs.

Paleo restricts grains, dairy, starches, and processed foods, but the diet allows some starchy vegetables, fruits, and sugars like honey and coconut sugar.

And it encourages protein from meat, seafood, and nuts and seeds – lots of it! Many people who follow the Paleo diet consume far too much protein.

Too much sugar and too much protein can make it impossible to maintain a state of ketosis, especially if you are new to nutritional ketosis.

Eating too much protein can also activate your body’s most important signaling pathway – mTOR, or the mammalian target of rapamycin – and boost your risk of cancer. Your mTOR pathway organizes all the nutrient sensors in your body to regulate metabolism, growth, cell differentiation, and cellular survival.

Researchers have discovered that low-protein diets extend lifespan in flies because they improve mitochondrial function and inhibit mTOR.

MMT or my version of the ketogenic diet provides very precise protein recommendations to help avoid activating mTOR and, at the same time, restore health to your mitochondria.

With the guidance I provide in Fat for Fuel, you’ll know how to determine the exact amount of protein that’s right for you!

Just As Important As What You Eat Is What You Don’t Eat

“Fat for Fuel . . . reveals truths the food industry won’t tell you about the food you eat and starts you on a path to radically transforming your health.”

— Mark Hyman, M.D.

#1 New York Times best-selling author of Eat Fat, Get Thin and
director of the Cleveland Clinic’s Center for Functional Medicine

Water Fasting
If water fasts aren’t for you, I introduce you to 5 other types of fasts in Fat for Fuel

Sometimes we get so wrapped up in what we should eat that it’s easy to forget the other side that’s equally important for your mitochondrial health. And that’s not eating.

Consider your early ancestors… They didn’t have ready access to food 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Instead, they evolved to withstand extended periods without food. You and I are here today, so they obviously thrived.

Could your body perhaps be equipped to function optimally by not eating?

Fasting can rapidly accelerate your transition to fat-burning and immediately begin to improve metabolic pathways involved with many health challenges.

Think of it as a jump start to success… Starting MMT when you’re already adapted to burning fat through fasting makes your eating plan much easier to implement and stick with.

Fasting also provides numerous benefits in itself. When you fast, your:

  • Blood sugar stabilizes
  • Insulin levels fall and insulin resistance improves
  • Digestive tract gets to rest and repair its mucosal lining
  • Immune system participates in the regeneration of your body’s organs
  • Stem cells produce new white blood cells to boost immunity
  • Body produces ketones to fuel your brain and nervous system while preserving muscle mass
  • Metabolic rate increases to provide energy in the absence of food
  • Damaged cells are cleared out through a natural cleansing routine
  • Excess body fat is shed without the loss of lean body mass
  • Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cancer-promoting hormones drop
  • Rate of aging slows as does the accumulation of cellular free radicals
  • Brain function is protected by higher levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and other chemicals

Your Biggest Decision Likely Won’t Be If You’ll Fast, It’ll Be Which Fast Will You Choose?

Working Out
Want to kick-start your results? Choose one of my fasts

I think you’ll agree that fasting provides an exceptional way to jump-start your mitochondria and become fat-adapted in as short a time as possible, and start reaping the many benefits of fat burning.

You can do a traditional 2- to 3-day water fast where you drink nothing but water plus minerals, or you can take your pick of at least 5 other types of fasts to make the transition to fat-burning even easier.

You’ll find detailed information about each type of fast in Fat for Fuel, including:

  • How to find the “right” fast for you
  • The fast that burns through your glycogen stores the quickest and pushes your body to start using fat for energy (You’ll want this one if you’ve just received a very serious diagnosis)
  • How to get the benefits of water fasting without the typical loss of energy
  • How to quickly shed your cravings for sweets and carbs while fasting
  • How to optimize your body’s repair and rejuvenation processes
  • How to use timing to reap many of the same benefits as long-term calorie restriction without the pain, suffering, and compliance challenges
  • How to know if fasting is safe for you (Especially if you have low blood pressure, thyroid disease, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or are taking diuretics or blood pressure medications)
  • The fast where you’re still eating food (This may be a tougher approach!)
  • What you need to know about exercising while fasting
  • How to fast without upsetting your body’s circadian rhythm
  • A quick trick to help extend your fast while warding off your hunger without raising your blood sugar (Many will enjoy this taste treat!)
  • The 3-hour window when you never want to eat (To help optimize your mitochondrial function and prevent cellular damage and faster aging)
  • My favorite form of fasting – and the one I personally use (It’s the easiest to maintain once you’ve shifted over to fat-burning)

Is There Life After MMT?

Healthy Diet
Once you regain the ability to burn fat as your primary fuel you’re ready for more variety in your diet

As I show in Fat for Fuel, switching to burning fat as your primary fuel is a very powerful strategy for improving the health of your mitochondria, and in turn, your overall health.

But maybe you’re wondering, “Do I have to eat this way for the rest of my life?”

The short answer is, no you do not. In fact, I don’t want you to.

In Fat for Fuel, I help you determine how long is enough for you based on your genetic and mitochondrial differences, as well as any hormonal challenges you may have.

MMT is not intended to be a long-term deprivation diet. Once you regain the ability to burn fat as your primary fuel you’re ready to listen to your body and increase the flexibility in your diet.

By mimicking the eating pattern of many of our ancient ancestors, you can use what I call “feast-famine cycling,” a strategy that many in the body-building community have embraced to optimize their performance.

There are multiple ways to use this clever strategy and I review them all in Fat for Fuel. When done correctly, you’ll enjoy a greater variety of delicious, wholesome foods without harming your body’s newly regained ability to burn fat.

And I think you’ll agree… With greater variety and flexibility, it’s much easier to stick to a lifetime of healthy eating!

The Stealth Threat Facing Every Man And Postmenopausal Woman, Exposing You To Obesity, Cancer, Cognitive Decline, And Heart Disease

Weight Management
If you struggle with weight issues, excess iron may be a factor

My MMT Program helps control the production of damaging ROS and secondary free radicals in three important ways. The first two are the foods you eat and when you eat them.

The third is such a serious threat to overall health that it absolutely astounds me that more doctors aren’t giving it the attention it deserves, including many holistic practitioners.

This threat targets every single man and postmenopausal woman, and it isn’t related to a reckless lifestyle or poor eating habits.

You could even be following my MMT eating plan and be at high risk for this health-wrecking threat!

I’m talking about iron.

Excess iron can lead to one of the most dangerous reactions in your body — the Fenton reaction — that decimates your mitochondrial DNA, proteins, and membranes and contributes to system-wide inflammation.

And all you may initially notice is some joint pain, fatigue, gut pain, memory fog, or an irregular heartbeat!

Even moderately elevated levels of iron can contribute to:

  • Obesity — Obese individuals are more likely to have high levels of iron in their bodies.
  • Cancer — Elevated levels of iron are found in patients with many types of cancer, including breast cancer, melanoma, pancreatic cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
  • Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and ALS — High levels of iron in your brain tissue (which can easily happen as you age) can lead to cognitive impairment and inflammation.
  • Cardiovascular disease — Women’s risk of heart disease rises significantly after they either go through menopause or have a hysterectomy (and stop losing blood each month through menses).
  • Diabetes — Men with high iron stores were found to be 2.4 times as likely to develop Type 2 diabetes as men with lower levels.
  • The growth of pathogens — High iron levels facilitate the growth of disease-causing bacteria, fungi, and protozoa.
  • Osteoporosis — Too much iron in your body can damage your bones, but unfortunately, symptoms don’t typically appear until your levels are dangerously high.

What You Learn About Iron In Fat For Fuel Could Literally Save Your Life

Iron Test
Serum iron tests won’t tell you if there’s a problem

Many doctors, including some Naturopathic physicians, aren’t doing the right test to give you the information you need about your iron levels.

Yet, they’ll insist they know best, and may even try to talk you out of the test you really need.

It’s much easier to manage your situation if you discover your high levels early, which is just one of the reasons why I’ve become so passionate about this topic.

Fat for Fuel is your guide to repairing and nourishing your mitochondria. But, you simply can’t optimize your mitochondrial health – or that of your entire body – if you have excess iron.

I’ve dedicated an entire chapter to the topic of excess iron, where you’ll learn:

  • The real test that you need to find out how high your levels truly are
  • The ideal range you want to maintain (it’s not what labs and most doctors consider “normal”)
  • The 7 things that increase your absorption of iron (it’s not only cast iron pans)
  • What to avoid eating or drinking with a steak to minimize your absorption of iron from red meat
  • The fastest way to lower excess iron levels (and what I do each month to help maintain safe low levels)
  • The 6 alternative strategies that can lower your absorption of iron as much as 95 percent
  • The 3 popular beverages that help protect you from the iron in foods
  • When never to take vitamin C or calcium supplements as they can increase your absorption of unwanted iron
  • The controversial strategy that provides the same iron level reduction as donating blood (it even provides up to a 75 percent lower rate of certain cancers), but it may not be for everyone

Your iron levels are so crucial, I’ve made getting them tested the right way a prerequisite before proceeding with my MMT plan!

10 Bonus Strategies To Boost Your Mitochondrial Health

Healthy Mitochondria
Diet isn’t the only way to improve the health of your mitochondria

Without question, my MMT diet is the most effective way to improve the health of your mitochondria. But it’s not the only way…

In Fat for Fuel, I outline 10 other powerful strategies for boosting mitochondrial health. At least half of them you can do at home without any special tools or equipment!

In this bonus chapter, I show you:

  • How to use photobiology to create energy to improve your mitochondrial function (first, make sure your cells have enough of this beneficial fatty acid)
  • The two-part strategy to gain a powerful synergy that could help reverse any health challenge
  • How to use light to deeply penetrate your tissues to deliver energy to your mitochondria for increased ATP production (it must be this certain hard-to-find wavelength!)
  • How to renew damaged proteins inside your cells, inside of allowing them to accumulate and form plaque deposits in your brain and vascular systems
  • The inexpensive tool to help protect your circadian rhythms and natural melatonin production to help you sleep better at night and help lower your cancer risk
  • The simple change you can make in your home to nearly duplicate the sun’s healthy, natural lighting for your eye health
  • What to do if you wake up before sunrise, especially during the darker months of winter (and continue to do it until the sun rises)
  • How to stimulate the production of new mitochondria and boost the destruction of diseased ones
  • The 20-second trick to double your body’s production of norepinephrine for improved focus and attention and to boost mood and alleviate pain
  • The four supplements to avoid if you have (or suspect) cancer as they can make cancer cells stronger and more resistant to anti-cancer treatment (this is a mistake many natural medicine practitioners make!)
  • The ancient healing method that’s been shown to be useful in treating pain conditions, depression, age-related mental decline, and Alzheimer’s (I use it every night to help quell free radicals and protect against EMFs)
  • Two ways to help your body increase levels of healthier “structured” water inside your cells and two simple ways to create it yourself from regular drinking water

Why My Book May Not Be For Everyone

Is Fat for Fuel for You
Is Fat for Fuel for you?

Chances are if you’re still reading this, Fat for Fuel is exactly what you need to make significant strides in your health.

But I’ll be very blunt… Fat for Fuel isn’t for everyone.

If all you want are some smart but quick fixes, this is not the right book for you.

If you just want to upgrade your nutrition and improve your eating habits and overall health with small, simple tweaks to what you’re doing now, you may be better served by my last book Effortless Healing.

Effortless Healing walks you through nine powerful principles or steps that you can apply right away to your daily life to create healthy new habits and radically improved health.

Or you can go to Mercola.com and review the Nutritional Plan on the right side of the home page. Here you’ll find plenty of useful information, and if you sign up for my free newsletter, you’ll receive regular cutting edge health updates.

Fat for Fuel digs deeper – much deeper – into the very source of cancer, obesity, diabetes, mental decline and other chronic diseases that are affecting Westerners especially in epidemic numbers.

And it provides a real solution that works.

However, you’ll have to do more than just read the book… Getting the amazing benefits and results that my MMT plan offers takes a focused commitment and action.

Is Fat For Fuel For You?

“This book should be read by anyone interested in maintaining their health without toxic pharmaceuticals.”

— Thomas Seyfried, Ph.D.

Author of Cancer as a Metabolic Disease and professor of biology at Boston College

To help you decide if Fat for Fuel: A Revolutionary Diet to Combat Cancer, Boost Brain Power, and Increase Your Energy is right for you, take a moment and see if any of these statements resonate with you:

  • You have a serious health issue and need effective help now
  • You’re frustrated with your current health treatments and feel like there’s something missing in your care
  • You’d like to see a chronic condition ease up or disappear entirely (be sure to work with your health care provider as you may need to reduce or eliminate medications as your health improves!)
  • You want to lose weight (and keep it off) without sacrificing lean muscle mass
  • You’d like to get rid of your “brain fog” and enjoy greater mental clarity
  • You want to stay healthy and live independently for as long as possible
  • You’d like more sustained energy for everyday tasks and for the things you enjoy doing
  • You need to lower your fasting blood glucose levels, regain insulin receptor sensitivity and reduce inflammation throughout your body
  • You’ve dabbled with a low carb or ketogenic diet and would like to learn how to customize it for real results
  • You’re following a ketogenic, low carb or whole foods diet now and want to take it to the next level
  • You’d like to go through your day without feeling excessively hungry and craving sweets and carbs
  • You want to experience improved digestion, less bloating and reflux, and more regular bowel movements (a 2016 autism study confirms that you may notice significantly improved gut and microbiome health)

If you agree with just one of these statements, then I can assure you there is solid value waiting for you within the covers of Fat for Fuel.

Dr. Perlmutter Praises Fat For Fuel

Dr. David Perlmutter, board-certified neurologist and author of the #1 New York Times bestseller Grain Brain and The Grain Brain Whole Life Plan has provided his endorsement to Fat for Fuel. He states:

“…Fat for Fuel eloquently presents the leading edge of science, exploring how best to power your body. This is a life-changing text that not only provides a deep dive into why choosing fat as our primary fuel source powerfully correlates with health and disease resistance, but also delivers in terms of how the reader can easily bring about this fundamentally important change.”

Get Rewarded When You Take Action Now

Maybe you feel like you have time to wait before making profound changes to your health. Or maybe you don’t.

Either way, I believe in rewarding action.

The strategies I present in Fat for Fuel: A Revolutionary Diet to Combat Cancer, Boost Brain Power, and Increase Your Energy are just too important for your health and well-being to set aside and “wait until the timing feels right.”

You’re growing older each day. Your body is producing fewer mitochondria, so that puts you at a disadvantage right from the gate. Time really may not be on your side.

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