Eggs are rich in immune boosting nutrients , egg yolk kills fungus

Eggs have long been recognized as a source of high-quality protein. The World Health Organization (WHO) and other public health authorities actually use eggs as their reference standard for evaluating the protein quality in all other foods. Egg protein is usually referred to as “HBV” protein, meaning protein with High Biological Value. Since eggs are used as the reference standard for food protein, they score 100% on the HBV chart. The high quality of egg protein is based on the mixture of amino acids it contains. (Amino acids are the building blocks for making proteins.) Eggs provide a complete range of amino acids, including branched chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, valine), sulfur-containing amino acids (methionine, cysteine), lysine, tryptophan, and all other essential amino acids. Their protein is sometimes referred to as a “complete protein” for this reason.

Egg yolks contain at least seven essential minerals, including:
  • 22 mg calcium.
  • 0.46 mg iron.
  • 1 mg magnesium.
  • 66 mg phosphorus.
  • 19 mg potassium.
  • 8 mg sodium.
  • 0.39 mg zinc.
Boiled Eggs Sulfur Smell: Amino Acids

Most amino acids do not contain sulfur. However, two do contain sulfur in addition to nitrogen—methionine and cysteine.

Kale, cabbage, onions, garlic and broccoli are some of the most nutritious foods on earth.… Make sure your diet includes freshly crushed garlic, onions, broccoli, fish and other foods high in sulfur. … Onions, eggs, cruciferous vegetables and other foods high in sulfur are considered health promoting.

My grandma burned the egg yolk to apply on my the fungus on my feet which heals faster than boiled guava leaves.
keywords: Burn, Egg yolk, Wound, Silver sulfadiazine, Rat …. It kills a wide variety of bacteria.

 

All B vitamins are found in eggs, including vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, choline, biotin, and folic acid. Choline is a standout among these B vitamins. In fact, eggs rank higher in choline than any of our other WHFoods. In the U.S., an average diet provides about 300 milligrams of choline per day – less than the recommended amount for an adult woman (425 milligrams) or an adult man (550 milligrams). Since one egg provides over 100 milligrams of choline and only 75-80 calories, it provides far more choline for far less calories than most other choline-rich foods.

The mineral content of eggs also deserves special mention here–not because eggs are a rich source of most minerals but because they are a rich source of certain minerals that can sometimes be difficult to obtain from other foods. Eggs are a very good source of both selenium and iodine. While many fish, shellfish, and mushrooms can be rich sources of selenium, persons who avoid these foods may sometimes have difficulty getting an adequate amount of this important antioxidant mineral from food. For persons who do not use iodized salt in recipes or at the table and who do not consume either yogurt or cow’s milk, this mineral can also sometimes be challenging to obtain from food.

The nutrients found in an egg are distributed fairly evenly between the yolk and the white. This distribution of nutrients is a common characteristic of whole, natural foods and it is one of the reasons that we recommend consumption of whole eggs (except, of course, when only the yolk or the white is called for in a recipe). The chart below explains what approximate percent of the total nutrient amount is found in the yolk and the white of an egg. You will notice that the first four nutrient groupings are those that are found predominately in the egg white, while those that follow are found predominately in the egg yolk (all except for the last nutrient, selenium, which is divided fairly evenly between the egg white and yolk).

 

Nutrient Egg White Egg Yolk
Protein 60% 40%
Magnesium, Potassium, Sodium 10-25%
Vitamin B3 90% 10%
Vitamin B2 62% 38%
Total Fat 10% 90%
Omega-3 Fats 0% 100%
Vitamins A, D, E, K 0% 100%
Carotenoids 0% 100%
Vitamins B5, B6, B12, Folate, Choline 10% or less 90% or more
Calcium, Phosphorus, Zinc, Copper, Iron 10% or less 90% or more
Manganese 30% 70%
Vitamin B1 25% 75%
Biotin 20% 80%
Selenium 41% 59%

Omega-3 Support

In recent years, there has been a food marketplace trend of greater availability of eggs that are unusually rich in omega-3 fats. These eggs get their high levels of omega-3s through the addition of omega-3 oils to the hen’s feed. Oils added to the hen’s diet as a way of increasing omega-3s include menhaden oil, krill oil, flaxseed oil, and algae oil. The supplementation of the hen’s diet with these oils usually produces as much as 250 milligrams of omega-3s per egg yolk.

What many consumers do not know is that virtually all egg yolks contain omega-3 fats and that by providing hens with a natural, pasture-based diet their omega-3 levels can be naturally increased. Pasture feeding can provide the hen with clover and alfalfa, two examples of legumes that are rich in omega-3s; in fact, pasture feeding can double the amount of omega-3s in an egg yolk. Omega-3s are far too low in the average U.S. diet, and eggs from pasture-raised chickens can provide significant amounts of these anti-inflammatory fats.

Toxins, metals and left over foods, Vitamin C, detox ways

Yesterday, I have a fast heartbeat. I was guessing I ingested a toxin. So , I went home and ate 3 soft boiled eggs, took Vitamin C powder in my hot lemon water, calcium and magnesium with zinc tablet and massaged my stomach with oils (essential oils, eucalyptus, castor oil) and rested.

I am fine now.

Be careful of mercury tooth fillings and left over foods.

Connie

 

Source: https://www.selfhacked.com/blog/heavy-metals-detox/

Heavy metals have been shown to bind proteins and prevent their functioning and to disrupt cellular function by interfering with necessary minerals like zinc and magnesium and causing oxidative stress [R].

Symptoms of heavy metal intoxication include:

  • Intellectual disability in children [R]
  • Dementia[R]
  • Kidney and liver diseases [R]
  • Insomnia, emotional instability [R]
  • Depression [R]
  • Vision abnormalities [R]

Studies in worms have shown that these metals have synergistic toxicity, meaning that combined they are more toxic than the sum of their toxicities together [R].

The vast majority of research on heavy metal and chelation therapy focuses on these 4 metals as they are present in disproportionately higher levels in the environment than other heavy metals and have the greatest likelihood to produce health issues [R].

This article will focus on how to safely and effectively remove the “Big Four” heavy metals: lead, arsenic, mercury, and cadmium.

Types of Toxic Heavy Metals and Why They’re Bad

Mercury Toxicity

Mercury is considered to be the most toxic heavy metal in the environment [R].

The majority of exposure to mercury is due to seafood, with additional sources including occupational exposure such as small-scale gold mining and dental amalgam installation and removal [R].

Mercury accumulates in organisms as you go up the food chain, meaning larger fish such as tuna, shark, and swordfish have proportionally more mercury than smaller fish like sardines, mackerel, and anchovies [R].

Because it’s attracted to fat (lipophilic), the metal accumulates in the fat and liver of fish, and when consumed by humans it accrues in the brain and nerves (specifically the myelin sheaths of nerves, which are made of fats) [R]. The brain, kidneys, and liver are the major storage sites for mercury accumulation.

Mercury poisoning can cause:

Chronic mercury exposure is associated with:

Higher mercury levels were found in the brain and blood of Alzheimer’s patients. In animals, low levels of mercury are able to cause cell deterioration similar to what is seen in Alzheimer’s disease [R].

Moreover, mercury levels range from 2-10 times higher in individuals with dental amalgams, and women with dental amalgams had a 13% increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease compared to women without them [RR].

Mechanism of Harm by Mercury

Mercury increases the formation of reactive oxygen species, both directly by being a pro-oxidant and indirectly by depleting crucial antioxidants like glutathione, which leads to an increase in oxidative damage to DNA, lipids, and proteins [R].

Mercury can also bind to key amino acids and enzymes like glutathione, cysteine, and sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase. This binding disrupts cellular function [RR].

The neurotoxic effects of mercury are likely due to its ability to increase levels of glutamate. Excess glutamate levels damage neurons leading to neuronal death [RR].

Arsenic Toxicity

Chronic exposure to arsenic causes a variety of symptoms and health conditions.

Foods grown in contaminated soil and water are the main sources of intake for most people [R].

Also, people working in glass-making, smelting, pesticide manufacturing, and semiconductor manufacturing industries may be exposed to significantly higher levels of arsenic than the general population [R].

In recent years, there were scandals where high levels of arsenic were found in rice and apple juice. It’s recommended that babies don’t drink rice-based drinks because of this [RR].

The primary targets for arsenic and compounds containing arsenic are the kidneys and the liver because they are generally processed by the liver and excreted in the urine [RR].

Excessive exposure during childhood can lead to behavioral dysfunction during puberty even lasting into adulthood [R].

Arsenic exposure has also been associated with:

  • Deficits in verbal intelligence long-term memory in children [R]
  • Diabetes [R]
  • Increased fetal mortality and preterm birth [R]

Long-term exposure can cause:

  • Inflammation of the nerves, causing pain and loss of function [R]
  • Skin lesions, darkening of the skin (hyperpigmentation) [R]
  • Internal cancers including bladder, kidney, liver prostate, and lung [R]
  • High blood pressure [R]
  • Increased risk of mortality [R]
  • Toxic effects on genes, which can cause mutations [R]

Mechanism of Harm by Arsenic

Arsenic exerts its toxic effect by inhibiting enzymes in the mitochondria, replacing phosphorus in various biochemical reactions, depleting thiamine(vitamin B1), and causing oxidative stress through depletion of key enzymes like glutathione and superoxide dismutase (SOD) [R].

Lead Toxicity

Up until recent years, lead was often used in paints, ceramics, and pipes. Although its use in these products has been significantly reduced, a report found that 25% of homes in the US have significant amounts of lead-contaminated paint, dust, or soil [R].

The majority of lead poisoning cases in adults are due to occupational exposure, such as inhaling lead-contaminated dust, while lead exposure in the general population is mainly through food [R].

Lead can accumulate in the kidneys, liver, heart, brain, and especially in the bones [R].

Symptoms of lead exposure on the brain include:

  • Headaches [R]
  • Poor attention span [R]
  • Irritability [R]
  • Memory Loss [R]

Lead exposure is of particular concern in pregnant women, as it easily crosses the placental barrier and enters the developing fetus. Both human and animal studies show that lead exposure during pregnancy is associated with reduced birth weight and preterm delivery, as well as cognitive deficits in the offspring [RRR].

Mechanism of Harm by Lead

The main mechanism by which lead exerts toxic effects is through its ability block the actions of calcium and disrupting the activity of various enzymes and proteins, including glutathione and superoxide dismutase, and causing oxidative stress [R].

Cadmium Toxicity

Cadmium is a relatively highly water-soluble metal. In smokers, tobacco is the main source of cadmium because tobacco plants tend to accumulate the metal from the soil [R].

For non-smokers, the main source is through diet and occupational exposure, including metal industries, soldering, battery manufacturing, and cadmium-contaminated workplaces [R].

Cadmium is highly toxic to the kidneys and preferentially accumulates in a specific type of cell (proximal tubular cells) [R].

Long-term exposure can cause:

  • Kidney disease [R]
  • Osteoporosis [R]
  • Disrupted calcium metabolism [R]
  • Kidney stones [R]

Mechanism of Harm by Cadmium

Although the mechanisms of cadmium toxicity are not fully understood, research suggests it causes oxidative damage indirectly by decreasing antioxidants, rather than directly creating free radicals like the other metals discussed [R].

Cadmium also tends to bind to key enzymes and proteins, preventing them from functioning normally [R].

Due to its damaging effects on the kidney, cadmium toxicity tends to disrupt calcium balance, which the kidney plays a large role in regulating [R].

How to Test for Heavy Metals

Physicians often test for heavy metals using urine, whole blood, red blood cell, and less commonly, hair, or rarely, toenail samples [R].

Blood Tests for Heavy Metals

In most cases blood testing is indicative of acute exposure rather than the total body burden (total amount of heavy metals accrued over one’s lifetime that is present in the body), however, there are exceptions [R].

Urine Testing for Heavy Metals

Urine testing is the gold standard for the “Big Four” toxic metals (mercury, arsenic, lead, and cadmium). However, even urine test can give an inaccurate representation of body burden for some metals, as they are often present in different forms, stored in different areas and processed by and excreted by the body differently [R].

For example, mercury is present in the body in two forms: organic (methylmercury or dimethylmercury) and inorganic (mercury salts, such as mercury chloride). Organic is largely excreted through the bile and feces, while inorganic is eliminated via the urine [R].

Therefore, whole blood is the preferred test for organic mercury body burden and urine testing is optimal for a measure of the body burden of inorganic mercury [R].

The Heavy Metals Challenge Test

A popular type of test is called the “challenge test”, or “provoked urine test,” which involves using large doses of a strong chelating agent, usually dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), to draw metals out of the body and into the urine where they can be analyzed [R].

Chelation the process by which the body naturally binds toxic heavy metals in order to prevent them from causing harm and to excrete them from the body [R].

Chelation challenge tests are associated with adverse reactions, as the influx of mobilized metals can oftentimes overwhelm the body’s detoxificationpathways as well as redistribute them to different or more critical tissues during the test [R].

Other criticisms of challenge testing include the possibility of false positives and lack of a standard of protocol and laboratory reference ranges to interpret the results [RR].

Therefore, many professional and government organizations strongly recommend against their use because of this [R].

Despite this, the test is still commonly used by some practitioners. These clinicians argue that it allows them to determine the most effective chelating agent and to detect an absorption or tolerance problems with the agent [R].

If an individual decides to go the route of the challenge test, it is advised that their excretory pathways are open and not overburdened, i.e. in conditions like constipation or kidney and liver diseases, so as to allow the metals to pass out safely [R].

Additionally, urine samples should be taken pre- and post-challenge testing to establish a reference for the individual [R].

Instead of challenge testing, heavy metal toxicity is often diagnosed with a combination of reported symptoms and urine tests that reveal metal levels above the reference range [R].

Hair Testing for Heavy Metals

If done correctly, hair analysis is another reliable way to see if you have heavy metal toxicity [R]. Hair testing mainly reflects past exposure, so it should be combined with urine or blood testing to confirm heavy metal toxicity [RR].

How to Safely Chelate and Detoxify Heavy Metals

The overall goal in chelating and detoxifying heavy metals is to bind them with a strong chelator and then excrete them safely out of the body without redistributing them to other organs.

1) Supplement with Essential Minerals

During this process, supplementation with zinccalciumiron, and magnesiumis recommended, as these nutrients reduce the absorption of toxic heavy metals and their depletion results in enhanced toxic metal uptake from the gut [RRRR].

2) Remove Sources of Heavy Metal Exposure

The first step in reducing the body burden of heavy metals is to reduce or remove the source of exposure, if possible. This may mean reducing consumption of high mercury seafood, testing and filtering drinking water, or quitting smoking.

3) Ensure that Excretory Organs Function Correctly

If you will use chelation to remove toxic heavy metals, it is important to ensure that your excretory pathways are open and not overburdened in order to allow the metals to pass out safely. Constipation, leaky gut, or kidney and liver diseases will prevent metals  [R].

4) Bind (Chelate) Heavy Metals

The next step is to bind heavy metals where they are stored in the body, escort them into the bloodstream, and excrete them through the liver via bile in the feces, through the kidneys via urine, or through the skin via sweat [R].

5) Detoxify Slowly or Pulse the Chelation Process

It is important to detoxify from heavy metals slowly to prevent redistribution through the body and therefore it is recommended to temporarily discontinue or lower dosages of chelating compounds if symptoms worsen and allow the body’s detoxification and excretory systems to “catch up” [R].

Moreover, it is generally advised to pulse the chelation process and to work with a qualified physician during this time.

Supplements that Help with Heavy Metal Chelation and Detoxification

1) Glutathione Protects Against Mercury Toxicity

Glutathione is a powerful antioxidant that is produced from three amino acids: cysteine, glutamic acid (closely related, but not to be confused with glutamine), and glycine.

Glutathione contains sulfur components that readily bind with mercury, lead, and cadmium [R].

Other compounds that have thiol groups include the amino acid cysteine, albumin, and metallothioneins. Mercury has a high affinity for thiol groups and will readily bind to the thiol-containing compound (usually glutathione) in the highest concentration [R].

Higher levels of glutathione protect against mercury accumulation [R].

Mercury has been shown to deplete glutathione levels in brain cells, red blood cells, and kidneys [RRR].

Glutathione protects against mercury in 4 ways:

  1. Binding to it and preventing it from causing damage to enzymes and cells [R]
  2. Preventing the mercury from entering the cell where it does the most damage [R]
  3. Helping transport and eliminate it from the body [R]. Indeed, glutathione mercury complexes are the most abundant form of mercury in both bile and urine [R].
  4. Serving as an antioxidant that neutralizes the free radicals such as hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxides that are produced by mercury [R].

You can learn how to increase your glutathione levels in this post.

2) Alpha-Lipoic Acid Protects Against Arsenic, Cadmium, and Mercury Toxicity

Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is another strong antioxidant with the ability to penetrate the cell membrane as well as cross the blood-brain barrier to chelate heavy metals stored there [RR].

This is important as lead and mercury easily accumulate in the brain [RR].

Alpha-lipoic acid decreases damage to cell membranes (lipid peroxidation), which can be caused by heavy metals [R].

Alpha-lipoic acid has also been shown to increase glutathione levels both inside and outside of the cell by regenerating used glutathione to make it active again [RR].

Additionally, alpha-lipoic acid increases the production of glutathione by increasing the uptake of cysteine, the rate-limiting component of glutathione, into the cell [R].

Although no clinical trials have investigated the use of alpha-lipoic acid in chelating heavy metals, animal studies show that the compound reduces uptake of cadmium into liver cells and prevents absorption of arsenic in the intestines [RR]

Of note, animal studies have also shown that alpha-lipoic acid has the potential to redistribute heavy metals, however, these studies have administered the compound intravenously, which may cause alpha-lipoic acid to combine with glutathione in the liver and prevent the glutathione from carrying heavy metals out of the body [R].

This effect has not been seen in human trials with alpha-lipoic acid and the vast amount of evidence strongly suggest that it can prevent the damage caused by heavy metals as well as help glutathione bind to and excrete metals [RR, ].

Oral doses of as much as 1,800 mg/day of alpha-lipoic acid are well-tolerated with no side effects in clinical trials [R].

3) Modified Citrus Pectin Increases Lead, Cadmium, and Arsenic Excretion

Pectin is a fiber in plants. Modified citrus pectin (MCP) is a form of pectin that has been altered to be more digestible.

In children with high blood levels of lead, 15 grams of MCP a day for 28 days decreased lead in the blood, while urine lead levels increased by more than 132% (indicating lead removal) [R]. No side effects were reported.

Another study found that 15 grams of modified citrus pectin a day for five days increased urinary excretion of arsenic (130%), cadmium (150%), and lead (560%) [R].

Note: the studies were performed by the creator of MCP.

4) Sauna/Sweating Increases Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury Excretion

Sauna use increases the circulation throughout the skin and induces sweating, with blood flow to the skin increasing from 5-10% of the amount of the blood pumped through the heart at rest to 60-70% [R].

Sweating, caused by either exercise or sauna use, has been shown in many studies to excrete clinically meaningful levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury, in some cases surpassing the amount excreted in urine [RRRR].

Beneficial metals, vitamins, and electrolytes, such as zinc, coppermanganesevitamin E, sodium, and chloride, are also lost during sweating. Therefore, it is crucial to consume a diet sufficient in these nutrients to counteract any loss due to sweating.

5) Vitamin C Protects Against Lead Toxicity

Low vitamin C levels have been associated with decreased glutathione levels and increased oxidative stress [R].

Vitamin C increases glutathione levels by recycling used glutathione, as in human red blood cells (DB-RCT) [R].

In rats, vitamin C supplementation increases lead excretion in the urine and feces and prevent lead absorption in the intestine [R].

Lead toxicity can lead to damage to the membranes of red blood cells, impairing their function. In 15 workers exposed to lead, one year of vitamin C (1 g/day) and E supplementation (400 IU/day) reduced lipid peroxidation in red blood cells between 47.1% and 69.4%, comparable to 19 non-lead exposed workers [R].

Dosages between 500-1500 grams a day are often used in clinical research settings, however many users greatly exceed these levels, with few adverse effects beyond diarrhea.

6) Selenium Increases Mercury Excretion

Selenium is a crucial nutrient when it comes to chelating heavy metals.

The mineral increases the activity of glutathione, and increased levels of selenium are associated with increased levels of glutathione in the blood [RR].

In rats exposed to mercury, selenium prevented the destruction of neurons and suppression of protein synthesis caused by mercury and helped repair damaged tissue that helps conduct nerve signals (myelin sheath) [R].

In 103 mercury-exposed villagers in China, 100 micrograms of selenium daily in the form of enriched yeast increased mercury excretion and as well decreased markers of inflammation and oxidative stress compared to controls who were given the yeast without selenium [R].

Brazil nuts are often mentioned as important food to chelate heavy metals. Any chelating effect is likely due to its high concentration of selenium, with one nut containing 68-91 mcg of selenium.

7) N-Acetylcysteine Reduces Mercury and Lead Levels

N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a form of cysteine that increases the production of glutathione.

In mice, N-Acetylcysteine enhanced excretion of mercury by 400% in comparison to control animals [R].

In 171 workers exposed to lead, N-Acetylcysteine reduced blood levels of lead and increased glutathione concentrations, while at the same time decreasing oxidative stress [R].

8) Zinc Prevents Cadmium and Lead Absorption and Increases Cadmium Excretion

Zinc competes with cadmium and lead for the binding sites on proteins, and zinc deficiency can lead to greater absorption of cadmium and lead [RR].

Zinc supplementation also increases synthesis of metallothionein, a protein that binds cadmium and helps detoxify it from the body [RR].

Moreover, supplementation with zinc protects the activity of an enzyme called δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) that is very sensitive to lead [R].

9) Calcium Disodium EDTA Increases Lead Excretion

Calcium Disodium EDTA (CaNA2EDTA) is effective in chelating lead from the body [R]. Because it is poorly absorbed orally, EDTA must be administered intravenously.

Caution is needed when chelating with CaNA2EDTA as it tends to deplete essential minerals, particularly zinc, copper, and manganese [R]. It should not be used during pregnancy or in people with kidney or liver diseases [R]

10) DMSA Increases Lead, Mercury, Arsenic and Cadmium Excretion

Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is a water-soluble pharmaceutical chelator that contains two thiol groups, making it an especially strong chelator of heavy metals.

It can be administered orally, intravenously, or through the skin.

Chelation therapy is the use of intravenous pharmaceutical chelation agents such as DMSA, dimercaptopropane sulfonate (DMPS), or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to pull heavy metals out of the blood in cases of acute toxicity [R].

Chelation therapy is also used to treat cardiovascular disease, but a systematic review found that evidence does not support its use for such diseases [R].

Oral supplementation with DMSA has been shown in many studies to significantly and greatly increase urinary excretion of lead, mercury, arsenic, and cadmium [RRRR].

In 17 lead-poisoned adults, DMSA increased urinary lead excretion by a factor of 12 and rapidly reversed symptoms related to lead toxicity [R].

Caution is warranted with DMSA, as it has also been shown to excrete beneficial metals like zinc, iron, calcium, copper, and magnesium as well, so it strongly advised to supplement with these after therapy [R].

11) DMPS Increases Lead, Mercury, Arsenic, and Cadmium Excretion

Dimercaptopropane sulfonate (DMPS) is another pharmaceutical chelator, like DMSA, with two thiol groups.

Oral absorption of DMPS is about 40% higher than that of DMSA [R].

Like DMSA, DMPS increases excretion of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the urine, with the former more effective in excreting mercury from the brain and the latter more effective in excreting mercury from the kidney [RRRR].

In mice, DMSA was more effective in removing cadmium than DMPS [R].

Also like DMSA, DMPS increase urinary excretion of necessary nutrients like copper, selenium, zinc, and magnesium, necessitating supplementation with them before or after treatment [R].

In one trial with autistic patients, a few children developed worsening of symptoms [R]. The researchers thought that this was likely due to the redistribution of recently mobilized metals without the ability to excrete them sufficiently [R].

In addition, adequate hydration and bowel regularity are essential, as during chelation therapy, mobilization and chelation of metals should not exceed the ability to excrete them, otherwise they will be redistributed throughout the body where they have the potential to cause more harm than their initial storage site.

Chelating Compounds With Non-Human Evidence

12) Garlic

Garlic has been shown to protect against the damaging effects of heavy metals and help with their excretion.

When rats were given garlic at the same time as cadmium and mercury, accumulation of the heavy metals in the liver, kidneys, bone, and testes was decreased and the activity of certain key enzymes was partially restored [R]. In addition, cadmium excretion was increased.

In rats given mercury, cadmium, and lead in addition to 7% raw garlic in their food, accumulation of the heavy metals was decreased in the liver, with the greatest effect seen for cadmium [R].

13) Chlorella

In mice, diets consisting of 5% and 10% of Chlorella significantly increased urinary and fecal excretion of mercury, and decreased mercury levels in the brain and kidneys, without affecting glutathione levels [R].

14) Cilantro

In mice, cilantro supplementation alongside lead administration resulted in significantly fewer lead deposits in the bones [R].

In humans, a study (RCT) on 32 children aged 3-7 years with lead-exposed parents found that cilantro extract given for 14 days decreased lead concentration in blood while increased its excretion in urine. However, it didn’t increase significantly more than the placebo group [R].

15) Activated Charcoal

While there are studies showing activated charcoal’s ability to bind mercury, lead, and nickel in industrial waste, no studies that have measured its chelation abilities in the human body [R].

16) Methionine

Methionine may help with chelating metals because of its sulfur group.

When methionine was added to the diet of rats, it significantly increased fecal excretion of lead [R].

17) Taurine

Taurine is a sulfur-containing compound.

When taurine was given to mice, it protected against oxidative damage in the brain caused by cadmium and improved the antioxidant status in the animals [R].

Another study in rats found that taurine supplementation prevented damage of brain tissue due to arsenic [R].

Taurine has also been shown to protect against lead toxicity in rat ovaries and mercury toxicity in the hearts and livers of rats, without affecting excretion of either metal [RRR].

18) Carnosine

Carnosine is a molecule made of the amino acids beta-alanine and histidine with strong antioxidant properties [R].

Carnosine is able to chelate cadmium and mercury and prevent heavy metals from harming cell membranes [R].

In rats, carnosine supplementation was able to prevent kidney damage from lead and increased glutathione levels [R].

Other Supplements That May Be Effective:

Experiences of People who Removed Heavy Metals from their Bodies

Many users have reported that N-Acetylcysteine supplementation improves symptoms of depression, reduces brain fog, and provides a slight energy boost. I supplement with N-Acetylcysteine regularly, but I do not exceed 1 g/day as I tend to experience gastrointestinal discomfort and headaches beyond this dosage, which I suspect are due to increased mobilization of metals exceeding my ability to excrete them.

Users report mixed results when supplementing with alpha-lipoic acid, with some noting increased energy and feelings of general well-being and reduction in nerve pain, while others report an increase in fatigue and mental fogginess, to which some attribute to redistribution of mercury.

One individual claimed to have removed heavy metals by taking 1 g/day of DMSA (in addition to N-Acetylcysteine and alpha-lipoic acid) for 3 days every 2 weeks, which eliminated chronic Candida infections and persistent anxietyand brain fog. Another DMSA user noted that just 50 mg of DMSA resulted in psychosis lasting for a month.

FDA Compliance

The information on this website has not been evaluated by the Food & Drug Administration or any other medical body. We do not aim to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any illness or disease. Information is shared for educational purposes only. You must consult your doctor before acting on any content on this website, especially if you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition.

Knee pain relief

kneeExercise, good shoes, nutrition (sulfur rich foods) and adequate sleep.

Safer, and very effective, options to help relieve joint pain include:

  • Eggshell membrane: The eggshell membrane is the unique protective barrier between the egg white and the mineralized eggshell. The membrane contains elastin, a protein that supports cartilage health, and collagen, a fibrous protein that supports cartilage and connective tissue strength and elasticity.

    It also contains transforming growth factor-b, a protein that supports tissue rejuvenation, along with other amino acids and structural components that support the stability and flexibility of your joints by providing them with the building blocks needed to build cartilage.

  • Hyaluronic acid (HA): Hyaluronic acid is a key component of your cartilage, responsible for moving nutrients into your cells and moving waste out. One of its most important biological functions is the retention of water… second only to providing nutrients and removing waste from cells that lack a direct blood supply, such as cartilage cells.

    Unfortunately, the process of normal aging reduces the amount of HA synthesized by your body. Oral hyaluronic acid supplementation may effectively help most people cushion their joints after just 2 to 4 months.

  • Boswellia: Also known as boswellin or “Indian frankincense,” this Indian herb is one treatment I’ve found to be particularly useful against arthritic inflammation and associated pain. With sustained use, boswellia may help maintain steady blood flow to your joints, supporting your joint tissues’ ability to boost flexibility and strength.
  • Turmeric / curcumin: A study in the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine found that taking turmeric extracts each day for six weeks was just as effective as ibuprofen for relieving knee osteoarthritis pain. This is most likely related to the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin — the pigment that gives the turmeric spice its yellow-orange color.
  • Animal-based omega-3 fats: These are excellent for arthritis because omega-3s are well known to help reduce inflammation. Look for a high-quality, animal-based source such as krill oil.
  • Astaxanthin: An anti-inflammatory antioxidant that affects a wide range of inflammation mediators, but in a gentler, less concentrated manner and without the negative side effects associated with steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. And it works for a high percentage of people. In one study, more than 80 percent of arthritis sufferers improved with astaxanthin.

Foods and exercises that increase serotonin to prevent Dementia

Foods

  • Eggs. The protein in eggs can significantly boost your blood plasma levels of tryptophan, according to recent research.
  • Cheese. Cheese is another great source of tryptophan.
  • Pineapples
  • Tofu
  • Salmon, wild
  • Nuts and seeds, raw and free from molds
  • Turkey

Exercise

In numerous studies exercise has been shown to increase both serotonin production and release. In particular, aerobic exercises, like running and biking, are the most likely to boost serotonin. Yoga boost serotonin too.

Supplements

Vitamin B complex to regulate Serotonin synthesis

To order the following, use this sponsor/distributor ID:  USW9578356

https://www.nuskin.com/content/nuskin/en_US/products/shop/shop_all/lifepak/01003680.html

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LIFEPACK 22

Season your food with Turmeric

Turmeric has emerged in recent years as a powerful antidepressant, in many cases equalling or even surpassing the effects of prescription antidepressants. Turns out that turmeric (or curcumin, rather) increases brain serotonin levels in a dose-dependent matter.

So maybe you need curcumin, the isolated polyphenol found in turmeric, to really affect depression. Maybe your chicken tikka masala isn’t replacing your SSRI. But absent outright depression or serotonin-based mood disorders, cooking with turmeric should help regulate normal serotonin levels.

Massage and Sunshine

Vitamin D—which we synthesize from UVB exposure—allows the conversion of tryptophan into serotonin.

Getting a massage boosts serotonin by 28%. ncbi.

Acetylcholine/Choline Deficiency in Chronic Illness – eat soft boiled eggs

To my friends who love to drink alcohol be it San Miguel beer or red wine, do eat protein rich foods like soft boiled eggs when drinking.

To my BFF with pancreas health issues, eat soft boiled eggs.

Connie

Acetylcholine/Choline Deficiency in Chronic Illness – The Hunt for the Missing Egg.

Those who lack choline are prone to mental illness, heart disease, fatty liver and/or hemorrhagic kidney necrosis and chronic illness as choline is oxidized to betaine which acts as an important methyl donor and osmolyte. With fatty liver, a person can be prone to diabetes and other chronic illness.  Eggs are rich in choline.  Choline is also found in a wide range of plant foods in small amounts. Eating a well-balanced vegan diet with plenty of whole foods should ensure you are getting enough choline. Soymilk, tofu, quinoa, and broccoli are particularly rich sources.

Eggs are an excellent source of choline and selenium, and a good source of high-quality protein, vitamin D, vitamin B12, phosphorus andriboflavin. In addition, eggs are rich in the essential amino acid leucine(one large egg provides 600 milligrams), which plays a unique role in stimulating muscle protein synthesis.

ucm278430We hear a lot about vitamins and minerals such as B12, folate, magnesium, vitamin C, and so on, but there seems very little talk these days on the importance of dietary lecithin and choline. Are you consuming an adequate amount of acetylcholine, or other phospholipids? The odds are that you are not.

A little bit about choline

The human body produces choline by methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (from dietary sources such as lecithin and others) to form phosphatidylcholine in the liver by the PEMT enzyme. Phosphatidylcholine may also be consumed in the diet or by supplementation. Choline is oxidized to betaine which acts as an important methyl donor and osmolyte.

For those wanting to see how this relates to the methylation cycle, below is a nice graphic (courtesy of Wikipedia).

Choline metabolism

It is well known that magnesium deficiency is widespread (57% of the population does not meet the U.S. RDA according to the USDA), but the numbers for choline deficiency are even more shocking.

According the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 2003-2004, only about 10% of the population have an adequate intake of choline. This means about 90% of the population consumes a diet deficient in choline. Furthermore, those without an adequate intake of choline may not have symptoms.

Along with folate and B12 deficiency, inadequate consumption of choline can lead to high homocysteine and all the risks associated with hyperhomocysteinaemia, such as cardiovascular disease, neuropsychiatric illness (Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia) and osteoporosis. Inadequate choline intake can also lead to fatty liver or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

The most common symptoms of choline deficiency are fatty liver and/or hemorrhagic kidney necrosis. Consuming choline rich foods usually relieve these deficiency symptoms. Diagnosing fatty liver isn’t as simple as running  ALT and AST since nearly 80% of people with fatty liver have normal levels of these enzymes according to a population study published in the journal Hepatology. In fact, in an experiment, 10 women were fed a diet low in choline. Nine developed fatty liver and only one had elevated liver enzymes.


Estrogen and Choline Deficiency

Given the connection between low lipids and choline deficiency, it would be tempting to think that as long as someone has enough cholesterol and TG that they will be protected from choline deficiency.  Unfortunately this is not the case.  Having adequate lipids does indeed help support healthy choline levels, but it does not guarantee a person will avoid choline deficiency.  The truth is that choline deficiency can come from more than one source.  Both sex hormone levels and genetic SNPs may lead to a choline deficiency by influencing the PEMT enzyme – the enzyme responsible for synthesis of choline inside the body.  Recent research now confirms how hormones and genetic polymorphisms play a major role in choline deficiency.

The body can make choline only one way; that is by methylating a molecule of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) into a molecule of phosphatidylcholine (PC).  The body’s only method for accomplishing this is via the enzyme PEMT (phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase) which is found in the liver, brain, muscle, fat and other tissues.1,2    As with other well-known methylation enzymes like MTHFR and COMT, the PEMT enzyme can have genetic SNPs that slow it down.  When this enzyme slows down the body cannot make choline in high amounts and choline deficiency is more likely.  But there is more to the story of PEMT than just polymorphisms.  In addition to being slowed by SNPs, PEMT is also dependent upon the hormone estrogen for activation. 1, 3  What this means is that the PEMT enzyme, the body’s only method of synthesizing choline, has not one but two Achilles heals.  The PEMT pathway and how it relates to phosphatidylcholine production is shown in Figure 1.3 below.

Communicating Vessels4-PEMT

Figure 1.3 – PEMT is shown as the rate-limiting reaction in the production of phosphatidylcholine inside the human body.  Due to genetic and hormonal variances, most people have a PEMT enzyme working too slow and are susceptible to choline deficiency when there is not enough choline in the diet.  ACoA – Acetyl-CoA; TG – Triglycerides; PE – phosphatidylethanolamine; PC – phosphatidylecholine; PEMT – phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase.

As mentioned above, the sex hormone estrogen is intimately linked with the production of choline.  Women have a biological advantage here as the premenopausal female body has much higher levels of estrogen than does the male body.  When a woman becomes pregnant this advantage is taken to an extreme, as pregnancy increases estrogen levels over 30 times normal.4  A successful pregnancy requires high amounts of nutrients delivered to the growing baby, esp. choline.  Since the mother’s body is building a human being from scratch, there is an added burden on her biology to provide enough nutrition to her growing baby.  Viewed from this perspective, the high estrogen levels during pregnancy can be seen to act like a biochemical insurance policy.  Since the PEMT enzyme requires estrogen to function, pregnancy allows a woman to make extra choline for her developing child.  Furthermore, the nervous system is the first system to form in utero and is a tissue that requires high levels of choline for proper development.5, 6  Choline plays such an important role in cell membranes, myelin sheaths, and nervous system tissue that the high estrogen levels during pregnancy help make sure the growing brain and nervous system is nourished.  It is a genius system that assures the health and survival of the child.

Even though Nature has conferred an advantage to females by providing them with higher estrogen levels, esp. during pregnancy, this alone cannot protect against a lack of choline in the diet.  All the estrogen in the world will not save a woman from choline deficiency if the gene responsible for producing choline is slowed down by a polymorphism.  Genetic research has shown that the gene responsible for synthesizing choline, the PEMT gene, is susceptible to common polymorphisms which alter its function by slowing it down.  In a recent study looking at a population in North Carolina, men and women of various ages were placed on a choline-deficient diet.  They were followed closely for up to 42 days on a low choline diet consisting of less than 50mg choline per day.  Throughout the study, the participants’ liver function was continuously assessed for any sign of fatty liver and damage.  After eating a choline deficient diet for just six weeks, 63% of participants developed liver dysfunction and choline blood levels dropped 30% in every single participant, including premenopausal females.7  During this six week trial of low dietary choline the odds of developing liver dysfunction were 77% for men, 80% for postmenopausal women and just 44% for premenopausal women.7  Based on what has been discussed so far about estrogen and choline, it makes sense that men and postmenopausal women would be more susceptible to developing fatty liver since they don’t have high estrogen levels.  And based on the fact that estrogen levels drive choline production, premenopausal women should have been protected from fatty liver since they make higher amounts of choline – but that was not the case.

With dietary choline restricted to just 50 mg/day, approximately half of the premenopausal group also suffered liver dysfunction, suggesting that a choline deficient diet can even harm women with higher estrogen levels.  In addition, blood tests revealed that premenopausal female experienced a 30% loss of choline on a low choline diet right along with everyone else.   Despite the fact that higher estrogen levels allow fertile women to make more choline, many were not able to make enough to avoid problems.  A PEMT gene polymorphism is the only mechanism that can explain how women with high estrogen levels are still susceptible to choline deficiency when placed on a low choline diet.

Just like many individuals in the population, some of the premenopausal women inherited one or two copies of the PEMT gene which slows down the production of choline.   This study showed that fatty liver occurred in 80% of the premenopausal women with two copies of PEMT and in 43% with only one copy of PEMT.8  What this means is that a premenopausal woman with two copies of the slowed PEMT gene has exactly the same risk of fatty liver as a postmenopausal woman.  It is as if inheriting two copies of the PEMT gene effectively shuts off all estrogen-related choline production in the body.  If a woman only has a single copy of the slowed PEMT gene, she will still have a roughly 50% chance of liver dysfunction on a low choline diet.  Thus a single copy of the gene is only slightly better than two copies, as at least some estrogen-related choline production is preserved.

If having a PEMT gene can put one at risk for choline-related diseases like fatty liver, then it is important to know how common these genes are in population.  We know that 74% of all women in the study had a SNP in the PEMT that made their PEMT enzyme unresponsive to estrogen.9  This means that only 26% of women can make enough choline on a low choline diet; and that ability depends on whether the woman is still fertile or has entered menopause.  In this way genetics can take away the biological advantage that high estrogen levels usually offer to premenopausal females.  Women with these PEMT genes will be at risk for choline deficiency and liver damage just like all men and post-menopausal women – two groups who don’t have enough estrogen to make choline regardless of their genes.  Due to all the interference from the PEMT gene, dietary choline levels must be optimized for the vast majority of our population.

Summary of PEMT and Choline Deficiency:

  • In humans, choline is only made by the PEMT enzyme
  • Estrogen is required for the PEMT enzyme to activate and function normally
  • Men and postmenopausal women have an elevated risk of choline deficiency due to low estrogen levels.
  • The PEMT enzyme is commonly slowed down by polymorphisms, making it unresponsive to estrogen levels
    • 74% of women have at least one copy of a slowed PEMT
    • Homozygous carriers of PEMT have much higher risk of choline deficiency
    • Men, postmenopausal women, and premenopausal women with PEMT SNPs need to increase choline intake in the diet to offset elevated risk of liver dysfunction

The take away here is that studies have recently shown that because of common genetic polymorphisms, choline deficiency is a widespread problem.  Normally the hormone estrogen allows the body to make choline from scratch.  However, genetic variation in the PEMT enzyme, estrogen levels and gender differences prevent most people from making adequate choline.  Realistically then the only group in our population who is protected from choline deficiency are premenopausal females without a single copy of the slowed PEMT gene.   Every single male, every single postmenopausal woman, and 74% of premenopausal woman all require daily intake of approx. 500 mg of choline to prevent fatty liver, organ damage, and the associated health problems.7  If the body is already depleted, then levels that simply prevent deficiency won’t be enough to replete the body.  In these cases, higher daily doses of at least 1 gram or more are needed to replenish the tissues.  Choline it seems must be absorbed from the diet in just about everyone except for the few young women who have a normal PEMT gene and can synthesize choline regardless of dietary intake.


7 Ways How To Cook Eggs to Maximize Nutrition – Dr. Anthony Gustin

BEST TO WORST WAYS HOW TO COOK EGGS FOR MAXIMUM NUTRITION: 1. SOFT BOILED. We’ll start out with the best way how to cook eggs for nutrition: soft boiled. This is when you boil anegg, but it is still a little runny and the yolk is definitely not hard. It might take a little more work than other methods, but soft boiled …

raw yolks as choline source for ‘cetams? – Brain Health – LONGECITY

http://www.longecity.org › LONGECITY › Bioscience, Health & Nutrition › Brain Health

Oct 9, 2005 – I know that uncooked egg yolks are a source of choline (180-215mg?) and phosphatidylcholine. As I understand it, cooking the yolk kind of ‘denatures’ the choline and makes it unavailable. … Whole raw eggs are my source of choline and protien (and other stuff too).

Cooking eggs destroy it’s choline benefits?? : Nootropics – Reddit

Jan 9, 2013 – 8 posts – ‎5 authors

There is a lot of speculation out there as to whether cooking an egg decreases the amounts of choline it contains. Most of what I see online says that it does. However, I have yet to find any scientific evidence that is the case. In fact, the USDA has a choline fact sheet, which has cooked eggs having slightly …

Eggs, Choline, & Cancer | NutritionFacts.org

Oct 14, 2013 – soft boiled egg contains useable lysine. Boil the egg for another minute to hard state, the lysine is not useable. Lysine is needed for the body to make use of the next 5 most important essential aminoes so that other aminoes can be made by the body. Lysine is denatured at about 110 degrees. As the heat …

The Single Best Way to Eat an Egg – Health Wire

Mar 5, 2015 – If you choose not to eat your eggs raw, poached or softboiled would be the next best option. This leaves the yolk still runny and the … Eggs also contain choline, selenium, biotin, B vitamins, phosphorus, and more, making them are one of the healthiest foods you can eat. And, contrary to popular belief, …

5 Ways to Get More Choline in Your Diet: Secret of Radiant Living

The ideal sources of choline are animal foods like egg yolks and liver, which contain the most concentrated amounts of this nutrient and can be easily incorporated into the diet to meet … Veggies from this group, including cauliflower, cabbage, bok choy and broccoli, boast around 65 mg of cholineper cup cooked.

Soft-Boiled Science: Egg-cellently Cooked Eggs – Scientific American

Mar 28, 2013 – Hard-boiled eggs are commonly used for dying Easter eggs, but a softboiled egg can make a yummy breakfast or snack. How does … One large egg has about 75 calories, many essential nutrients, lots of high-quality protein, various vitamins, multiple minerals, choline, folate and riboflavin. Eggs can help …

How to Boil Eggs: The Hard Truth About Boiled Eggs – Dr. Mercola

Jun 7, 2014 – Eggs are a phenomenal source of protein, fat, and other nutrients, including choline and the antioxidants lutein and zeaxanthin. … While less “well done” eggs are still preferable (such as poached, soft-boiled, or over easy with very runny yolks), a hard-boiled egg makes a fine snack or source of protein for …

The Only Way to Get the Most Nutrition From Eggs – Waking Times

Feb 21, 2015 – This nutrient loss occurs regardless of whether the egg is removed from the shell (for example, during poaching) or left inside the shell during cooking (for example, during soft or hard boiling). If you compare the nutrient value of one large raw egg to one large hard-boiled egg in the latest version of the U.S. …

Eat Your Eggs! Choline and the Link With Fatty Liver – Fatty Liver Diet …

fattyliverdietguide.org › Fatty Liver Diet

Eat Your Eggs! Choline and the Link With Fatty Liver. eggs “Stay away from eggs if you want to be healthy. They have all that fat and cholesterol!” If you’re like most people, you began hearing that information in the 70s, 80s or 90s (depending upon your age). …. I eate boiled eggs but not the yolk because I don’t like them.

 

 

Hypocretin, Insomia or Sleep Disturbances, Narcolepsy, Depression and Parkinson’s

Drowsy Driving

Driving and feeling sleepy. Repetitive tasks make you sleepy because you already lack sleep. You have taken your calcium and magnesium and melatonin and the bedroom has cool environment. Still, you have worries and you keep tossing back and forth on your bed. You cannot get the more than 5 hrs sleep. Your regular sleep hours are from 12midnight to 5pm and you cannot seem to add 1 more hour to it. You have a busy day and are driven to perform more and bring work at home.

What is the root cause of insomnia, narcolepsy, depression and Parkinson?

Is it because of poor muscle tone, cataplexy?

Is it because of alcohol, lifestyle, work shift pattern, caffeine, use of sedating medication, anxiety or problems or age?

The root cause if hyprocretin, a brain chemical. Eat happy foods/omega 3 such as yams, eggs, bananas, dates, cherries, hummus, a little MSG in Asian dish and fish. Avoid sugar and eat more fermented veggies (prebiotics and probiotics). Do weight bearing exercise and work in getting more sleep.

If your bedtime is 12midnight, try to calm down by 11pm (repetitive tasks-repetitive prayers/counting – leaving your worries away, no TV light, dim light, cool air, relax).

sleep


What is narcolepsy?

Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the loss of the brain’s ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.[1] Symptoms include excessive daytime sleepiness, comparable to how people who do not have narcolepsy feel after 24–48 hours of sleep deprivation,[2] as well as disturbed sleep which often is confused with insomnia. Another common symptom of narcolepsy is cataplexy, a sudden and transient episode of muscle weakness accompanied by full conscious awareness, typically (though not necessarily) triggered by emotions such as laughing, crying, terror, etc.[3] affecting roughly 70% of people who have narcolepsy.[4]

The system which regulates sleep, arousal, and transitions between these states in humans is composed of three interconnected subsystems: the orexin projections from the lateral hypothalamus, the reticular activating system, and the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus.[5] In narcoleptic individuals, these systems are all associated with impairments due to a greatly reduced number of hypothalamic orexin projection neurons and significantly fewer orexin neuropeptides in cerebrospinal fluid and neural tissue, compared to non-narcoleptic individuals.[5] Those with narcolepsy generally experience the REM stage of sleep within five minutes of falling asleep, while people who do not have narcolepsy (unless they are significantly sleep deprived)[6] do not experience REM until after a period of slow-wave sleep, which lasts for about the first hour or so of a sleep cycle.


Hpocretin or Orexin, is a neuropeptide that regulates arousal, wakefulness, and appetite.

The most common form of narcolepsy, in which the sufferer briefly loses muscle tone (cataplexy), is caused by a lack of orexin in the brain due to destruction of the cells that produce it.[2]

Cataplexy is a sudden and transient episode of muscle weakness accompanied by full conscious awareness, typically triggered by emotions such as laughing, crying, or terror.[1] It is the cardinal symptom of narcolepsy with cataplexy affecting roughly 70% of people who have narcolepsy,[2] and is caused by an autoimmune destruction of the neurotransmitter hypocretin (also called orexin), which regulates arousal and wakefulness.

There are approximately 70,000 orexin producing neurons in the human brain that project from the lateral hypothalamus to neurons and brain regions that modulate wakefulness.[1][2] However, the axons from these neurons extend throughout the entire brain and spinal cord,[3] where there are also receptors for orexin.

Orexin was discovered in 1998 almost simultaneously by two independent groups of rat-brain researchers.[4][5] One group named it orexin, from orexis, meaning “appetite” in Greek; the other group named it hypocretin, because it is produced in the hypothalamus and bears a weak resemblance to secretin, another peptide.

Link Between Parkinson’s And Narcolepsy Discovered Parkinson’s disease

Link Between Parkinson’s And Narcolepsy Discovered Parkinson’s disease is well-known for its progression of motor disorders: stiffness, slowness, tremors, difficulties walking and talking. Less well known is that Parkinson’s shares other symptoms with narcolepsy, a sleep disorder characterized by sudden and uncontrollable episodes of deep sleep, severe fatigue and general sleep disorder.

Now a team of UCLA and Veterans Affairs researchers think they know why — the two disorders share something in common: Parkinson’s disease patients have severe damage to the same small group of neurons whose loss causes narcolepsy. The findings suggest a different clinical course of treatment for people suffering with Parkinson’s that may ameliorate their sleep symptoms.

In their report in the May issue of the journal Brain, Jerry Siegel, professor of psychiatry and biobehavioral sciences at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA, assistant resident neurobiologist Thomas C. Thannickal and associate research physiologist Yuan-Yang Lai have determined that Parkinson’s disease patients have a loss of up to 60 percent of brain cells containing the peptide hypocretin.

In 2000, this same group of UCLA researchers first identified the cause of narcolepsy as a loss of hypocretin, thought to be important in regulating the sleep cycle. This latest research points to a common cause for the sleep disorders associated with these two diseases and suggests that treatment of Parkinson’s disease patients with hypocretin or hypocretin analogs may reverse these symptoms.

More than 1 million people in the U.S. have been diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease, and approximately 20 million worldwide. (The percentage of those afflicted increases with age.) Narcolepsy affects approximately one in 2,000 individuals — about 150,000 in the United States and 3 million worldwide. Its main symptoms are sleep attacks, nighttime sleeplessness and cataplexy, the sudden loss of skeletal muscle tone without loss of consciousness; that is, although the person cannot talk or move, they are otherwise in a state of high alertness, feeling, hearing and remembering everything that is going on around them.

“When we think of Parkinson’s, the first thing that comes to mind are the motor disorders associated with it,” said Siegel, who is also chief of neurobiology research at the Sepulveda Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Mission Hills, Calif. “But sleep disruption is a major problem in Parkinson’s, often more disturbing than its motor symptoms. And most Parkinson’s patients have daytime sleep attacks that resemble narcoleptic sleep attacks.”

In fact, said Siegel, Parkinson’s disease is often preceded and accompanied by daytime sleep attacks, nocturnal insomnia, REM sleep disorder, hallucinations and depression. All of these symptoms are also present in narcolepsy.

In the study, the researchers examined 16 human brains from cadavers — five from normal adults and 11 in various stages of Parkinson’s — and found an increasing loss of hypocretin cells (Hcrt) with disease progression. In fact, said Siegel, the later stages of Parkinson’s were “characterized by a massive loss of the Hcrt neurons. That leads us to believe the loss of Hcrt cells may be a cause of the narcolepsy-like symptoms of [Parkinson’s].

http://www.hypocretin.com/


From Dr Mercola:

The brain chemical hypocretin, a neurotransmitter that helps keep you awake, is most widely known for its role in the sleeping disorder known as narcolepsy.

Narcoleptics, who uncontrollably fall asleep during the day and have much higher rates of depression than the general population, are unable to produce hypocretin. This not only interferes with their sleep-wake cycle, but also may also disrupt their emotional state – a new finding that has implications for everyone.

Hypocretin May Regulate Your Levels of Happiness

A new study, which used epilepsy patients who had special electrodes implanted in their brains that could monitor hypocretin levels, found that levels of the neurotransmitter soared during positive emotions, anger, social interactions and upon awakening.1

Hypocretin has been previously associated with reward-seeking behaviors, and the researchers suggested it may have a very specific role in human arousal and happiness as well. The study’s lead author, Dr. Jerome Siegel, told the New York Times:2

“This [study] shows that hypocretin is related to a particular kind of arousal … There is an arousal system in the brain whose function is keeping you awake for pleasure, to get rewards. It is related to positive effects, and in its absence you have a deficit in pleasure seeking.”

This explains why people with narcolepsy, who are lacking hypocretin, also commonly suffer from depression. Interestingly, it also suggests there may be other arousal systems in your brain, driven by different brain chemicals, that may be in charge of regulating other specific emotions.

A Warning About Hypocretin-Blocking Sleeping Pills

If an important new biological pathway is discovered you can bet your bottom dollar that the drug companies will not be far behind to manipulate that pathway in some way that will not correct the problem, but merely relieve the symptoms and make them a boatload of money. And that is precisely what has happened.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted a new drug application for Suvorexant, a new insomnia medication made by Merck.3 This is the same company that brought you Vioxx, which killed 60,000 before being pulled from the market.

The new drug works by targeting hypocretin, temporarily blocking it to help you fall asleep, or, as the New York Times put it, “essentially causing narcolepsy for a night.”4

The concern is that if reduced hypocretin may be responsible for causing depression in narcoleptics, could it also cause depression, or interfere with mood, in healthy people using the hypocretin-blocking drug Suvorexant? So far Merck claims no connection has been found, but there is likely reason for caution:5

“The initial reports are rosy,” Dr. Siegel told the New York Times, “But they come from a drug company with an enormous investment. And there is a long list of drugs acting on the brain whose severe problems were only identified after millions of people were taking them.”

More Proof Lack of Sleep Leads to Weight Gain

Research has only scratched the surface of the far-reaching implications of a disrupted sleep-wake cycle. But in addition to impacting your emotions, it’s known that a lack of sleep causes changes in the hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin – changes that impact your food intake and ultimately your weight.

The latest research showed the effects of sleeping just five hours a night for five days. The study participants actually burned more energy than those who slept longer, but they had less restraint when it came to mealtime. The sleep-deprived subjects ended up eating more, so that despite their increased energy burning they gained nearly two pounds, on average, during the five-day study.6

Researchers noted:

“Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed … These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity.”

The good news is that the opposite also held true: when participants started getting more sleep, they subsequently started to eat less and lose weight.

Too Little Sleep Wreaks Havoc on Your Insulin Levels, Leads to Food Cravings

Sleep deprivation tends to lead to food cravings, particularly for sweet and starchy foods. Researchers have suggested that these sugar cravings stem from the fact that your brain is fueled by glucose (blood sugar); therefore, when lack of sleep occurs, and your brain is unable to properly respond to insulin (which drives glucose into brain cells) your brain becomes desperate for carbohydrates to keep going. If you’re chronically sleep deprived, consistently giving in to these sugar cravings will virtually guarantee that you’ll gain weight.

Getting too little sleep also dramatically decreases the sensitivity of your insulin receptors, which will raise your insulin levels. This too is a surefire way to gain weight, as the elevated insulin will seriously impair your body’s ability to burn and digest fat.

According to research published in the Annals of Internal Medicine,7 after four nights of sleep deprivation (sleep time was only 4.5 hours per night), study participants’ insulin sensitivity was 16 percent lower, while their fat cells’ insulin sensitivity was 30 percent lower, and rivaled levels seen in those with diabetes or obesity.

Sleep Deprivation Linked to Psychiatric Disorders

Getting back to the link between sleep, or lack of it, and mood, sleep deprivation is linked to psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and bipolar depression, while getting the right amount of sleep has been linked to positive personality characteristics such as optimism and greater self-esteem, as well as a greater ability to solve difficult problems.8

So there’s no doubt about it: too little sleep can seriously impact your mood and your ability to be happy. If you feel well-rested in the morning, that’s a good sign that your sleep habits are just fine. But if not, you might want to investigate your sleep patterns more closely.

10 Reasons Why You Might Have Trouble Sleeping

There are many factors that can influence your sleep. For my complete recommendations and guidelines that can help you improve your sleep, please see my article 33 Secrets to a Good Night’s Sleep. Following are 10 often-overlooked factors to address if you’re having trouble with your sleep:

    1. Too Much Light in Your Room

Even the tiniest bit of light in the room, including those emitted by electronic devices, can disrupt your pineal gland’s production of melatonin and serotonin, thereby disrupting your sleep cycle.

So close your bedroom door, install black-out drapes, use a sleep mask, get rid of night-lights, and refrain from turning on any light during the night, even when getting up to go to the bathroom. If you have to use a light you can use a red flashlight, as that wavelength of light has a minimal impact on melatonin production.

    1. Exercising Too Close to Bedtime

Exercising for at least 30 minutes per day can improve your sleep. However, don’t exercise too close to bedtime (generally not within the three hours before) or it may keep you awake.

    1. Drinking Alcohol Before Bed

Although alcohol will make you drowsy, the effect is short lived and you will often wake up several hours later, unable to fall back asleep. Alcohol can also keep you from entering the deeper stages of sleep, where your body does most of its healing.

    1. Your Bedroom is Too Warm

Many people keep their homes and particularly their upstairs bedrooms too warm. Studies show that the optimal room temperature for sleep is quite cool, between 60 to 68 degrees F. Keeping your room cooler or hotter can lead to restless sleep. When you sleep, your body’s internal temperature drops to its lowest level, generally about four hours after you fall asleep.

Scientists believe a cooler bedroom may therefore be most conducive to sleep, since it mimics your body’s natural temperature drop.

    1. Caffeine is Keeping You Awake

Caffeine has a half-life of five hours, which means some will still be in your system even 10 hours later, and 12.5% 20 hours later (see the problem?). Plus, in some people caffeine is not metabolized efficiently, leaving you feeling its effects even longer after consumption. So, an afternoon cup of coffee or tea will keep some people from falling asleep at night. Be aware that some over the counter medications contain caffeine as well (for example, diet pills).

    1. You’re Watching the Clock

The more you watch the clock when you wake up in the middle of the night, the more stressed and anxious you will become, and the more you may actually “train” yourself to start awakening at the same time each night. The solution is simple: Remove the clock from your view so you actually have to sit up or change positions to see the clock.

    1. Watching TV to Help You Fall Asleep

The artificial glow from your TV can serve as a stimulus for keeping you awake and, possibly, eating, when you should really be asleep. Further, computer and TV screens (and most light bulbs) emit blue light, to which your eyes are particularly sensitive simply because it’s the type of light most common outdoors during daytime hours. As a result, it can disrupt your melatonin production and further interfere with your sleep.

    1. Worrying in the Middle of the Night

If stress keeps you up at night, try keeping a “worry journal” next to your bedside so you can jot down your thoughts there and clear them from your head. The Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) can also help balance your body’s bioenergy system and resolve some of the emotional stresses that are contributing to your insomnia at a very deep level. The results are typically long lasting and improvement is remarkably rapid.

    1. Eating Too Close to Bedtime

Although you might struggle with this initially, it is ideal to avoid eating any foods three hours before bed, as this will optimize your blood sugar, insulin and leptin levels and contribute to overall good health.

    1. Smoking

The nicotine in cigarettes is a stimulant, which can keep you awake much as though you just drank a cup of coffee.

 

 

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