Check your bile acid production and stress level for fat metabolism

Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol

Bile begins its life in the liver and spends a significant amount of time somewhere between the liver, gallbladder, and gastrointestinal tract, specifically the intestines. Liver cells manufacture bile before it undergoes modification in the bile duct epithelium, and then it is transported to the gallbladder for storage and, ultimately, use. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol with the aid of several different enzymes.

Soup of Sulfur rich bile acids will help balance bile production:

Mix these root crops to pinch of organic chicken broth powder: rutabaga, kale, carrot, parsnip, onion, garlic and a tsp of apple cider vinegar or lemon juice added in the last boiling.

bile

Short-chain fatty acids :  The gut microbiota can ferment complex dietary residues that are resistant to digestion by enteric enzymes.

This process provides energy for the microbiota but culminates in the release of short-chain fatty acids including butyrate, which are utilized for the metabolic needs of the colon and the body.

Butyrate has a remarkable array of colonic health-promoting and antineoplastic properties:

  • It is the preferred energy source for colonocytes,
  • It maintains mucosal integrity and it suppresses inflammation and carcinogenesis through effects on immunity, gene expression and epigenetic modulation.

Note:  Protein residues and fat-stimulated bile acids are also metabolized by the microbiota to inflammatory and/or carcinogenic metabolites, which increase the risk of neoplastic progression.

The makeup of bile is largely water, at about 95%. The remaining five percent is made up of bile acids, bilirubin, amino acids, enzymes, steroid hormones including estrogen, glutathione, cholesterol, vitamins (especially vitamin D and some of the B vitamins), porphyrins, insulin, and other items, including toxins such as heavy metals, xenobiotics, medications and drugs, and environmental toxins targeted for excretion. There are also electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, sulfate, and bicarbonate. As you excrete more bile acid, bile flow is stimulated. There is also a circadian rhythm to the synthesis and circulation of bile acids.

In total, there are more than 50 species of bile acids in humans, but the main ones include cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). Although bile salts and bile acids are frequently used interchangeably, technically bile acids become bile salts upon conjugation with glycine or taurine. The gut bacteria metabolize bile acids to create secondary bile acids, of which there are more than 400 species. After the gut bacteria metabolize them, cholic acid becomes deoxycholic acid and CDCA becomes lithocholic acid. The amount of bile acids making their way into the colon affects the microbiome makeup. Bile acids are reabsorbed in the small intestine and colon to then come back into circulation as part of the enterohepatic circulation, which is a bidirectional pathway.

Bile acids, a key component of bile, are the main emulsifiers of fat. As such, bile ultimately finds its way into the small intestine for this function. When fat enters your small intestine, you secrete CCK (cholecystokinin), which signals your gallbladder to send bile into the small intestine to aid in digestion and absorption.

Functions of bile acid

Although this may be the function of bile most commonly known, there are actually many, many more. Some of the key functions of bile include:

  • Aids the immune system through excreting certain immune system signals, such as IgA and inflammatory cytokines
  • Elimination of certain hormones and pheromones
  • Endogenous ligand (binder to stimulate a signal) for several receptors, including nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR), vitamin D receptor, and G protein-coupled receptor TGR5
  • Excretion of fat-soluble toxins and other waste, including endogenous substrates
  • Modulation of metabolic pathways, including lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, and insulin sensitivity
  • Regulation of tight junction permeability
  • Removal of cholesterol
  • Signaling molecule and hormone

With so many different functions, it should come as no surprise that problems in the flow, metabolism, or synthesis of bile and/or bile acids could contribute to a variety of diseases.

Diseases such as colon and liver cancer

Problems with bile may stem from dysfunction in the synthesis of bile, an impairment in the secretion, or problems with the flow of bile. The metabolism of bile may become disturbed through problems stemming from the synthesis or conjugation with cholesterol, problems with the membrane transport, issues with the transport between the organs, or problems with the bacterial degradation of bile during the enterohepatic cycling. There may also be malabsorption of the bile acid, leading to higher concentrations in the colon, which may then negatively impact the function of the mucosal cells in the colon. Furthermore, when the concentration of bile acids is too high, it can be toxic and cause problems. Alterations to bile acids are also associated with disease.

The level of bile acids that reach the colon may contribute to functional bowel diseases. Elevated concentrations may contribute to diarrhea, while lower levels may play a role in constipation. In one study on children with functional constipation, the fecal bile acid profile was normal, but there were some who had the 3-sulfate version of CDCA as the dominant fecal bile acid, which could demonstrate a link for some cases.

Stress and Bile acids

Psychological stress is a risk factor for atherosclerosis, yet the pathophysiological mechanisms involved remain elusive. The transfer of cholesterol from macrophage foam cells to liver and feces (the macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport, m-RCT) is an important antiatherogenic pathway. Because exposure of mice to physical restraint, a model of psychological stress, increases serum levels of corticosterone, and as bile acid homeostasis is disrupted in glucocorticoid-treated animals, we investigated if chronic intermittent restraint stress would modify m-RCT by altering the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. C57Bl/6J mice exposed to intermittent stress for 5 days exhibited increased transit through the large intestine and enhanced fecal bile acid excretion. Of the transcription factors and transporters that regulate bile acid homeostasis, the mRNA expression levels of the hepatic farnesoid X receptor (FXR), the bile salt export pump (BSEP), and the intestinal fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) were reduced, whereas those of the ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), responsible for active bile acid absorption, remained unchanged. Neither did the hepatic expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the key enzyme regulating bile acid synthesis, change in the stressed mice. Evaluation of the functionality of the m-RCT pathway revealed increased fecal excretion of bile acids that had been synthesized from macrophage-derived cholesterol. Overall, our study reveals that chronic intermittent stress in mice accelerates m-RCT specifically by increasing fecal excretion of bile acids. This novel mechanism of m-RCT induction could have antiatherogenic potential under conditions of chronic stress.

Vinegar helps increase bile production

Polyphenols such as chlorogenic acid which is present in high levels in apple cider vinegar could inhibit oxidation of LDLs and improve health by preventing cardiovascular diseases (Laranjinha and others 1994).

Zinc jams shut a protein transporter in bacteria preventing infection this winter

After delivering babies, mothers would feed a young mother with soup from clams, spinach, garlic, mushrooms, onions. This soup is rich in zinc and other flavones that can kill bacteria, virus and infection. This coming winter season, more seniors get hospitalized from pneumonia. So fill your kitchen storage with onions, garlic, mushrooms, seeds, nuts, citrus fruits , herbs (turmeric, curcumin, tyme,sage) and other zinc-rich foods.

If you have no time to prepare most of the above foods and wanted to supplement, I suggest anti-inflammatory supplements (Lifepak and AGELOC family) at :

http://www.clubalthea.pxproducts.com

Zinc jams shut a protein transporter in bacteria

Published today in the journal Nature Chemical Biology, the researchers describe how zinc “jams shut” a protein transporter in the bacteria so that it cannot take up manganese, an essential metal that Streptococcus pneumoniae needs to be able to invade and cause disease in humans.

zinc

 

Flavones block the actions of leukotrienes

Inhibition of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway

Some chemicals found in trace amounts in food, and some dietary supplements, also have been shown in inhibit 5-LOX, such as baicalein, caffeic acid, curcumin, hyperforin and St John’s wort (contra-indicated when you are taking antibiotics, other meds).

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BaicaleinBaicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone) is a flavone, a type of flavonoid, originally isolated from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and Scutellaria lateriflora. It is also …

  2. http://www.jbc.org/content/279/26/26846.fullJun 25, 2004  Baicalein is a flavonoid with antioxidant properties; upon oxidation, it forms several products including quinones. We show here that low …

  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17976269J Pharm Pharmacol. 2007 Nov;59(11):1567-72. Scutellaria baicalensis and a constituent flavonoidbaicalein, attenuate ritonavir-induced gastrointestinal …

  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2573395/Aug 23, 2008  The flavonoid baicalein inhibits fibrillation of α-synuclein, which is a major component of the Lewy bodies in Parkinson’s disease. It has been …

  5. https://selfhacked.com/blog/baicalein-baicalin-top-7-health-benefits-flavanoid/3 days ago  Baicalein is a flavone, a type of polyphenolic flavonoid, that is extracted from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and Scutellaria lateriflora that …

  6. http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/212440Aug 29, 2016  A commentary on. The Flavonoid Baicalein Rescues Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Deficits in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

  7. https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2013/635694/Jun 10, 2013  The estrogenic activity of two flavonoidsbaicalein and daidzein, were demonstrated by their strong abilities in stimulating estrogen receptor …

  8. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.biochem.6b00578Jul 19, 2016  Amyloid formation of the 37-residue amylin is involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and potentially, diabetes-induced neurological …

  9. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304383510002375Nov 1, 2010  Baicalein is a flavonoid derived from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis, widely used in Chinese herbal medicine. Historically, S. baicalensis has …

  10. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166432816303369May 24, 2016  Baicalein prevents memory deficits in AD model. … Our results strengthen the potential of the flavonoid baicaleinas a novel and promising oral …

Leukotrienes are a family of eicosanoid inflammatory mediators produced in leukocytes by the oxidation of arachidonic acid(AA) and the essential fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the enzyme arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase.[1][2][3]

Leukotrienes use lipid signaling to convey information to either the cell producing them (autocrine signaling) or neighboring cells (paracrine signaling) in order to regulate immune responses. The production of leukotrienes is usually accompanied by the production of histamine and prostaglandins, which also act as inflammatory mediators.[citation needed]

One of their roles (specifically, leukotriene D4) is to trigger contractions in the smooth muscles lining the bronchioles; their overproduction is a major cause of inflammation in asthma and allergic rhinitis.[4] Leukotriene antagonists are used to treat these disorders by inhibiting the production or activity of leukotrienes.

Power salmon,onions,avocado and eggs for breakfast

20160508_094137.jpg

Ingredients: smoked salmon (Costco), avocado, hormone-free eggs,sea salt, hot pepper mix (Japan), onions, jack-pepper cheese

Note: You may add garlic, spinach or other ingredients

Cooking Instruction

  1. Sautee onions separately
  2. In warm pot (I used iron-based pot), spread the scrambled eggs (pinch of seasalt) in low heat
  3. Add the remaining ingredients

Serve with love and a hug for early morning energy.

GLUTATHIONE, the mother of all anti-oxidants by Mark Hyman M.D

Glutathione is the most important molecule you need to stay healthy and prevent disease — yet you’ve probably never heard of it. It’s the secret to prevent aging, cancer, heart disease, dementia and more, and necessary to treat everything from autism to Alzheimer’s disease. There are more than 89,000 medical articles about it — but your doctor doesn’t know how address the epidemic deficiency of this critical life-giving molecule …

What is it? I’m talking about the mother of all antioxidants, the master detoxifier and maestro of the immune system: GLUTATHIONE (pronounced “gloota-thigh-own”).

The good news is that your body produces its own glutathione. The bad news is that poor diet, pollution, toxins, medications, stress, trauma, aging, infections and radiation all deplete your glutathione.
This leaves you susceptible to unrestrained cell disintegration from oxidative stress, free radicals, infections and cancer.  And your liver gets overloaded and damaged, making it unable to do its job of detoxification.

In treating chronically ill patients with Functional Medicine for more than 10 years, I have discovered that glutathione deficiency is found in nearly all very ill patients. These include people with chronic fatigue syndrome, heart disease, cancer, chronic infections, autoimmune disease, diabetes, autism, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, arthritis, asthma, kidney problems, liver disease and more.
At first I thought that this was just a coincidental finding, but over the years I have come to realize that our ability to produce and maintain a high level of glutathione is critical to recovery from nearly all chronic illness — and to preventing disease and maintaining optimal health and performance. The authors of those 76,000 medical articles on glutathione I mentioned earlier have found the same thing!

So in today’s blog I want to explain what glutathione is, why it’s important and give you 9 tips that will help you optimize your glutathione levels, improve your detoxification system and protect help yourself from chronic illness.

What is Glutathione?

Glutathione is a very simple molecule that is produced naturally all the time in your body.  It is a combination of three simple building blocks of protein or amino acids — cysteine, glycine and glutamine.

The secret of its power is the sulfur (SH) chemical groups it contains.  Sulfur is a sticky, smelly molecule.  It acts like fly paper and all the bad things in the body stick onto it, including free radicals and toxins like mercury and other heavy metals.

Normally glutathione is recycled in the body — except when the toxic load becomes too great.  And that explains why we are in such trouble …

In my practice, I test the genes involved in glutathione metabolism. These are the genes involved in producing enzymes that allow the body to create and recycle glutathione in the body. These genes have many names, such as GSTM1, GSTP1 and more.

These genes impaired in some people for a variety of important reasons. We humans evolved in a time before the 80,000 toxic industrial chemicals found in our environment today were introduced into our world, before electromagnetic radiation was everywhere and before we polluted our skies, lakes, rivers, oceans and teeth with mercury and lead.

That is why most people survived with the basic version of the genetic detoxification software encoded in our DNA, which is mediocre at ridding the body of toxins.  At the time humans evolved we just didn’t need more. Who knew we would be poisoning ourselves and eating a processed, nutrient-depleted diet thousands of years later?

Because most of us didn’t require additional detoxification software, almost of half of the population now has a limited capacity to get rid of toxins. These people are missing GSTM1 function — one of the most important genes needed in the process of creating and recycling glutathione in the body.

Nearly all my very sick patients are missing this function. The one-third of our population that suffers from chronic disease is missing this essential gene. That includes me.  Twenty years ago I became mercury poisoned and suffered from chronic fatigue syndrome due to this very problem. My GSTM1 function was inadequate and I didn’t produce enough glutathione as a result. Eventually, my body broke down and I became extremely ill …

This is the same problem I see in so many of my patients. They are missing this critical gene and they descend into disease as a result. Let me explain how this happens …

The Importance of Glutathione in Protecting Against Chronic Illness

Glutathione is critical for one simple reason: It recycles antioxidants. You see, dealing with free radicals is like handing off a hot potato.  They get passed around from vitamin C to vitamin E to lipoic acid and then finally to glutathione which cools off the free radicals and recycles other antioxidants.  After this happens, the body can “reduce” or regenerate another protective glutathione molecule and we are back in business.

However, problems occur when we are overwhelmed with too much oxidative stress or too many toxins.  Then the glutathione becomes depleted and we can no longer protect ourselves against free radicals, infections, or cancer and we can’t get rid of toxins. This leads to further sickness and soon we are in the downward spiral of chronic illness.

But that’s not all. Glutathione is also critical in helping your immune system do its job of fighting infections and preventing cancer.  That’s why studies show that it can help in the treatment of AIDS.(i)

Glutathione is also the most critical and integral part of your detoxification system.  All the toxins stick onto glutathione, which then carries them into the bile and the stool — and out of your body.

And lastly, it also helps us reach peak mental and physical function. Research has shown that raised glutathione levels decrease muscle damage, reduce recovery time, increase strength and endurance and shift metabolism from fat production to muscle development.

If you are sick or old or are just not in peak shape, you likely have glutathione deficiency.   In fact, the top British medical journal, the Lancet, found the highest glutathione levels in healthy young people, lower levels in healthy elderly, lower still in sick elderly and the lowest of all in the hospitalized elderly. (ii)

Keeping yourself healthy, boosting your performance, preventing disease and aging well depends on keeping your glutathione levels high. I’ll say it again … Glutathione is so important because it is responsible for keeping so many of the keys to UltraWellness optimized.

It is critical for immune function and controlling inflammation.  It is the master detoxifier and the body’s main antioxidant, protecting our cells and making our energy metabolism run well.

And the good news is that you can do many things to increase this natural and critical molecule in your body. You can eat glutathione-boosting foods. You can exercise. And you can take glutathione-boosting supplements. Let’s review more specifics about each.

9 Tips to Optimize your Glutathione Levels

These 9 tips will help you improve your glutathione levels, improve your health, optimize your performance and live a long, healthy life.

Eat Foods that Support Glutathione Production

1. Consume sulfur-rich foods. The main ones in the diet are garlic, onions and the cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, kale, collards, cabbage, cauliflower, watercress, etc.).

2. Try bioactive whey protein. This is great source of cysteine and the amino acid building blocks for glutathione synthesis.  As you know, I am not a big fan of dairy. But this is an exception — with a few warnings.  The whey protein MUST be bioactive and made from non-denatured proteins (“denaturing” refers to the breakdown of the normal protein structure).  Choose non-pasteurized and non-industrially produced milk that contains no pesticides, hormones, or antibiotics.  Immunocal is a prescription bioactive non-denatured whey protein that is even listed in the Physician’s Desk Reference.

Exercise for Your Way to More Glutathione

3. Exercise boosts your glutathione levels and thereby helps boost your immune system, improve detoxification and enhance your body’s own antioxidant defenses.  Start slow and build up to 30 minutes a day of vigorous aerobic exercise like walking or jogging, or play various sports.  Strength training for 20 minutes 3 times a week is also helpful.

Take Glutathione Supporting Supplements

One would think it would be easy just to take glutathione as a pill, but the body digests protein — so you wouldn’t get the benefits if you did it this way. However, the production and recycling of glutathione in the body requires many different nutrients and you CAN take these. Here are the main supplements that need to be taken consistently to boost glutathione.  Besides taking a multivitamin and fish oil, supporting my glutathione levels with these supplements is the most important thing I do every day for my personal health.

4. N-acetyl-cysteine. This has been used for years to help treat asthma and lung disease and to treat people with life-threatening liver failure from Tylenol overdose. In fact, I first learned about it in medical school while working in the emergency room.  It is even given to prevent kidney damage from dyes used during x-ray studies.
5. Alpha lipoic acid. This is a close second to glutathione in importance in our cells and is involved in energy production, blood sugar control, brain health and detoxification.  The body usually makes it, but given all the stresses we are under, we often become depleted.

6. Methylation nutrients (folate and vitamins B6 and B12). These are perhaps the most critical to keep the body producing glutathione.  Methylation and the production and recycling of glutathione are the two most important biochemical functions in your body.  Take folate (especially in the active form of 5 methyltetrahydrofolate), B6 (in active form of P5P) and B12 (in the active form of methylcobalamin).

7. Selenium. This important mineral helps the body recycle and produce more glutathione.
8. A family of antioxidants including vitamins C and E (in the form of mixed tocopherols), work together to recycle glutathione.

9. Milk thistle (silymarin) has long been used in liver disease and helps boost glutathione levels.

So use these nine tips and see how they work to help you optimzie your glutathione levels. When you do, you will take one more step to lifelong vibrant health.

Now I’d like to hear from you…

Had you ever heard of this important nutrient before?

Have you tried any of the advice in this article?

What effects have you noticed on your health?

Please leave your thoughts by adding a comment below.

To your good health,

Mark Hyman, M.D.

References

(i) De Rosa SC, Zaretsky MD, Dubs JG, Roederer M, Anderson M, Green A, Mitra D, Watanabe N, Nakamura H, Tjioe I, Deresinski SC, Moore WA, Ela SW, Parks D, Herzenberg LA, Herzenberg LA. N-acetylcysteine replenishes glutathione in HIV infection. Eur J Clin Invest. 2000 Oct;30(10):915-29

(ii) Nuttall S, Martin U, Sinclair A, Kendall M. 1998. Glutathione: in sickness and in health. The Lancet 351(9103):645-646

Mark Hyman, M.D.  practicing physician and founder of The UltraWellness Center is a pioneer in functional medicine.  Dr. Hyman is now sharing the 7 ways to tap into your body’s natural ability to heal itself. You can follow him on Twitter, connect with him on LinkedIn, watch his videos on Youtube and become a fan on Facebook.

Oxidative stress is well known to drive the onset of inflammation, increase angiogenesis, and promote the conversion of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts.The general mechanism of oxidative stress-induced inflammation is:

  1. Oxidative stress regulates signaling pathways such as PI3K/AKT or MAPK to activate NFκB or AP-1.
  2. Inflammatory target genes and proteins are therefore upregulated to cause inflammation.
  3. The inflammation leads to cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, cancer, diabetes and obesity.

A recent study sheds light on how this inflammation might be controlled:

“We … show that the skull bone is permeable to small-molecular-weight compounds, and use this delivery route to modulate inflammation and therapeutically ameliorate brain injury through transcranial administration of the ROS scavenger, glutathione.”

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Sulfur-rich foods as regulator of nerves and vital organ functions, egg production and cell growth

Sulfur-rich foods such as protein-rich foods like meat, poultry,eggs,fish,legumes,milk avocados,asparagus,nuts,kale/greens,tamarind,potatoes,onions,garlic and okras are”

  • heating elements with major influence to the liver and other organs,
  • stabilizes protein
  • necessary for egg production and growth of hair, nails, and skin
  • regulates nerves and temperature

Sulfur works in synergy with taurine (precursor of bile acid taurocholic acid), chondroitin sulfate and collagen and magnesium to detoxify metabolic sulfuric acid.

  •  Defficiency of sulfur could result in:
  • damage to the psycho-sexual areas of the brain
  • body dryness
  • backaches
  • nervousness
  • congested sensations
  • old wounds act up
  • reproductive functions are damaged

Join 25,000 people in helping redefine health with health concierge and precision medicine.

https://clubalthea.com/2016/10/14/your-complete-dna-sequence-will-help-shape-the-future-of-medicine/