Check your bile acid production and stress level for fat metabolism

Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol

Bile begins its life in the liver and spends a significant amount of time somewhere between the liver, gallbladder, and gastrointestinal tract, specifically the intestines. Liver cells manufacture bile before it undergoes modification in the bile duct epithelium, and then it is transported to the gallbladder for storage and, ultimately, use. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol with the aid of several different enzymes.

Soup of Sulfur rich bile acids will help balance bile production:

Mix these root crops to pinch of organic chicken broth powder: rutabaga, kale, carrot, parsnip, onion, garlic and a tsp of apple cider vinegar or lemon juice added in the last boiling.

bile

Short-chain fatty acids :  The gut microbiota can ferment complex dietary residues that are resistant to digestion by enteric enzymes.

This process provides energy for the microbiota but culminates in the release of short-chain fatty acids including butyrate, which are utilized for the metabolic needs of the colon and the body.

Butyrate has a remarkable array of colonic health-promoting and antineoplastic properties:

  • It is the preferred energy source for colonocytes,
  • It maintains mucosal integrity and it suppresses inflammation and carcinogenesis through effects on immunity, gene expression and epigenetic modulation.

Note:  Protein residues and fat-stimulated bile acids are also metabolized by the microbiota to inflammatory and/or carcinogenic metabolites, which increase the risk of neoplastic progression.

The makeup of bile is largely water, at about 95%. The remaining five percent is made up of bile acids, bilirubin, amino acids, enzymes, steroid hormones including estrogen, glutathione, cholesterol, vitamins (especially vitamin D and some of the B vitamins), porphyrins, insulin, and other items, including toxins such as heavy metals, xenobiotics, medications and drugs, and environmental toxins targeted for excretion. There are also electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, sulfate, and bicarbonate. As you excrete more bile acid, bile flow is stimulated. There is also a circadian rhythm to the synthesis and circulation of bile acids.

In total, there are more than 50 species of bile acids in humans, but the main ones include cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). Although bile salts and bile acids are frequently used interchangeably, technically bile acids become bile salts upon conjugation with glycine or taurine. The gut bacteria metabolize bile acids to create secondary bile acids, of which there are more than 400 species. After the gut bacteria metabolize them, cholic acid becomes deoxycholic acid and CDCA becomes lithocholic acid. The amount of bile acids making their way into the colon affects the microbiome makeup. Bile acids are reabsorbed in the small intestine and colon to then come back into circulation as part of the enterohepatic circulation, which is a bidirectional pathway.

Bile acids, a key component of bile, are the main emulsifiers of fat. As such, bile ultimately finds its way into the small intestine for this function. When fat enters your small intestine, you secrete CCK (cholecystokinin), which signals your gallbladder to send bile into the small intestine to aid in digestion and absorption.

Functions of bile acid

Although this may be the function of bile most commonly known, there are actually many, many more. Some of the key functions of bile include:

  • Aids the immune system through excreting certain immune system signals, such as IgA and inflammatory cytokines
  • Elimination of certain hormones and pheromones
  • Endogenous ligand (binder to stimulate a signal) for several receptors, including nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR), vitamin D receptor, and G protein-coupled receptor TGR5
  • Excretion of fat-soluble toxins and other waste, including endogenous substrates
  • Modulation of metabolic pathways, including lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, and insulin sensitivity
  • Regulation of tight junction permeability
  • Removal of cholesterol
  • Signaling molecule and hormone

With so many different functions, it should come as no surprise that problems in the flow, metabolism, or synthesis of bile and/or bile acids could contribute to a variety of diseases.

Diseases such as colon and liver cancer

Problems with bile may stem from dysfunction in the synthesis of bile, an impairment in the secretion, or problems with the flow of bile. The metabolism of bile may become disturbed through problems stemming from the synthesis or conjugation with cholesterol, problems with the membrane transport, issues with the transport between the organs, or problems with the bacterial degradation of bile during the enterohepatic cycling. There may also be malabsorption of the bile acid, leading to higher concentrations in the colon, which may then negatively impact the function of the mucosal cells in the colon. Furthermore, when the concentration of bile acids is too high, it can be toxic and cause problems. Alterations to bile acids are also associated with disease.

The level of bile acids that reach the colon may contribute to functional bowel diseases. Elevated concentrations may contribute to diarrhea, while lower levels may play a role in constipation. In one study on children with functional constipation, the fecal bile acid profile was normal, but there were some who had the 3-sulfate version of CDCA as the dominant fecal bile acid, which could demonstrate a link for some cases.

Stress and Bile acids

Psychological stress is a risk factor for atherosclerosis, yet the pathophysiological mechanisms involved remain elusive. The transfer of cholesterol from macrophage foam cells to liver and feces (the macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport, m-RCT) is an important antiatherogenic pathway. Because exposure of mice to physical restraint, a model of psychological stress, increases serum levels of corticosterone, and as bile acid homeostasis is disrupted in glucocorticoid-treated animals, we investigated if chronic intermittent restraint stress would modify m-RCT by altering the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. C57Bl/6J mice exposed to intermittent stress for 5 days exhibited increased transit through the large intestine and enhanced fecal bile acid excretion. Of the transcription factors and transporters that regulate bile acid homeostasis, the mRNA expression levels of the hepatic farnesoid X receptor (FXR), the bile salt export pump (BSEP), and the intestinal fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) were reduced, whereas those of the ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), responsible for active bile acid absorption, remained unchanged. Neither did the hepatic expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the key enzyme regulating bile acid synthesis, change in the stressed mice. Evaluation of the functionality of the m-RCT pathway revealed increased fecal excretion of bile acids that had been synthesized from macrophage-derived cholesterol. Overall, our study reveals that chronic intermittent stress in mice accelerates m-RCT specifically by increasing fecal excretion of bile acids. This novel mechanism of m-RCT induction could have antiatherogenic potential under conditions of chronic stress.

Vinegar helps increase bile production

Polyphenols such as chlorogenic acid which is present in high levels in apple cider vinegar could inhibit oxidation of LDLs and improve health by preventing cardiovascular diseases (Laranjinha and others 1994).

Folate – Vit B9 deficiency or MTHFR gene mutation

mthfr-def

Folate – Vit B9 or MTHFR deficiency has a frequency of 1 in 1.9 .

Those with potentially “severe” mutations should check homocysteine with their doctor. Folate deficiency: A deficiency in folic acid (folate) could be linked to MTHFR mutation and is worth checking out. Common symptoms include extreme fatigue, light-headedness, and forgetfulness.

Homocysteine is an amino acid and breakdown product of protein metabolism that, when present in high concentrations, has been linked to an increased risk of heart attacks and strokes. Elevated homocysteine levels are thought to contribute to plaque formation by damaging arterial walls.

Homocysteine is an amino acid thought to damage the lining of your arteries and other cells of the body. It is naturally formed in the body, but gets broken down (recycled) by 5-MTHF.  Elevated homocysteine levels in the blood is an independent risk factor for heart disease, stroke and other forms of cardiovascular disease.  It has also been linked with a wide range of other health problems including macular degeneration, Alzheimer’s disease, hearing loss, depression and cancer.

MTHFR mutation/gene variation can impact how well your body metabolizes folate and folic acid. Both are forms of vitamin B9, required for numerous critical bodily functions.  A fault in this metabolic cycle is linked to many serious health problems (neck pain,others).

MTHFR, short for Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase, is a very important enzyme in the body.  It’s necessary for Methylation to occur, a metabolic process that switches genes on and off, repairs DNA and many other important things.  Methylation is also essential to convert both folate and folic acid – each a form of Vitamin B9 – into its active, usable form called 5-MTHF.

One reader, a Rehab, Nutrition and Lifestyle Coach, Josh Rubin from California notes:

“…Folic acid def[initely] leads to catabolism of histadine. Low levels of histadine creates catabolism in the body and has been shown to be as a marker to arthritic and RA conditions.

“Low folate levels can lead to inhibition of DNA synthesis, impaired cell division, and alterations in protein synthesis.”

Histidine can even help protect tissues from damage caused by radiation or heavy metals. High histidine foods include beef, lamb, cheese, chicken, turkey, soy, fish, nuts, seeds, eggs, beans, and whole grains. The recommended daily intake for histidine is 10mg per kilogram of body weight, or 4.5mg per pound.

Diet

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Diet should include greens, whole foods, lemon, Vit B and Vit C rich whole foods, potassium and iron-rich foods) and vinegar (to aid in absorbtion of nutrients). Vit C and vinegar help in the absorption of nutrients from whole foods.

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What is folic acid/vitamin B9?

Vitamin B9, more commonly known as folate or folic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that is part of the B vitamin family. B vitamins/folate help support adrenal function, help calm and maintain a healthy nervous system, and are necessary for key metabolic processes. Folate occurs naturally in foods, while folic acid is the synthetic form of folate.

Why is vitamin B9 necessary?

Vitamin B9 is essential for human growth and development, encourages normal nerve and proper brain functioning, and may help reduce blood-levels of the amino acid homocysteine (elevated homocysteine levels have been implicated in increased risk of heart disease and stroke). Folic acid or folate may also help protect against cancers of the lung, colon, and cervix, and may help slow memory decline associated with aging.

Pregnant women have an increased need for folic acid: it supports the growth of the placenta and fetus, and helps to prevent several types of birth defects, especially those of the brain and spine. Pregnant women and women of child-bearing age should take extra caution to get enough folic acid (see below for recommended amounts).

What are the signs of a folic acid deficiency?

Deficiency has been linked to birth defects, low birth weight, pregnancy loss, depression, memory loss, and cervical dysplasia. Alcoholics, pregnant women, and people living in institutional settings are at a higher risk of vitamin B9 or folate deficiency.


Folate and Depression

Many studies, going back to the 1960s, show an elevated incidence of folate deficiency in patients with depression.2 Studies vary depending on the criteria used to define folate deficiency, but often, about one-third of depression patients were deficient. Given that depression is often accompanied by decreased appetite and weight loss, the high incidence of folate deficiency in depression patients is not surprising. However, there is some evidence, though not conclusive, that folate deficiency may be involved in the etiology of depression in a minority of patients. Alternatively, depressed mood may decrease appetite, lower folate levels and thereby help to prevent recovery from depression. A recent review and metaanalysis looked at the results from the limited number of studies that investigated the effect of giving folate to depression patients and concluded that “there is some evidence that augmentation of antidepressant treatment with folate may improve patient outcome.”3 Whether the putative beneficial effect of folate is limited to those with folate deficiency is not clear.1,3

If folate deficiency can contribute to depressed mood and folate supplementation is beneficial in patients, a plausible mechanism implicates serotonin. In most,4–8 but not all,9,10 studies on patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, folate deficiency was associated with low levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In one study, supplementation with folate restored CSF 5-HIAA levels to normal.8

There is also a decrease in serotonin synthesis in patients with 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency, a disorder of folate metabolism.11,12

While the mechanism relating folate deficiency to low serotonin is not known, it may involve S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe). SAMe is a major methyl donor formed from methionine. Folate is involved in a cycle that regenerates methionine from homocysteine after SAMe is demethylated to S-adenosylhomocysteine, with subsequent conversion to homocysteine. Folate deficiency decreases SAMe in the rat brain.13 In humans, SAMe is an antidepressant14,15 and increases CSF 5-HIAA levels.16 Thus, there is some consistency in what is known about the interrelations of folate, SAMe and depression.

Philippines Coconut Wine -Tuba

Coconut Wine tuba is even ingested in Sri Lanka and Myanmar. Production of coconut wine has indeed contributed to the endangered status of some palm species such as the Chilean wine palm (Jubaea chilensis).

For Philippines tuba manufacturer, email me your info to be added in this post as producer/manufacturer in the Philippines.


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Coconut Wine Tuba in the Philippines

In the Philippines, coconut wine tuba refers both to the freshly collected sweetish sap and the one by having the red lauan-tree tan bark colorant.

In Leyte, the coconut wine tuba is matured for up to one to 2 years such that an echoing ring is made when a glass container is tapped explanation required; this variation of tuba is called bahalina.

 

Coconut Wine Tuba Tapping

Coconut Wine Tuba – Palm TreeThe sap is extracted and collected by a tapper. Commonly the sap is compiled from the cut flower of the palm tree. A compartment is fastened to the flower stump to collect the sap. The white liquid that at first gathers has a tendency to be extremely sweet and non-alcoholic before it is fermented. An alternate technique is the felling of the whole tree. Where this is practiced, a fire is occasionally lit at the cut end to help with the assortment of sap.

Coconut wine tapping is mentioned in the novel Things Fall Apart by the Nigerian writer Chinua Achebe and is central to the plot of the groundbreaking novel The Palm Wine Drinkard by Nigerian author Amos Tutuola.

In parts of India, the unfermented sap is called neera (padaneer in Tamil Nadu) and is cooled, saved and circulated by semi-government agencies. A little lime is included in the sap to prevent it from fermenting. Neera is said to consist of lots of nutrients featuring potash.

Coconut sap starts fermenting immediately after assortment, due to natural yeasts in the air (typically spurred by residual yeast left in the gathering container). Within two days, fermentation yields a fragrant wine of up to 4 % liquor content, mildly intoxicating and sweet.

The coconut wine tuba may be enabled to ferment longer, up to a day, to yield a stronger, more sour and acidic taste, which some folks favor. Longer fermentation creates vinegar instead of stronger wine, known as Lambanog.

In Africa, the sap is use to create coconut wine tuba and is most frequently taken from wild datepalms such as the silver date palm (Phoenix sylvestris), the palmyra, and the jaggery palm (Caryota urens), or from oil palm such as the African Oil Palm (Elaeis guineense) or from Raffia palms, kithul palms, or nipa palms.

In India and South Asia, coconut palms and Palmyra palms such as the Arecaceae and Borassus are favored. In southern Africa, palm wine (ubusulu) is produced in Maputaland, an area in the south of Mozambique between the Lobombo mountains and the Indian Ocean.

It is mainly produced from the lala palm (Hyphaene coriacea) by cutting the stem and compiling the sap.

In part of central and western Democratic Republic of the Congo, palm wine is called malafu. There are four types of coconut wine tuba in the central and southern DRC. From the oil palm comes ngasi, dibondo comes from the raffia palm, cocoti from the coconut palm, and mahusufrom a short palm which grows in the savannah areas of western Bandundu and Kasai provinces.

In Tuvalu, the procedure of making toddy can plainly be viewed by having tapped palm trees that line Funafuti International Airport.

In some areas of India, coconut wine tuba is evaporated to create the unrefined sugar called jaggery.

Coconut Wine Tuba Distillation – Lambanog

Local Distillation of Burukutu in Ghana

Coconut wine tuba might be distilled to generate a stronger refreshment which is Lambanog goes by different names baseding on the region (e.g., arrack, village gin, charayam, and nation whiskey). Throughout Nigeria, this is typically called ogogoro. In parts of southern Ghana distilled coconut wine is called akpeteshi or burukutu.

In Togo it is called sodabe, in the Philippines it is called lambanog, while in Tunisia it is called Lagmi.

Social role of Coconut Wine

In India, coconut wine or toddy is served as either neera or padaneer (a sweet, non-alcoholic beverage stemmed from fresh sap) or kallu (a sour drink made from fermented sap, yet not as tough as wine). Kallu is in most cases drunk soon after fermentation by the end of day, as it becomes more sour and acidic day by day. The drink, like vinegar in taste, is thought of to have a short-lived shelf life. explanation needed Nonetheless, it could be refrigerated to extend its life.

In Karnataka, India, coconut wine is in most cases offered at toddy shops (known as Kalitha Gadang in Tulu, Kallu Dukanam in Telugu, Kallu Angadi in Kannada or “Liquor Shop” in English).

In Tamil Nadu, this beverage is currently outlawed, though the legality fluctuates with politics. In the absence of legal toddy, moonshine distillers of arrack often offer methanol-contaminated liquor, which are able to have lethal effects. To discourage this practice, authorities have definitely pushed for inexpensive “Indian Made Foreign Liquor” (IMFL), much to the dismay of toddy tappers.

Fermented Palm Juice

Fresh nipah palm (Nypa fruticans) sap and neera (sap obtained from by tapping the unopened spadix of the coconut palm are popular beverages in the region.
For Muslim consumers, palm juice (fresh saps) are consumed within 2 days after tapping as it is highly susceptible to spontaneous fermentation to produce
alcohols and acetic acids. Fermented palm saps can also be used to produce alcohol, vinegar or alcoholic beverage such as palm wine. The fermented beverage
is called “panam culloo” in Sri Lanka, “tuba”, “soom” in the Philippines, “nuoudua” in Vietnam, “arak” in Indonesia, and “tuak” (tuack) or toddy in Malaysia, India and Bangladesh. (Lee and Fujio, 1999). Palm wine is obtained by the natural fermentation of palm sap and collected through the tapping of unopened inflorescence. Palm wine has mild alcoholic flavor, sweet in taste, vigorous effervescence and milky white in color as it contained suspension of numerous bacteria and yeast. Palm wine from coconut flower juice is most popular among Southeast Asia regions. A community survey on the non-Muslim Balinese village in Indonesia showed approximately 40% excessive consumption of locally produced palm wine in 1990 (WHO, 2004).

tubafermentation

What are the recommended safe limits of alcohol?

  • Men should drink no more than 21 units of alcohol per week, no more than four units in any one day, and have at least two alcohol-free days a week.
  • Women should drink no more than 14 units of alcohol per week, no more than three units in any one day, and have at least two alcohol-free days a week.
  • Pregnant women. Advice from the Department of Health states that … “pregnant women or women trying to conceive should not drink alcohol at all. If they do choose to drink, to minimize the risk to the baby, they should not drink more than 1-2 units of alcohol once or twice a week and should not get drunk”.
  • Seniors should always eat protein rich food with their wine and not taken during morning medication time.

Contents of palm wine

The following are found in palm wine

  • Sugar
  • Protein
  • Carbohydrate,
  • Amino acid
  • Vitamin C
  • Yeast
  • Bacteria
  • Potassium
  • Zinc
  • Magnesium
  • Iron
  • Vitamin B1,B2 B3 and B6

 

Health benefits of Tuba, Palm Wine

1 Palm wine improves eyesight

Palm wine helps in maintaining good eye health. This is because it contains the antioxidant Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) which is also found in other fruits and vegetables. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) also helps in improving our vision. This is why some school of thought argue that our grandparents in the village have better eyesight than us because palm wine is their beverage.

2 Reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases

Research has showed that drinking moderate amounts of palm wine has been associated with a reduced risk of developing cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure. This study was conducted by Lingberg and Ezra in 2008. Palm wine contains potassium which has been proven by research to improve heart health and bring down hypertension.  However drinking it in excess has adverse effects like destroying the liver.

3 Palm wine can help fight against cancer

Palm wine contains vitamin B2, also known as riboflavin. Riboflavin is an antioxidant which helps in the fight against some cancer causing agents called free radicals.

4 Palm wine helps in maintaining a healthy hair, skin and nails

The Iron and vitamin B complex found in palm wine are needed for a healthy skin, hair and nail. Iron is very essential for the development, growth and functioning of some cells in our body. This property of palm wine makes it helpful in promoting wound healing by repairing our tissues and promoting the growth of healthy cells.

5 Palm wine promotes lactation

Palm wine is being used by many natural healers in Cameroon, Nigeria, Ghana and other parts of Africa to help a lactating mother when she has limited breast milk production. Research is needed to investigate the property of palm wine that makes it stimulate the production of breast milk.


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