More nitrate-reducing bacteria in saliva causes Migraine

Scientists at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine have found an association between the debilitating headaches that afflict 38 million Americans, and the microbes in their mouths.


“There is this idea out there that certain foods trigger migraines — chocolate, wine, and especially foods containing nitrates,” wrote Antonio Gonzalez, the lead author on the study published in the American Society for Microbiology’s journal mSystems. “We thought that perhaps there was a connection between someone’s microbiome [the microorganisms in their body] and what they were eating.”

So the research team analyzed 172 oral samples and nearly 2,000 fecal samples taken from the American Gut Project, and sequenced which bacteria species were found in participants who suffered migraines versus those who did not. And it turns out, the migraineurs have significantly more nitrate-reducing bacteria in their saliva than those who don’t suffer these headaches.

Having too many nitrates in the body, which can aid cardiovascular health in best case scenarios, has been linked to migraines for unlucky folks. Now this new research suggests that’s because having too much oral nitrate-reducing bacteria, which converts nitrates into nitric oxide in the body, leads to the pounding headaches.

The next step will be looking at more defined groups of patients, separated into different types of migraines, to better understand why some oral microbes could be messing with their heads.

Gonzales suggested that perhaps in the future, “We will have a magical probiotic mouthwash for everyone that helps your cardiovascular health without giving you migraines.”

The presence of nitrates and nitrites in food is associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer and, in infants, methemoglobinemia.

Despite the physiologic roles for nitrate and nitrite in vascular and immune function, consideration of food sources of nitrates and nitrites as healthful dietary components has received little attention.

Approximately 80% of dietary nitrates are derived from vegetable consumption; sources of nitrites include vegetables, fruit, and processed meats. Nitrites are produced endogenously through the oxidation of nitric oxide and through a reduction of nitrate by commensal bacteria in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract.

As such, the dietary provision of nitrates and nitrites from vegetables and fruit may contribute to the blood pressure–lowering effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. We quantified nitrate and nitrite concentrations by HPLC in a convenience sample of foods. Incorporating these values into 2 hypothetical dietary patterns that emphasize high-nitrate or low-nitrate vegetable and fruit choices based on the DASH diet, we found that nitrate concentrations in these 2 patterns vary from 174 to 1222 mg.

The hypothetical high-nitrate DASH diet pattern exceeds the World Health Organization’s Acceptable Daily Intake for nitrate by 550% for a 60-kg adult. These data call into question the rationale for recommendations to limit nitrate and nitrite consumption from plant foods; a comprehensive reevaluation of the health effects of food sources of nitrates and nitrites is appropriate.

In addition to the provision of nitrate and nitrite by diet or via the oxidation of nitric oxide to nitrite, vascular and gastrointestinal nitric oxide production can be enhanced through various means based on lifestyle and food choices. Physical activity, commensal bacteria, and dietary factors can influence nitric oxide production. Exercise enhances nitric oxide production in vascular endothelium (54) and postexercise plasma nitrite concentrations have been proposed as an index of exercise capacity (55). In fact, aging is associated with an impaired capacity of the vasculature to increase plasma nitrite during exercise (56). Strikingly, it has been found that dietary nitrate supplementation, at concentrations achievable by vegetable consumption, results in more efficient energy production without increasing lactate concentrations during submaximal exercise (57).

Foods can increase the generation of nitric oxide in the gastrointestinal tract via the polyphenolic content of, for example, apples or red wine (58, 59). Pomegranate juice has been shown to protect nitric oxide from oxidation while enhancing its biological activity (60). The metabolic activity of commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract and probiotic bacteria also provide nitric oxide from nitrite, and to a lesser extent, from nitrate (61, 62). Whereas data estimating the contribution of the microbiota, including probiotic bacteria, to the generation of nitric oxide are speculative, they raise the possibility that the gastrointestinal production of nitric oxide and NOx is biologically plausible. These data add layers of complexity to the estimation of nitrate/nitrite exposure levels in vivo and the determination of whether specific foods or lifestyle choices can significantly affect the production and metabolic disposition of dietary and endogenous NOx species.

Nitrate Reduction to Nitrite, Nitric Oxide and Ammonia by Gut Bacteria under Physiological Conditions

The biological nitrogen cycle involves step-wise reduction of nitrogen oxides to ammonium salts and oxidation of ammonia back to nitrites and nitrates by plants and bacteria. Neither process has been thought to have relevance to mammalian physiology; however in recent years the salivary bacterial reduction of nitrate to nitrite has been recognized as an important metabolic conversion in humans.

Several enteric bacteria have also shown the ability of catalytic reduction of nitrate to ammonia via nitrite during dissimilatory respiration; however, the importance of this pathway in bacterial species colonizing the human intestine has been little studied. We measured nitrite, nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia formation in cultures of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species grown at different sodium nitrate concentrations and oxygen levels.

We found that the presence of 5 mM nitrate provided a growth benefit and induced both nitrite and ammonia generation in E.coli and L.plantarum bacteria grown at oxygen concentrations compatible with the content in the gastrointestinal tract. Nitrite and ammonia accumulated in the growth medium when at least 2.5 mM nitrate was present. Time-course curves suggest that nitrate is first converted to nitrite and subsequently to ammonia. Strains of L.rhamnosus, L.acidophilus andB.longum infantis grown with nitrate produced minor changes in nitrite or ammonia levels in the cultures.

However, when supplied with exogenous nitrite, NO gas was readily produced independently of added nitrate. Bacterial production of lactic acid causes medium acidification that in turn generates NO by non-enzymatic nitrite reduction. In contrast, nitrite was converted to NO by E.coli cultures even at neutral pH. We suggest that the bacterial nitrate reduction to ammonia, as well as the related NO formation in the gut, could be an important aspect of the overall mammalian nitrate/nitrite/NO metabolism and is yet another way in which the microbiome links diet and health.

Denitrification is a type of anaerobic respiration that uses nitrate as an electron acceptor.

  • Denitrification generally proceeds through a stepwise reduction of some combination of the following intermediate forms: NO3− → NO2− → NO + N2O → N2.
    Generally, several species of bacteria are involved in the complete reduction of nitrate to molecular nitrogen, and more than one enzymatic pathway has been identified in the reduction process.
    Complete denitrification is an environmentally significant process as some intermediates of denitrification (nitric oxide and nitrous oxide) are significant greenhouse gases that react with sunlight and ozone to produce nitric acid, a component of acid rain.

electron acceptor
An electron acceptor is a chemical entity that accepts electrons transferred to it from another compound. It is an oxidizing agent that, by virtue of its accepting electrons, is itself reduced in the process.

The process of becoming eutrophic.

Denitrification may be deliberately used to change the composition of an environment. It’s commonly used to remove nitrogen from sewage and municipal wastewater. Denitrification is instrumental in removing excess nitrate in groundwater, which is a result of excessive fertilizer use.
Give us feedback on this content:

In anaerobic respiration, denitrification utilizes nitrate (NO3-) as a terminal electron acceptor in the respiratory electron transport chain. Denitrification is a widely used process; many facultative anaerobes use denitrification because nitrate, like oxygen, has a high reduction potential

Denitrification is a microbially facilitated process involving the stepwise reduction of nitrate to nitrite (NO2-) nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O), and, eventually, to dinitrogen (N2) by the enzymes nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, nitric oxide reductase, and nitrous oxide reductase. The complete denitrification process can be expressed as a redox reaction: 2 NO3− + 10 e− + 12 H+ → N2 + 6 H2O.

Protons are transported across the membrane by the initial NADH reductase, quinones and nitrous oxide reductase to produce the electrochemical gradient critical for respiration. Some organisms (e.g. E. coli) only produce nitrate reductase and therefore can accomplish only the first reduction leading to the accumulation of nitrite. Others (e.g. Paracoccus denitrificans or Pseudomonas stutzeri) reduce nitrate completely. Complete denitrification is an environmentally significant process because some intermediates of denitrification (nitric oxide and nitrous oxide) are significant greenhouse gases that react with sunlight and ozone to produce nitric acid, a component of acid rain. Denitrification is also important in biological wastewater treatment, where it can be used to reduce the amount of nitrogen released into the environment, thereby reducing eutrophication.

Denitrification takes place under special conditions in both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. In general, it occurs where oxygen is depleted and bacteria respire nitrate as a substitute terminal electron acceptor. Due to the high concentration of oxygen in our atmosphere, denitrification only takes place in anaerobic environments where oxygen consumption exceeds the oxygen supply and where sufficient quantities of nitrate are present. These environments may include certain soils and groundwater, wetlands, oil reservoirs, poorly ventilated corners of the ocean, and in sea floor sediments.

The role of soil bacteria in the Nitrogen cycle

Denitrification is an important process in maintaining ecosystems. Generally, denitrification takes place in environments depleted of oxygen.
Denitrification is performed primarily by heterotrophic bacteria (e.g. Paracoccus denitrificans), although autotrophic denitrifiers have also been identified (e.g., Thiobacillus denitrificans). Generally, several species of bacteria are involved in the complete reduction of nitrate to molecular nitrogen, and more than one enzymatic pathway have been identified in the reduction process.

Rhizobia are soil bacteria with the unique ability to establish a N2-fixing symbiosis on legume roots. When faced with a shortage of oxygen, some rhizobia species are able to switch from O2-respiration to using nitrates to support respiration.

The direct reduction of nitrate to ammonium (dissimilatory nitrate reduction) can be performed by organisms with the nrf-gene. This is a less common method of nitrate reduction than denitrification in most ecosystems. Other genes involved in denitrification include nir (nitrite reductase) and nos (nitrous oxide reductase), which are possessed by such organisms as Alcaligenes faecalis, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, Pseudomonas spp, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, and Blastobacter denitrificans.

Source: Boundless. “Nitrate Reduction and Denitrification.” Boundless Microbiology. Boundless, 26 May. 2016. Retrieved 19 Oct. 2016 from

2019-08-08 (1)

Spirulina detoxes Arsenic from soil and water by Dr Mercola

Spirulina, a green-blue algae developed by Bangladeshi and French scientists several years ago, has been found to have “very good effects” on people suffering from arsenic poisoning caused by the recently-discovered contamination of much of the groundwater in Bangladesh.

Up to this point, doctors in Bangladesh have been virtually helpless in treating dying arsenic patients.

Bangladeshi researchers conducted a three-month hospital-based study in which 33 patients were given spirulina and 17 were given placebo doses. 82% of those taking Spirulina showed tremendous improvement.

Experts fear that more than 18 million people are likely to face eventual death from the poisoning, which at acute stages causes liver, lung, intestinal, stomach and kidney cancers.

Bangladeshi authorities say that approximately 70 million people, out of a population of 120 million, are at “great risk” from arsenic poisoning and a search for alternative water sources is under way. Arsenic was found in tube-wells in 59 of 64 districts.

Ironically, the use of contaminated well water became much more prevalent recently due to a large concerted effort over the past several decades by the Bangladeshi government and private organizations in an attempt to prevent water-borne diseases that can come from drinking bacteria-infested surface water. The campaign was so successful that now approximately 97 percent of the population has access to tube-well water.

Leading dermatologists, who joined a major health conference in Dhaka this week, unanimously recommended Spirulina to treat arsenic patients.

The cause of the arsenic contamination is currently unknown.

Diet for the elderly

A personalised nutrition approach
Micronutrients such as zinc, copper and selenium play a pivotal role in a range of physiological functions and maintain immune and antioxidant systems (Eugenio Mocchegiani et al.). The complex interactions between micronutrients and genes could help in understanding how best to use nutrients as supplements in clinical practice. Further genetic and nutritional studies are required to clearly define the impact of these micronutrients.
Targeting the human gut microbiome (Sebastiano Collino et al.) is an emerging field of personalised nutrition. This approach could help to identify key molecular mechanisms affected by diet and inflammaging, and lead to basic profiles of health and diagnostic tools to address conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease.
Three papers cover the interaction between diet and the gut microbiota (Candela et al.), the effect of an elderly tailored diet on cognitive decline and brain and gut connections, including the liver and pancreas (Caracciolo et al.). Nutritional interventions such as low calorie intake with nutrient supplementation can impact an individual’s cell epigenetic profile e.g. DNA methylation, microRNA and organs (Bacalini et al.). Better knowledge of gene interactions with nutrients and the environment may lead to earlier interventions of malnutrition in people (Yves Boirie et al.). And more genomic information may identify impacts of general health recommendation policies in at-risk, elderly sub-populations.
The effect of diet on immunosenescence, which is the functional decline of the immune system (Maijo´ et al.), and changes that happen in ageing fat tissue (Zamboni et al.) are both assumed to be major sources of inflammation. Nutritional interventions have shown some promising results in targeting some impairments of an ageing immune system; combining interventions with a whole diet approach could be more beneficial.
It is commonly known that physical exercise can benefit health and age-related decline. In one study (van de Rest et al.), resistance-type exercises, using a number of body techniques and workout machines, with and without protein supplementation, was undertaken to see the effect on cognitive functions in frail and pre-frail elderly people. After 24 weeks of training a beneficial improvement was noted in participants’ information processing speed, attention and working memory.

food pyramid

danish italian senior dietgut bacteria eats GABAkle1738GABAitaconateselenium rich foodalcohol stomach

Philippines Coconut Wine -Tuba

Coconut Wine tuba is even ingested in Sri Lanka and Myanmar. Production of coconut wine has indeed contributed to the endangered status of some palm species such as the Chilean wine palm (Jubaea chilensis).

For Philippines tuba manufacturer, email me your info to be added in this post as producer/manufacturer in the Philippines.

Increase your cell nutrients (positive outcome from your gene expression with selected nutrients also in PDR – Physician Desk  Reference and see Youtube Dr Oz Pharmanex scanner which validates the supplements from this store) , email to own this store for you:

Coconut Wine Tuba in the Philippines

In the Philippines, coconut wine tuba refers both to the freshly collected sweetish sap and the one by having the red lauan-tree tan bark colorant.

In Leyte, the coconut wine tuba is matured for up to one to 2 years such that an echoing ring is made when a glass container is tapped explanation required; this variation of tuba is called bahalina.


Coconut Wine Tuba Tapping

Coconut Wine Tuba – Palm TreeThe sap is extracted and collected by a tapper. Commonly the sap is compiled from the cut flower of the palm tree. A compartment is fastened to the flower stump to collect the sap. The white liquid that at first gathers has a tendency to be extremely sweet and non-alcoholic before it is fermented. An alternate technique is the felling of the whole tree. Where this is practiced, a fire is occasionally lit at the cut end to help with the assortment of sap.

Coconut wine tapping is mentioned in the novel Things Fall Apart by the Nigerian writer Chinua Achebe and is central to the plot of the groundbreaking novel The Palm Wine Drinkard by Nigerian author Amos Tutuola.

In parts of India, the unfermented sap is called neera (padaneer in Tamil Nadu) and is cooled, saved and circulated by semi-government agencies. A little lime is included in the sap to prevent it from fermenting. Neera is said to consist of lots of nutrients featuring potash.

Coconut sap starts fermenting immediately after assortment, due to natural yeasts in the air (typically spurred by residual yeast left in the gathering container). Within two days, fermentation yields a fragrant wine of up to 4 % liquor content, mildly intoxicating and sweet.

The coconut wine tuba may be enabled to ferment longer, up to a day, to yield a stronger, more sour and acidic taste, which some folks favor. Longer fermentation creates vinegar instead of stronger wine, known as Lambanog.

In Africa, the sap is use to create coconut wine tuba and is most frequently taken from wild datepalms such as the silver date palm (Phoenix sylvestris), the palmyra, and the jaggery palm (Caryota urens), or from oil palm such as the African Oil Palm (Elaeis guineense) or from Raffia palms, kithul palms, or nipa palms.

In India and South Asia, coconut palms and Palmyra palms such as the Arecaceae and Borassus are favored. In southern Africa, palm wine (ubusulu) is produced in Maputaland, an area in the south of Mozambique between the Lobombo mountains and the Indian Ocean.

It is mainly produced from the lala palm (Hyphaene coriacea) by cutting the stem and compiling the sap.

In part of central and western Democratic Republic of the Congo, palm wine is called malafu. There are four types of coconut wine tuba in the central and southern DRC. From the oil palm comes ngasi, dibondo comes from the raffia palm, cocoti from the coconut palm, and mahusufrom a short palm which grows in the savannah areas of western Bandundu and Kasai provinces.

In Tuvalu, the procedure of making toddy can plainly be viewed by having tapped palm trees that line Funafuti International Airport.

In some areas of India, coconut wine tuba is evaporated to create the unrefined sugar called jaggery.

Coconut Wine Tuba Distillation – Lambanog

Local Distillation of Burukutu in Ghana

Coconut wine tuba might be distilled to generate a stronger refreshment which is Lambanog goes by different names baseding on the region (e.g., arrack, village gin, charayam, and nation whiskey). Throughout Nigeria, this is typically called ogogoro. In parts of southern Ghana distilled coconut wine is called akpeteshi or burukutu.

In Togo it is called sodabe, in the Philippines it is called lambanog, while in Tunisia it is called Lagmi.

Social role of Coconut Wine

In India, coconut wine or toddy is served as either neera or padaneer (a sweet, non-alcoholic beverage stemmed from fresh sap) or kallu (a sour drink made from fermented sap, yet not as tough as wine). Kallu is in most cases drunk soon after fermentation by the end of day, as it becomes more sour and acidic day by day. The drink, like vinegar in taste, is thought of to have a short-lived shelf life. explanation needed Nonetheless, it could be refrigerated to extend its life.

In Karnataka, India, coconut wine is in most cases offered at toddy shops (known as Kalitha Gadang in Tulu, Kallu Dukanam in Telugu, Kallu Angadi in Kannada or “Liquor Shop” in English).

In Tamil Nadu, this beverage is currently outlawed, though the legality fluctuates with politics. In the absence of legal toddy, moonshine distillers of arrack often offer methanol-contaminated liquor, which are able to have lethal effects. To discourage this practice, authorities have definitely pushed for inexpensive “Indian Made Foreign Liquor” (IMFL), much to the dismay of toddy tappers.

Fermented Palm Juice

Fresh nipah palm (Nypa fruticans) sap and neera (sap obtained from by tapping the unopened spadix of the coconut palm are popular beverages in the region.
For Muslim consumers, palm juice (fresh saps) are consumed within 2 days after tapping as it is highly susceptible to spontaneous fermentation to produce
alcohols and acetic acids. Fermented palm saps can also be used to produce alcohol, vinegar or alcoholic beverage such as palm wine. The fermented beverage
is called “panam culloo” in Sri Lanka, “tuba”, “soom” in the Philippines, “nuoudua” in Vietnam, “arak” in Indonesia, and “tuak” (tuack) or toddy in Malaysia, India and Bangladesh. (Lee and Fujio, 1999). Palm wine is obtained by the natural fermentation of palm sap and collected through the tapping of unopened inflorescence. Palm wine has mild alcoholic flavor, sweet in taste, vigorous effervescence and milky white in color as it contained suspension of numerous bacteria and yeast. Palm wine from coconut flower juice is most popular among Southeast Asia regions. A community survey on the non-Muslim Balinese village in Indonesia showed approximately 40% excessive consumption of locally produced palm wine in 1990 (WHO, 2004).


What are the recommended safe limits of alcohol?

  • Men should drink no more than 21 units of alcohol per week, no more than four units in any one day, and have at least two alcohol-free days a week.
  • Women should drink no more than 14 units of alcohol per week, no more than three units in any one day, and have at least two alcohol-free days a week.
  • Pregnant women. Advice from the Department of Health states that … “pregnant women or women trying to conceive should not drink alcohol at all. If they do choose to drink, to minimize the risk to the baby, they should not drink more than 1-2 units of alcohol once or twice a week and should not get drunk”.
  • Seniors should always eat protein rich food with their wine and not taken during morning medication time.

Contents of palm wine

The following are found in palm wine

  • Sugar
  • Protein
  • Carbohydrate,
  • Amino acid
  • Vitamin C
  • Yeast
  • Bacteria
  • Potassium
  • Zinc
  • Magnesium
  • Iron
  • Vitamin B1,B2 B3 and B6


Health benefits of Tuba, Palm Wine

1 Palm wine improves eyesight

Palm wine helps in maintaining good eye health. This is because it contains the antioxidant Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) which is also found in other fruits and vegetables. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) also helps in improving our vision. This is why some school of thought argue that our grandparents in the village have better eyesight than us because palm wine is their beverage.

2 Reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases

Research has showed that drinking moderate amounts of palm wine has been associated with a reduced risk of developing cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure. This study was conducted by Lingberg and Ezra in 2008. Palm wine contains potassium which has been proven by research to improve heart health and bring down hypertension.  However drinking it in excess has adverse effects like destroying the liver.

3 Palm wine can help fight against cancer

Palm wine contains vitamin B2, also known as riboflavin. Riboflavin is an antioxidant which helps in the fight against some cancer causing agents called free radicals.

4 Palm wine helps in maintaining a healthy hair, skin and nails

The Iron and vitamin B complex found in palm wine are needed for a healthy skin, hair and nail. Iron is very essential for the development, growth and functioning of some cells in our body. This property of palm wine makes it helpful in promoting wound healing by repairing our tissues and promoting the growth of healthy cells.

5 Palm wine promotes lactation

Palm wine is being used by many natural healers in Cameroon, Nigeria, Ghana and other parts of Africa to help a lactating mother when she has limited breast milk production. Research is needed to investigate the property of palm wine that makes it stimulate the production of breast milk.

card motherhealth

For preventing diabetes, losing weight, clearing up inflammation and turning back the clock, join me at Health Care Network Alliance to measure your anti-oxidant level and supplements which impact your gene expression at :

AgeLoc Youth & lifepak Combo pack
Email Connie or join as consumer/distributor at:

Use my ID when completing the form:

  • Distributorship ID #: USW9578356