Fresh raw marijuana nutrition facts

cannaFresh raw marijuana is a complete food source.

It can be eaten in salads or juiced.

No other single plant source has the essential amino acids in such an easily digestible form that provides instant food energy.

Fresh raw marijuana contains all the essential amino acids and fatty acids necessary in maintaining healthy human life. Fresh raw marijuana has the perfect 3-1 ratio of omega 6 and 3 fatty acids.

Fresh raw marijuana has an abundant supply of nutrients like magnesium, Phytosterols, Ascorbic Acid, Beta Carotene, Calcium, Folic Acid, Fiber, Iron, Potassium, Phosphorus, Zinc, Riboflavin, Niacin and Thiamine.

Fresh raw marijuana is also rich in vitamin A, E, D and B12.

The Amino Acids in fresh raw marijuana is an excellent source of digestible protein.

BENEFITS

Fresh raw marijuana is beneficial for skin conditions like sunburn, acme, eczema and psoriasis. Fresh raw marijuana rejuvenates the skin.

Fresh raw marijuana relieves symptoms of PMS and is an effective anti-inflammatory that provides pain relieve from arthritis.

Fresh raw marijuana provides instant energy and reduces fatigue.

Fresh raw marijuana improves memory, concentration and alertness.

Fresh raw marijuana improves emotional stability and cognitive abilities. Fresh raw marijuana also increases learning abilities.

Fresh raw marijuana will prevent disease and boost your immune system.

The big question is where do I get my hands on fresh raw marijuana?

Well you pretty much have to grow your own if it can be done legally.

Grow your herb organically under full spectrum light for best results. Natural sunlight produces the best medicine. Some growers grow organically in a healthy growing environment but not all growers grow for the same reasons so find a grower that can provide you with the quality you are looking for.

“The Medical Marijuana Guide. NATURES PHARMACY.” has more information on fresh raw marijuana and how fresh raw marijuana can benefit you as a source of nutrition and medicine.

Drugs of abuse , stress , and addiction

Drugs of abuse , stress , and addiction

Neuroplasticity, the putative mechanism underlying learning and memory, is modified by drugs of abuse, alcohol and may contribute to the development of the eventual addicted state. Innovative treatments directly targeting these drug-induced changes in brain reward components and circuits may be efficacious in reducing drug use and relapse.

Nicotine promotes glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which is thought to be an important mechanism underlying nicotine reward. However, it is unclear whether exposure of nicotine alone to VTA slice is sufficient to increase glutamatergic synaptic strength on DA neurons and which nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype mediates this effect. Here, we report that the incubation of rat VTA slices with 500 nM nicotine induces glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in DA neurons. We measure the ratio of AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated currents (AMPA/NMDA) and compare these ratios between nicotine-treated and -untreated slices. Our results demonstrate that the incubation of VTA slices with 500 nM nicotine for 1 h (but not for 10 min) significantly increases the AMPA/NMDA ratio when compared with controls. Preincubation with 10 nM of the α7-nAChR antagonist, methyllycaconitine (MLA) but not 1 μM α4-containing nAChR antagonist, dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE) prevents nicotinic effect, suggesting that α7-nAChRs are mainly mediated this nicotinic effect. This finding is further supported by the disappearance of this nicotinic effect in nAChR α7 knockout (KO) mice. Furthermore, nicotine reduced paired-pulse ratio (PPR) of evoked excitatory postsynaptic potential (eEPSP) in the VTA slices prepared from wild-type (WT) mice but not α7 KO mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that exposure of smoking-relevant concentrations of nicotine to VTA slices is sufficient to increase glutamatergic synaptic strength on DA neurons and that α7-nAChRs likely mediate this nicotinic effect through increasing presynaptic release of glutamate. Synapse, 2011. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Alterations in neuronal activity can elicit long-lasting changes in the strength of synaptic transmission at excitatory synapses and, as a consequence, may underlie many forms of experience-dependent plasticity, including learning and memory. The best-characterized forms of such synaptic plasticity are the long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) observed at excitatory synapses in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. It is now well accepted that the trafficking of AMPA receptors to and away from the synaptic plasma membrane plays an essential role in both LTP and LTD, respectively.

In an ever-changing environment, animals must learn new behavioral strategies for the successful procurement of food, sex, and other needs. Synaptic plasticity within the mesolimbic system, a key reward circuit, affords an animal the ability to adapt and perform essential goal-directed behaviors. Ironically, drugs of abuse can also induce synaptic changes within the mesolimbic system, and such changes are hypothesized to promote deleterious drug-seeking behaviors in lieu of healthy, adaptive behaviors. In this review, we will discuss drug-induced neuroadaptations in excitatory transmission in the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens, two critical regions of the mesolimbic system, and the possible role of dopamine receptors in the development of these neuroadaptations. In particular, we will focus our discussion on recent studies showing changes in AMPA receptor function as a common molecular target of addictive drugs, and the possible behavioral consequences of such neuroadaptations.

The main characteristics of cocaine addiction are compulsive drug use despite adverse consequences and high rates of relapse during periods of abstinence. A current popular hypothesis is that compulsive cocaine use and cocaine relapse is due to drug-induced neuroadaptations in reward-related learning and memory processes, which cause hypersensitivity to cocaine-associated cues, impulsive decision making and abnormal habit-like learned behaviours that are insensitive to adverse consequences. Here, we review results from studies on the effect of cocaine exposure on selected signalling cascades, growth factors and physiological processes previously implicated in neuroplasticity underlying normal learning and memory. These include the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling pathway, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glutamate transmission, and synaptic plasticity (primarily in the form of long-term potentiation and depression, LTP and LTD). We also discuss the degree to which these cocaine-induced neuroplasticity changes in the mesolimbic dopamine system mediate cocaine psychomotor sensitization and cocaine-seeking behaviours, as assessed in animal models of drug addiction. Finally, we speculate on how these factors may interact to initiate and sustain cocaine psychomotor sensitization and cocaine seeking.

Synaptic plasticity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is modulated by drugs of abuse and stress and is hypothesized to contribute to specific aspects of addiction.

Both excitatory and inhibitory synapses on dopamine neurons in the VTA are capable of undergoing long-term changes in synaptic strength. While the strengthening or weakening of excitatory synapses in the VTA has been widely examined, the role of inhibitory synaptic plasticity in brain reward circuitry is less established. Here, we investigated the effects of drugs of abuse, as well as acute stress, on long-term potentiation of GABAergic synapses onto VTA dopamine neurons (LTPGABA). Morphine (10 mg/kg i.p.) reduced the ability of inhibitory synapses in midbrain slices to express LTPGABA both at 2 and 24 h after drug exposure but not after 5 days. Cocaine (15 mg/kg i.p.) impaired LTPGABA 24 h after exposure, but not at 2 h. Nicotine (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) impaired LTPGABA 2 h after exposure, but not after 24 h. Furthermore, LTPGABA was completely blocked 24 h following brief exposure to a stressful stimulus, a forced swim task. Our data suggest that drugs of abuse and stress trigger a common modification to inhibitory plasticity, synergizing with their collective effect at excitatory synapses. Together, the net effect of addictive substances or stress is expected to increase excitability of VTA dopamine neurons, potentially contributing to the early stages of addiction.

What to eat to prevent drug and alcohol negative effects? Dietary Amino Acids

Hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin (orx/hcrt) neurons regulate energy balance, wakefulness, and reward; their loss produces narcolepsy and weight gain. Glucose can lower the activity of orx/hcrt cells, but whether other dietary macronutrients have similar effects is unclear. We show that orx/hcrt cells are stimulated by nutritionally relevant mixtures of amino acids (AAs), both in brain slice patch-clamp experiments, and in c-Fos expression assays following central or peripheral administration of AAs to mice in vivo. Physiological mixtures of AAs electrically excited orx/hcrt cells through a dual mechanism involving inhibition of KATP channels and activation of system-A amino acid transporters. Nonessential AAs were more potent in activating orx/hcrt cells than essential AAs. Moreover, the presence of physiological concentrations of AAs suppressed the glucose responses of orx/hcrt cells. These results suggest a new mechanism of hypothalamic integration of macronutrient signals and imply that orx/hcrt cells sense macronutrient balance, rather than net energy value, in extracellular fluid.

Nutritionally Relevant Mixes of Amino Acids Excite orx/hcrt Neurons In Situ

To test whether the activity of orx/hcrt cells is modulated by dietary amino acids (AAs), we first used a mixture of amino acids (“AA mix”; see Table S1 available online) based on microdialysis samples from the rat hypothalamus (Choi et al., 1999). Whole-cell patch-clamp recording showed that orx/hcrt cells depolarized and increased their firing frequency in response to the AA mix (Figure 1A; all statistics are given in the figure legends unless stated otherwise). The latency of response onset was 66 ± 5 s (n = 25). This response was unaffected by blockers of ionotropic glutamate, GABA, and glycine receptors (Figure 1B), or by blockade of spike-dependent synaptic transmission with tetrodotoxin (Figure 1C). We did not observe such AA responses in neighboring lateral hypothalamic GAD65 neurons (Figures 1D and 1F; see Experimental Procedures), or in cortical pyramidal cells (Figures 1E and 1F).

Highlights

► Brain orexin/hypocretin cells are stimulated by dietary amino acids (AAs) ► AA sensing involves K-ATP channels and system-A transporters ► Nonessential AAs stimulate orexin/hypocretin cells more than essential AAs ► AA presence prevents glucose from blocking orexin/hypocretin cells

 Effects of Physiological Amino Acid Mixes on the Membrane Potential of orx/hcrt and Other Central Neurons

(A) Effect of “AA mix” (see Table S1) on orx/hcrt cells (n = 25). Membrane potential during AA application (−39.4 ± 0.8 mV) was higher than preapplication (−51.8 ± 0.6 mV, p < 0.0001) or postapplication (−51.0 ± 1.1 mV, p < 0.0001).

(B) Same with synaptic blockers (see Experimental Procedures, n = 5). Membrane potential during AA application (−40.1 ± 1.1 mV) was depolarized relative to preapplication (−50.4 ± 0.5 mV, p < 0.002) or postapplication (−48.0 ± 1.6 mV, p < 0.02).

(C) Same as A with tetrodotoxin (0.5 μM, n = 5). Membrane potential during AA application (−42.2 ± 1.4 mV) was higher than preapplication (−53.5 ± 0.8 mV, p < 0.002) or postapplication (−51.2 ± 1.0 mV, p < 0.001).

(D) Effect of “AA mix” on non-orx/hcrt lateral hypothalamic neurons expressing GAD65 (n = 7, see Experimental Procedures). Membrane potential during AA application (−46.6 ± 1.2 mV) was not different from preapplication (−48.8 ± 1.0 mV, p > 0.15) or postapplication (−47.5 ± 1.7 mV, p > 0.6).

(E) Effect of “AA mix” on neurons from secondary somatosensory cortex layer 2-4 (n = 7). Membrane potential during AA application (−49.1 ± 0.8 mV) was not different from preapplication (−49.6 ± 0.6 mV, p > 0.3) or postapplication (−48.8 ± 1.1 mV, p > 0.8).

(F) Depolarization (means ± SEM) caused by the AA mix in different conditions, evoked from the same baseline of −50 mV (∗∗∗ = p < 0.001; n.s. = p = 0.24).

 

(G) Left, effect of switching from “low AA mix” to “AA mix” (see Table S1) on orx/hcrt cells (n = 6, quantified in F). Right, dose-response (means ± SEM) of AA-induced depolarization. Total concentration of AA mix was changed while proportions of AAs were kept same as in “AA mix” in Table S1. EC50 value (see Experimental Procedures) = 438.2 μM (equivalent to 0.66-fold of “AA mix” in Table S1).

(H) Effects of AAs in cell-attached recording mode (left, frequency histogram; right, raw trace, n = 6). Firing rate was higher in AA (6.6 ± 0.5 Hz) than in low AA (3.0 ± 0.3 Hz, p < 0.001).

Effects of Individual Amino Acids

To explore whether orx/hcrt cells are more sensitive to particular AAs, we first examined their membrane current responses to individual AAs applied at high concentration (5 mM). In this voltage-clamp assay, nonessential AAs elicited large responses, with a relative potency order glycine > aspartate > cysteine > alanine > serine > asparagine > proline > glutamine, while essential AAs were much less effective (Figures 3A and 3B). Because leucine has been suggested previously to be sensed in the hypothalamus (Cota et al., 2006), we investigated its effect across a broad concentration range in comparison with alanine (Figure 3C). Across all concentrations tested, leucine (0.02–10 mM) did not induce any detectable membrane currents, whereas alanine dose-dependently stimulated currents with an EC50 of 3.19 mM (Figure 3C).

Source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0896627311007823

Amino acid Alanine food sources: Good sources of alanine include. Animal sources: meat, seafood, caseinate, dairy products, eggs, fish, gelatin, lactalbumin. Vegetarian sources: beans, nuts, seeds, soy, whey, brewer’s yeast, brown rice, bran, corn, legumes, whole grains.

Note that per gram of protein, eggs and egg whites provide the highest levels of BCAAs. Eggs again are also marginally superior when it comes to leucine content. This should be of interest to you because leucine is the main driver of muscle protein synthesis.
Leucine food sources Leucine content (grams/ 100 grams food)
Soybeans, mature seeds, raw
2.97
lentils, raw
2.03
cowpea, catjang, mature seeds, raw
1.83
Beef, round, top round, separable lean and fat, trimmed to 1/8″ fat, select, raw
1.76
Beef, top sirloin, separable lean only, trimmed to 1/8″ fat, choice, raw
1.74
Peanuts, all types, raw
1.67
Salami, Italian, pork
1.63
Fish, salmon, pink, raw
1.62
Crustaceans, shrimp, mixed species, raw
1.61
Chicken, broilers or fryers, thigh, meat only, raw
1.48
Nuts, almonds
1.47
Egg, yolk, raw, fresh
1.40
Chickpeas (garbanzo beans, bengal gram), mature seeds, raw
1.37
Seeds, sesame butter, tahini, from raw and stone ground kernels
1.36
Chicken, broilers or fryers, wing, meat and skin, raw
1.29
flax seed, raw
1.24
Nuts, walnuts, english
1.17
Egg, whole, raw, fresh
1.09
Egg, white, raw, fresh
1.02
Sausage, Italian, pork, raw
0.96
Milk, sheep, fluid
0.59
Pork, fresh, separable fat, raw
0.40
Hummus
0.35
Milk, goat, fluid
0.31
Milk, whole, 3.25% milkfat
0.27
Soy milk, fluid
0.24
asparagus
0.13

Growth hormone rich foods

growth hormone

Morning glory

Melatonin-rich foods can increase HGH production by up to 157%. Raspberries give the best boost to your levels, so throw some on your oats for breakfast.
Clinical Endocrinology

Fish for a compliment

Vitamin D deficiency is directly related to lowered levels of male hormones, but raw fish such as salmon sashimi provides 271% of your RDA per 100g serving.
Rikshospitalet, Oslo University

Sleeping giant

Pineapple is a great source of serotonin: a hormone made between the brain and digestive tract that works as a neuro-transmitter to relax you. Eat it late to aid sleep and boost HGH.
The Journal of Clinical Investigation

Well-oiled machine

Add some coconut oil (1g per kg of your bodyweight) to your pre-workout shake to boost your HGH for up to four hours – and improve your resistance training power in the process.
Journal of Endocrinology

Veg out for workouts

If you need a snack pre-gym, go vegan. Soy beans are a great source of L-arginine, which increases your hormone levels after only 30 minutes.
Department of Exercise Science at Syracuse University

Learn from lecter

Hannibal Lecter’s favourite, fava beans are high in L-dopa. This stimulates your pituitary gland to make extra growth hormone available to your muscles.
Kobe University School of Medicine, Japan

Beef up your meal

OK, you knew it would be in here. But protein benefits aside, the amino acids found in your favourite steak help you synthesize L-orthinine; a compound that raises your growth hormone by up to four times above baseline levels.
University of Houston, Texas

Pot of gold

Research shows that as little as 2g of foods high in the amino acid glutamine, such as yoghurt, is enough to raise production of HGH. Eat after dinner to top up your levels.
Department of Physiology, Louisiana State University

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Connie’s comments :Women and men should choose no hormones in their eggs,meat,cheese and milk. Plastics are toxic, causing hormonal imbalance. Cortisol and sleep should have a balance. Happy foods such as eggs, yam and beer increase dopamine levels. Have a healthy intestinal flora with pickles, kefir,apple cider vinegar,cranberries and alkaline producing veggies. Have some sunshine and do dim your bedroom when sleeping.

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For holistic caregivers for seniors in the bayarea, call 408-854-1883 motherhealth@gmail.com http://www.clubalthea.com

Torn ligaments, injuries in bones and tissues

Injuries, whether to soft tissues or to the bones in the ankle, require certain nutrients to heal quickly and to heal completely. From the outset of ankle injury, the body experiences first the inflammatory phase, complete with swelling and heat, the proliferative phase, where the scar is developing, and finally, the remodeling phase where the tissue regains its strength. During each phase, specific nutrients can enhance the healing process and expedite return to play.

For my 53 yr old male friend who plays soccer and injures his ligaments often, I have listed the following supplements for protection and healing. Please eat more fish, yellow foods or sulfur containing foods such as garlic, onions, greens and Vit C rich foods (berries, papaya, pineapples). Since you are prone to allergies and eye problems, also take Vit C, digestive enzymes, zinc, Vit B, coconut water or aloe vera juice, potassium for adrenal function and Vit E.

And most important, warm-up with a dance or brisk walk before heavy soccer play and stretch after.

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Calcium, Magnesium and Vitamin D

Clinically proven OsteoMatrix provides a unique matrix of critical nutrients that go beyond calcium to build and maintain strong bones and teeth.* In addition to building strong bones and teeth, the nutrients in OsteoMatrix:

Help retain normal blood pressure*
Assist in muscle contraction and nerve transmission*
Help reduce PMS symptoms such as bloating, cramps, water retention, irritability, and moodiness*

OsteoMatrix Provides:

1,000 mg (100% DV) of elemental calcium from nature’s most concentrated and easily absorbed sources
600 IU (100% DV) of vitamin D to stimulate calcium absorption
400 mg (100% DV) of magnesium to help incorporate calcium into bones and strengthen them

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Omega 3 to manage inflammation

Contains all seven omega-3 fatty acids, including EPA and DHA, which studies show help :

Reduce the risk of heart disease†
Retain healthy triglyceride levels*
Maintain normal blood pressure*
Support brain, eye, and joint health*

Contains natural fish oil derived from small cold-water fish
Delivers more EPA and DHA than selected brands
No cholesterol
Smaller size for easier swallowing
Gluten free

http://clubalthea.myshaklee.com/us/en/products.php?sku=21253
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Antioxidant, turmeric
To help with bile flow, Turmeric and milk thistile in

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Milk thistle extract standardized to 80% silymarin
• Reishi mushroom, turmeric, and Schizandra chinensis have antioxidant properties*
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Joint comfort
Boswellia extract: In a clinical study, it has been shown to improve joint comfort in as a few as five days*
The most concentrated form of glucosamine. Glucosamine is clinically proven to:
Promote mobility
Enhance flexibility
Improve joint function
Support long-term joint health

Unique combination of key joint health nutrients: zinc, copper, manganese, and vitamin C – each playing a unique and critical role in building healthy connective collagen and cartilage*

Chondroitin-free for better glucosamine absorption
100% shellfish free
100% vegetarian – no animal-derived ingredients
Easy open flip-top cap

+The specific form of Boswellia extract used in Advanced Joint Health Complex* has been shown in a clinical study to improve joint comfort in as few as 5 days.

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Amino acids to support healing
Shaklee Physique® is a pure, natural, high-octane fuel for rapid muscle recovery, endurance, and strength. The intelligent-release protein blend and unique protein-to-carb ratio:

Allow your body to absorb a full spectrum of amino acids over time
Help build firm, lean muscles
Help restore muscle energy
Support muscle repair

Physique contains the right amount of protein and carbohydrates to help you recover faster and optimize muscle rebuilding

http://clubalthea.myshaklee.com/us/en/products.php?sku=20495

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Digestive Enzymes
Optiflora is a unique, two-product system that:

Provides dietary support for the normal, healthy balance of intestinal microflora.*
Promotes colon health by supporting the growth of healthy microflora naturally found in the colon.*
Delivers guaranteed live probiotics Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus acidophilus, along with the prebiotics FOS and inulin and provides gamma tocopherol, a nutrient associated with colon health.*

Optiflora Prebiotic Complex

Provides a welcome environment for the friendly, beneficial bacteria that live and work in the colon.*
Pleasant tasting powder provides nutrients-including FOS and inulin-that selectively feed friendly bacteria, encouraging their growth and multiplication.*

Optiflora Probiotic Complex

A unique capsule transports live beneficial bacteria safely through the acidic conditions of the stomach
Optiflora’s triple encapsulation protects the helpful bacteria so they can be delivered live to the intestines

Ez-Gest

Supports complete digestion of fat, protein, and carbohydrates*
Contains enzymes like those found in Lactaid® and Beano®***
Alleviates discomfort such as gas and bloating*
Helps digest “problem foods” including dairy and gas-producing vegetables such as beans and broccoli, proteins, starchy carbohydrates, and fats*
Now in a vegetarian capsule

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For sunscreen goto, http://www.clubalthea.myrandf.com

References:
“Clinical Sports Medicine”; Peter Brukner, M.D., and Karim Khan, M.D.;”2005
Precision Nutrition: Nutritional Strategies for the Management of Sports Injuries”; John Berardi, Ph.D., and Ryan Andrews, M.S., R.D.; 2008

–We are hiring reps, global sports nutrition . 408-854-1883 motherhealth@gmail.com http://www.clubalthea.myshaklee.com

 

Now hiring all ambitious and coachable college grads as financial consultants and trainers , USA, 408-854-1883 ; motherhealth@gmail.com

For energy metabolism, consume protein- rich foods (6 functional amino acids); brain uses 20% of the energy from food

Energy MetabolismOf the 20 amino acids required for protein synthesis, six of them (arginine, cysteine, glutamine, leucine, proline, and tryptophan), collectively known as the functional amino acids, regulate key metabolic pathways involved in cellular growth, and development, as well as other important biological processes such as immunity and reproduction.

Note:
Intense exercise decreases the plasma glutamine concentration and this may be related to immunosuppression.
Several researches found the efficacy of L-arginine and nitric oxide on penile erection, fixing erectile dysfunction.

For example, leucine activates mTOR signaling and increases protein synthesis, leading to lymphocyte proliferation. Therefore, a lack of leucine can compromise immune function. Metabolic pathways interrelated with the biosynthesis and degradation of these amino acids include vitamin and cofactor biosynthesis (such as SAM or S-Adenosyl Methionine) as well as neurotransmitter metabolism (such as glutamate).

Leucine food sources Leucine content (grams/ 100 gram food)
Soybeans, mature seeds, raw 2.97
lentils, raw 2.03
cowpea, catjang, mature seeds, raw 1.83
Beef, round, top round, separable lean and fat, trimmed to 1/8″ fat, select, raw 1.76
Beef, top sirloin, separable lean only, trimmed to 1/8″ fat, choice, raw 1.74
Peanuts, all types, raw 1.67
Salami, Italian, pork 1.63
Fish, salmon, pink, raw
1.62
Crustaceans, shrimp, mixed species, raw 1.61
Chicken, broilers or fryers, thigh, meat only, raw 1.48
Nuts, almonds 1.47
Egg, yolk, raw, fresh 1.40
Chickpeas (garbanzo beans, bengal gram), mature seeds, raw 1.37
Seeds, sesame butter, tahini, from raw and stone ground kernels 1.36
Chicken, broilers or fryers, wing, meat and skin, raw 1.29
flax seed, raw
1.24
Nuts, walnuts, english 1.17
Egg, whole, raw, fresh 1.09
Egg, white, raw, fresh 1.02
Sausage, Italian, pork, raw 0.96
Milk, sheep, fluid 0.59
Pork, fresh, separable fat, raw 0.40
Hummus 0.35
Milk, goat, fluid 0.31
Milk, whole, 3.25% milkfat 0.27
Soy milk, fluid 0.24
asparagus 0.13
Snap beans, green, raw 0.11
Milk, human, mature, fluid 0.10

Amino Acid L-Arginine, Nitric Oxide, and Erectile Dysfunction
Last Updated on Thursday, 05 April 2012 15:20
According to the National Health Institute (NIH) Consensus Development Panel on Impotence, erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as the persistent inability to achieve and/or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance.
Causes of erectile dysfunction may be psychological and physiological factors (neurogenic, vascular, endocrine causes). It may also be a side effect of drugs and a symptom of health complications such as diabetes.
Penile erection occurs as a result of increased blood inflow to the penis, engorgement with blood, and decreased outflow of blood from the penis. Primarily, this process is mediated by nitric oxide, which is a neurotransmitter and vasodilator. Nitric oxide is synthesized from L-arginine.

Several researches on the efficacy of L-arginine and nitric oxide on penile erection, fixing erectile dysfunction, have reported positive effects of both chemicals in stimulating and maintaining erection. For example, a study reported that 80 % of men (out of 40, age group 25 – 45) with erectile dysfunction treated with L-arginine (dosage: 1.7 g/ day) and Pycnogenol, an extract from French maritime pine bark (Pinus pinaster), (dosage: 80 mg/day) recovered from their erectile dysfunction after one month of treatment. Pycnogenol, also an antioxidant, stimulates synthesis of nitric oxide from L-arginine. The researchers reported that there was no side effect associated with the supplements.

In another double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical research on the effect and safety of the combination of 6 g of L-arginine glutamate and 6 mg of yohimbine hydrochloride with that of 6 mg of yohimbine hydrochloride alone and that of placebo alone, for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED), it was reported that combined oral administration of the L-arginine glutamate ( 6 g) and yohimbine (6 mg) was effective in improving erectile function in patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction (ED).

Herbs and sexuality:
Yohimbe: health benefits and side effects
Ginseng: health benefits and side effects
Ginkgo Biloba: health benefits and side effects

Erectile dysfunction related articles:
What is erectile dysfunction? How does erection occur?
What are the causes of erectile dysfunction?
What are the treatments for erectile dysfunction?

References:

Stanislavov, R. and Nikolova. 2003. Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction with Pycnogenol and L-arginine. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 29(3): 207 – 213.

Basu, A. and Ryder, R. E. J. 2004. New Treatment Options for Erectile Dysfunction in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus. Drugs, 64(23): 2667 – 2688.

Toda, N. Ayajiki, K. Okamura, T. 2005. Nitric Oxide and Penile Erectile Function. Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 106: 233 – 266.

Lebret, T., Hervéa, J. M., Gornyb, P., Worcelc, M. and Botto, H. 2002. Efficacy and Safety of a Novel Combination of L-Arginine Glutamate and Yohimbine Hydrochloride: A New Oral Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction. European Urology 41(6): 608-613.

Functions of non-essential amino acids

The following list includse the 12 non-essential amino acids. Included is a some of the functions and benefits and side effects (if any) of the amino acids.

Alanine: Removes toxic substances released from breakdown of muscle protein during intensive exercise. Side effects: Excessive alanine level in the body is associated with chronic fatigue.
Cysteine: Component of protein type abundant in nails, skin and hair. It acts as antioxidant (free radical scavenger), and has synergetic effect when taken with other antioxidants such as vitamin E and selenium.
Cystine: The same as cysteine, it aids in removal of toxins and formation of skin.
Glutamine: Promotes healthy brain function. It is also necessary for the synthesis of RNA and DNA molecules.
Glutathione: Is antioxidant and has anti-aging effect. It is useful in removal of toxins.
Glycine: Component of skin and is beneficial for wound healing. It acts as neurotransmitter. The side effect of high level glycine in the body is that it may cause fatigue.
Histidine: Important for the synthesis of red and white blood cells. It is a precursor for histamine which is good for sexual arousal. Improve blood flow. Side effects of high dosage of histidine include stress and anxiety.
Serine: Constituent of brain proteins and aids in the synthesis of immune system proteins. It is also good for muscle growth.
Taurine: Necessary for proper brain function and synthesis of amino acids. It is important in the assimilation of mineral nutrients such as magnesium, calcium and potassium.
Threonine: Balances protein level in the body. It promotes immune system. It is also beneficial for the synthesis of tooth enamel and collagen.
Asparagine: It helps promote equilibrium in the central nervous system—aids in balancing state of emotion.
Apartic acid: Enhances stamina, aids in removal of toxins and ammonia from the body, and beneficial in the synthesis of proteins involved in the immune system.
Proline: plays role in intracellular signalling.
L-arginine: plays role in blood vessel relaxation, stimulating and maintaining erection in men, production of ejaculate, and removal of excess ammonia from the body.

A list of sample of high or low protein food sources is below:
Protein food source Estimated protein content
½ cup tofu
14 g
½ cup legumes 7 g
2 ounce lean meat, fish, poultry 14 g
1-2 ounces of nuts 14 g
1 slice of bread 3 g
1 cup raw vegetables 2 g

Maintenance of Immunity
It is generally believed that moderate exercise enhances immunocompetence and is effective for the prevention of inflammatory diseases, infection, and cancer, while excessive physical activity leads to immunosuppression and an increase of inflammatory and allergic disorders.

Susceptibility to infections following excessive physical activity is ascribed to an increase in the production of immunosuppressive factors such as adrenocortical hormones and anti-inflammatory cytokines, leading to a decrease in the number and activity of circulating natural killer cells and T cells as well as a lower IgA concentration in the saliva.
Therefore, athletes performing high-intensity training are exposed to the risk of impaired immunocompetence. Intake of carbohydrates during prolonged exercise at submaximal intensity attenuates the increase of plasma cortisol and cytokine levels after exercise, which could lead to the inhibition of immunosuppression.
Vitamin C and vitamin E have actions that promote immunity, and are essential for T cell differentiation and for maintenance of T cell function.
However, there is limited evidence about the effects of vitamins supplementation on immune function in relation to exercise.
Glutamine is an important energy source for lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils, and is also an essential amino acid for the differentiation and growth of these cells.
Intense exercise decreases the plasma glutamine concentration and this may be related to immunosuppression.
Castell et al. reported that athletes who ingested glutamine had a lower infection rate after a marathon compared with the placebo group. They also demonstrated that intake of glutamine resulted in an increase of the T-helper/T-suppressor cell ratio.
Furthermore, glutamine enhances the activity of intestinal enterobacteria and inhibits the production of cytokines involved in inflammation or immunosuppression.
Conclusion
Due to a social background that includes changes of dietary habits, an aging population, and increased medical costs, people have shown a growing interest in health and have come to expect complex and diverse actions of foods.
In recent years, various food factors that fulfill such requirements have been evaluated scientifically to determine whether they are any physiological effects like prevention of diseases.

In the sports market, a variety of functional foods are available, but among these functional foods, some have not clearly demonstrated any efficacy and others are advertised with inappropriate and exaggerated claims, so consumers are often confused. Some of the food components described in this article should be studied further because of differing views with regard to their efficacy in different reports.

Furthermore, the effectiveness of the components may differ according to gender, between individuals, and with the mode of ingestion, so that the optimum method of intake the quantity and quality of foods to be ingested, and the timing of their intake need to be established in accordance with the purpose of using each food or food component, after understanding the physiological changes by exercise.

In the future, guidelines for the use and evaluation system of sports functional foods should be established with backing by clear scientific evidence related to the individual foods.
Wataru Aoi1 ,2 , Yuji Naito3 and Toshikazu Yoshikawa2 ,3
1Research Center for Sports Medicine, Doshisha University, Kyoto 602-8580, Japan
2Department of Inflammation and Immunology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan
3Department of Medical Proteomics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan

Nutrition Journal 2006, 5:15 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-5-15