Learn a new dance, movement , language to grow new brain cells

Surround yourself with people who will let you get the optimum potential that your brain can do to be successful in your own terms. You control your destiny, what your career will be , your finances and happiness.

Find an inspiration. I want to be a doctor before I reached the age of 80. I will use the internet for free skills and knowledge while I save for the time to be full time student as Nurse Practitioner first.

Every time we learn a new dance, movement , language or reach new accomplishments and solve new challenges, our brain cells grow.

So, grow your brain cells and be in control. Do not use the excuse that someone introduced you to a path that later on is a failure. Use that failure to get up and do a meaningful project you own and be proud of. I believe in the human potential and the power of the mind to control the brain to move and do some learning.

Connie

motor neurons

HUMAN SKIN CELLS TRANSFORMED INTO MOTOR NEURONS

WUSTL researchers have converted skin cells into motor neurons without going through the stem cell state. The new technique could help in the development of devastating neurodegenerative diseases, like ALS, that affect motor neurons. READ MORE…
Image shows a neuron.

ROBOTIC SYSTEM MONITORS SPECIFIC NEURONS

Researchers have developed a robotic system that allows them to focus in on specific neurons in the brain. The technology could help answer questions such as how neurons interact with each other as we recall a memory. READ MORE…

Frequent alcohol use kills new brain cells in adults: women more vulnerable

Image shows a wine glass.

LOW LEVELS OF ALCOHOL MAY BE GOOD FOR THE BRAIN

According to researchers, a small alcoholic drink each day may be beneficial for brain health. Using mice, researchers found low levels of alcohol consumption is associated with less brain inflammation and a more effective glymphatic system. This allows CSF to flow more efficiently through the brain and remove waste that can lead to neurodegenerative diseases. READ MORE…
Image shows a woman looking at a drink of whiskey.

STUDY POKES HOLES IN FETAL ALCOHOL HYPOTHESIS

A new study challenges conventional beliefs about fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Researchers discovered no differences in microglia activity in the brains of health mice and those exposed to alcohol during early development. The study brings into question the whether the brain’s immune system cells are to blame for the neurological damage that occurs as a result of fetal alcohol exposure. READ MORE…
Image shows a person behind smashed glass.

BRAIN INJURY IN KIDS MIGHT LEAD TO ALCOHOL ABUSE

According to a new Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience study, children who experienced TBI under the age of 5 were 3.6 times more likely to have problems with substance abuse as teens. Finding suggest traumatic brain injuries during early life could be a risk factor for alcohol abuse later in life. READ MORE…

Snapshots of Life: The Birth of New Neurons

Radial Glia in Oil

Snapshots of Life: The Birth of New Neurons

After a challenging day at work or school, sometimes it may seem like you are down to your last brain cell. But have no fear—in actuality, the brains of humans and other mammals have the potential to produce new neurons throughout life. This remarkable ability is due to a specific type of cell—adult neural stem cells—so beautifully highlighted in this award-winning micrograph.

Here you see the nuclei (purple) and arm-like extensions (green) of neural stem cells, along with nuclei of other cells (blue), in brain tissue from a mature mouse. The sample was taken from the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, a region of the brain associated with learning and memory. This zone is also one of the few areas in the adult brain where stem cells are known to reside.

Kira Mosher, a postdoctoral fellow in the NIH-supported lab of Dave Schaffer at the University of California, Berkeley, captured this striking image using a confocal microscope. Then, to make it really pop, Mosher used photo-editing software to add a few “oil painting” effects. For her efforts, the micrograph was named a winner in the UC Berkeley 2017 MIC Image Contest.

Images like this one are helping the Schaffer lab pinpoint the locations of neural stem cells and map their interactions with other cells, providing clues to their potential roles in health and disease.The researchers also plan to use CRISPR gene-editing tools to tinker with neural stem cells and learn more about the molecular signals needed for them to function normally.

As scientists gain a more detailed view, the hope is they’ll be in a better position to figure out how to transplant or activate neural stem cells for possible use in brain repair. Such research might lead to new strategies for helping people with stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and other conditions in which neurons are lost.

 Links:

Focus on Stem Cell Research (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke/NIH)

Schaffer Lab (University of California, Berkeley)

NIH Support: National Eye Institute; National Institute of General Medical Sciences; National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

MSM powder benefits – Alzheimer is a sulfur deficiency

sulfur 11MSM powder benefits

1. MSM powder benefits our bodies by helping absorb more nutrients (vitamins and minerals). 

Co-enzyme Q10 locks with MSM, which means that in order for the body to fully utilize this nutrient, it must have MSM(sulfur) with it. Pantothenic acid, Vitamins A, D, and E, inter-enzymes, amino acids, selenium, calcium, germanium, collagnol and dismuzyme are just some of the things we know the body does not utilize properly unless it has MSM to lock with. A lot of the vitamins we take go through the body without being fully used. With more MSM in the body, vitamins can be utilized more effectively and therefore become much more beneficial.

There is a joke that Americans have the most expensive urine in the world because of all the vitamins that go down the drain. Vitamin C does a lot of healing by itself, but without MSM to lock with, it doesn’t toughen capillary walls. When MSM is added to the diet and taken with Vitamin C, chronic nosebleeds, easy bruising and varicose veins may be relieved. Vitamin C and MSM work synergistically together. Every body is different, so you would need to find what works for you, but it is important when taking Vitamin C to make certain it has the bioflavinoids with it because it is then a complete food. Nature’s vitamins (from fresh food) are the best because they contain the whole complexes without which the body can’t do its job, which is to maintain and repair the bodily systems. Without enough MSM, the body can’t do its job properly.

2. MSM powder increases oxygen availability to the body. 

There are people who have had emphysema, who used an atomizer for breathing and could hardly get out of the chair to walk across the room, who, after about a week of taking MSM, walked a half mile, rested and then walked another half mile. Now that is not because emphysema had been reversed, but because the MSM detoxifies and increases the blood’s circulation of oxygen. MSM benefits the body by helping to get oxygen into the blood a lot more efficiently with the same amount of work.

3. MSM powder helps increase energy. 

Another MSM benefit is that energy levels increase because MSM helps make the cell walls more permeable. Our cell walls get thicker and more rigid with age; this tends to create a lessening of the amount of nutrients and oxygen that can enter the cell through the cell wall. Also, toxins which get stored in the cell get trapped within the cells because of the lower permeability of the cell wall. When MSM goes into the body the permeability of the cell walls greatly increases, enhancing the absorbtion of nutrients and oxygen and helping release the toxins which were stuck in cells. When these toxins leave the body, it helps to increase our energy.
A good example of this at work shows up in diabetics. When their blood carries sugar to their cells, the sugar cannot be absorbed due to the impermeability of the cell wall. Studies show that when MSM goes into the body it causes the cell wall to be more permeable again. The pancreas (which requires sulfur to make insulin) normalizes because it doesn’t work so hard–blood sugar can now be absorbed through the cell walls, helping to balance the blood sugar level. Because sulfur is a component of insulin (the protein hormone secreted by the pancreas that is essential to carbohydrate metabolism), a lack of nutritional sulfur in the diet can result in low insulin production by the pancreas. Thus, for the diabetic individual, MSM is extremely helpful in improving their overall energy levels.
There have been reports of long term diabetics injecting insulin daily for years, who have in five weeks to two months become self-regulating and stopped having mood swings. The blood sugar had stabilized. Studies suggest, in those with diabetes, that the cell wall may be more leathery and thus the absorption of sugar by the cells is greatly reduced.

4. MSM powder benefits the body by eliminating toxins including lactic acid build-up from strenuous exercise. 
Drinking plenty of water is very important for anyone wishing to have good health. The fact that MSM detoxifies means that you need to keep water moving into the body so that the toxins can be eliminated without stressing other organs of the body, such as the kidneys.

5. MSM powder benefits the body by helping to dramatically reduces recuperation time from strenuous exercise and long hours of work.

6. MSM powder helps relieve muscular aches and pains.

7. MSM powder benefits the body by reducing inflammation due to injury or inflammatory diseases such as arthritis. 

When the water pressure inside a cell is greater than the water pressure on the outside of the cell, there is inflammation and swelling. (The outer and intercellular fluid pressures are not equal.) MSM enhances the permeability of the cell walls, therefore allowing the pressure on both sides of the wall to equalize, thus relieving the inflammation. MSM takes inflammation out of soft tissue and since pain comes from nerves in inflamed soft tissue, there is often relief from the pain of such inflammatory ailments as arthritis, bursitis, rheumatism and hip dysplasia. Another benefit of MSM is that is can help get the flexibility back into the tissues very rapidly. Some people have experienced relief in only 20 minutes! For others, it takes longer.

8. MSM, together with Vitamin C (a free radical scavenger) helps the body build healthy new cells.

9. MSM, along with Vitamin C, helps reduce scar tissue and wrinkles, and helps keep the skin more elastic.

10. MSM, along with Vitamin C, helps the hair and nails grow stronger and faster.

11. MSM has been shown to improve mental alertness.

12. MSM has been proven to help in the reduction and even the total elimination of allergies. 
When MSM is added to the diet, anti-allergy medication may be sharply reduced or eliminated.

13. MSM benefits women by reducing headaches, cramps and muscle pain caused by hormonal imbalances, for example, PMS. 
Women who have had monthly menstruation problems often no longer experience the headaches, cramps or muscle plain associated with their periods. Many women have these problems because their hormones are out of balance. The monthly cycle can be a shock to the system. When the hormones are brought into balance, the body functions normally and these painful problems can be vastly reduced or eliminated.

14. MSM helps relieve constipation. 
MSM benefits include helping control chronic constipation. Many older people seem to have this problem and it can be a real medical concern. Reportedly many people suffering from constipation have had prompt and continuing relief by supplementing their diet with MSM. A good amount of Vitamin C along with the MSM has proven to be helpful for this condition.

15. MSM has been shown to help reduce and even eliminate snoring.

16. MSM helps reduces eye membrane irritation (when MSM in a water solution is applied).
MSM is the 4th most plentiful mineral in the body, and so essential to life that it is found in every cell of virtually every animal and plant.

Some Symptoms of Sulfur Deficiency

1. Scar Tissue
2. Wrinkles
3. Damaged Skin
4. Lung Disfunction
5. Diabetes
6. Sore Joints and Muscles
7. Ulcers
8. Migrane Headaches
9. Alzheimers
10. Allergic Reactions
11. Candida Infections, Chronic Fatigue
12. Cholesterol
13. Diverticulosis


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Brain Structure Makes Some Resilient to Alzheimer’s

Brain Structure Makes Some Resilient to Alzheimer’s

Summary: According to researchers, the size, shape and number of dendritic spines in the brain may determine whether a person develops Alzheimer’s disease.

Source: University of Alabama at Birmingham.

The size, shape and number of dendritic spines in the brain may play a major role in whether someone gets Alzheimer’s disease, according to new research from the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Dendritic spines are sub-units of neurons that act as the connector to other neurons.

In findings published Oct. 24 in the Annals of Neurology, the research team showed, for the first time, that the presence of healthy dendritic spines conveyed a protective effect against Alzheimer’s in people whose brains had proteins associated with the disease.

“One of the precursors of Alzheimer’s is the development in the brain of proteins called amyloid and tau, which we refer to as the pathology of Alzheimer’s,” said Jeremy Herskowitz, Ph.D., assistant professor in the Department of Neurology, School of Medicine and lead author of the study. “However, about 30 percent of the aging population have amyloid and tau buildup but never develop dementia. Our study showed that these individuals had larger, more numerous dendritic spines than those with dementia, indicating that spine health plays a major role in the onset of disease.”

Neurons are constantly sending out long, thin dendritic spines in search of other neurons. When they connect, a synapse, or exchange of information between neurons, occurs. This is the basis for memory and learning.

“One obvious culprit in Alzheimer’s disease is the loss of dendritic spines and thus the loss of synapses,” said Herskowitz, who is the Patsy W. and Charles A. Collat Scholar in Neuroscience. “This would impair the ability to think, so the assumption has been that those without dementia had healthy spines and those with dementia did not. But no one had gone in to see if that was true.”

Herskowitz’s team studied brain samples from patients at memory clinics at Emory University. The control group did not have the Alzheimer’s pathology of amyloid plaques and tau tangles and never developed dementia. A second group had the Alzheimer’s pathology and progressed to the disease. The third group had the pathology, but no disease.

The researchers took thousands of microscopy images of the subject brains. Those images were then turned into 3-D images using novel, exclusive software. This allowed the team to look more fully at the shape and dimensions of each image.

“We first noted that the control group had more dendritic spines than the group with Alzheimer’s, which matched beautifully with existing historical data,” Herskowitz said. “But we also saw that the group with Alzheimer’s pathology but no disease also had more spines than the Alzheimer’s group. In fact, they had roughly the same spine density as the control group. What is even more exciting is that the ‘pathology but no disease’ group had very long spines, longer than both the control group and the disease group.”

Image shows neurons.

Herskowitz says the longer spines demonstrated great plasticity, or ability to move. This indicates that they could navigate around or through amyloid plaques or tau tangles in their efforts to connect with other neurons.

“This provides an explanation of why some people are cognitively resilient to Alzheimer’s disease, even if they possess the typical Alzheimer’s pathology,” he said.

Herskowitz says that the high plasticity and density of dendritic spines in this population could be genetic. Another theory suggests that it could be the result of healthy lifestyle behaviors, such as good diet and exercise, which are known to be protective against dementia. It may be that the reason these behaviors are protective is that they help maintain spine health, plasticity and density.

The findings also offer a new target for slowing or preventing Alzheimer’s in the first place, Herskowitz says.

“This provides a target for drugs that would be designed to support and maintain dendritic spine health in an effort to rebuild neurons or prevent their loss,” he said. “This data suggests that rebuilding neurons is possible. And as we are better able to identify the increase of amyloid and tau early in the progression of the disease, even before symptoms arise, we might be able to one day offer a medication that can contribute to maintaining healthy dendritic spines in those with the Alzheimer’s pathology.”

ABOUT THIS NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH ARTICLE

Funding: Herskowitz credits the innovative 3-D imaging system used in the study to groundbreaking work done by UAB science and technology honors student Benjamin Boros. Funding for the study was provided by the National Institute on Aging, part of the National Institutes of Health, and the Alzheimer’s Association.

Source: Bob Shepard – University of Alabama at Birmingham
Publisher: Organized by NeuroscienceNews.com.
Image Source: NeuroscienceNews.com image is credited to Alzheimer’s disease group.
Original Research:Abstract for “Dendritic spines provide cognitive resilience against Alzheimer’s disease” by Benjamin D. Boros, Kelsey M. Greathouse BS, Erik G. Gentry BS, Kendall A. Curtis, Elizabeth L. Birchall BS, Marla Gearing PhD, and Jeremy H. Herskowitz PhD in Annals of Neurology. Published online October 22 2017 doi:10.1002/ana.25049

CITE THIS NEUROSCIENCENEWS.COM ARTICLE
University of Alabama at Birmingham “Brain Structure Makes Some Resilient to Alzheimer’s.” NeuroscienceNews. NeuroscienceNews, 24 October 2017.
<http://neurosciencenews.com/alzheimers-brain-structure-7804/&gt;.

Abstract

Dendritic spines provide cognitive resilience against Alzheimer’s disease

Objective

Neuroimaging and other biomarker assays suggest that the pathological processes of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) begin years prior to clinical dementia onset. However, some 30 to 50% of older individuals who harbor AD pathology do not become symptomatic in their lifetime. It is hypothesized that such individuals exhibit cognitive resilience that protects against AD dementia. We hypothesized that in cases with AD pathology, structural changes in dendritic spines would distinguish individuals who had or did not have clinical dementia.

Methods

We compared dendritic spines within layer II and III pyramidal neuron dendrites in Brodmann area 46 dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using the Golgi–Cox technique in 12 age-matched pathology-free controls, 8 controls with AD pathology (CAD), and 21 AD cases. We used highly optimized methods to trace impregnated dendrites from bright-field microscopy images that enabled accurate 3-dimensional digital reconstruction of dendritic structure for morphologic analyses.

Results

Spine density was similar among control and CAD cases but was reduced significantly in AD. Thin and mushroom spines were reduced significantly in AD compared to CAD brains, whereas stubby spine density was decreased significantly in CAD and AD compared to controls. Increased spine extent distinguished CAD cases from controls and AD. Linear regression analysis of all cases indicated that spine density was not associated with neuritic plaque score but did display negative correlation with Braak staging.

Interpretation

These observations provide cellular evidence to support the hypothesis that dendritic spine plasticity is a mechanism of cognitive resilience that protects older individuals with AD pathology from developing dementia.

“Dendritic spines provide cognitive resilience against Alzheimer’s disease” by Benjamin D. Boros, Kelsey M. Greathouse BS, Erik G. Gentry BS, Kendall A. Curtis, Elizabeth L. Birchall BS, Marla Gearing PhD, and Jeremy H. Herskowitz PhD in Annals of Neurology. Published online October 22 2017 doi:10.1002/ana.25049


Connie’s comments: Motherhealth caregivers are trained to massage the head of all senior clients.

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Scientists were able to turn pro-inflammatory cells into anti-inflammatory cells

Summary: According to a Nature study, researchers developed a method to reprogram specific T cells in the immune system. Scientists were able to turn pro-inflammatory cells into anti-inflammatory cells, and vice versa, to boost or suppress the immune system. Researchers believe their findings could have significant impact on developing treatments for autoimmune diseases.

Source: Gladstone Institute.

The discovery could improve treatments for autoimmune diseases and cancer.

When the immune system is imbalanced, either due to overly-active cells or cells that suppress its function, it causes a wide range of diseases, from psoriasis to cancer. By manipulating the function of certain immune cells, called T cells, researchers could help restore the system’s balance and create new treatments to target these diseases.

Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes revealed, for the first time, a method to reprogram specific T cells. More precisely, they discovered how to turn pro-inflammatory cells that boost the immune system into anti-inflammatory cells that suppress it, and vice versa.

The researchers studied two types of cells called effector T cells, which activate the immune system to defend our body against different pathogens, and regulatory T cells, which help control the immune system and prevent it from attacking healthy parts of its environment.

“Our findings could have a significant impact on the treatment of autoimmune diseases, as well as on stem cell and immuno-oncology therapies,” said Gladstone Senior Investigator Sheng Ding, PhD, who is also a professor of pharmaceutical chemistry at the University of California, San Francisco.

By drawing on their expertise in drug discovery, Ding’s team identified a small-molecule drug that can successfully reprogram effector T cells into regulatory T cells. Their study, published in the renowned journal Nature, describes in detail a metabolic mechanism that helps convert one cell type into another.

This new approach to reprogram T cells could have several medical applications. For instance, in autoimmune disease, effector T cells are overly activated and cause damage to body. Converting these cells into regulatory T cells could help reduce the hyperactivity and return balance to the immune system, thus treating the root of the disease.

 Image shows a T cell.

In addition, the study could improve therapies using stem cells. At least in theory, producing regulatory T cells could promote immune tolerance and prevent the body from rejecting newly-transplanted cells.

“Our work could also contribute to ongoing efforts in immuno-oncology and the treatment of cancer,” explained Tao Xu, postdoctoral scholar in Ding’s laboratory and first author of the study. “This type of therapy doesn’t target the cancer directly, but rather works on activating the immune system so it can recognize cancer cells and attack them.”

Many cancers take control of regulatory T cells to suppress the immune system, creating an environment where tumors can grow without being detected. In such cases, the team’s findings could be used to transform regulatory T cells into effector T cells to strengthen the immune system so it can better recognize and destroy cancer cells.

ABOUT THIS NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH ARTICLE

Funding: The research was supported by the Gladstone Institutes.

Other authors of this study include Katerina Akassoglou, Kai Liu, Min Xie, Jae Kyu Ryu, Ke Li, Tianhua Ma, Haixia Wang, Saiyong Zhu, Nan Cao, and Yu Zhang from Gladstone; Edward M. Driggers, Kelly M. Stewart, and Dongwei Zhu from Agios Pharmaceuticals; and Chen Dong, Xiaohu Wang, and Lu Ni from Tsinghua University in China.

Source: Julie Langelier – Gladstone Institute
Image Source: NeuroscienceNews.com image is in the public domain.
Original Research: Abstract for “Metabolic control of TH17 and induced Treg cell balance by an epigenetic mechanism” by Tao Xu, Kelly M. Stewart, Xiaohu Wang, Kai Liu, Min Xie, Jae Kyu Ryu, Ke Li, Tianhua Ma, Haixia Wang, Lu Ni, Saiyong Zhu, Nan Cao, Dongwei Zhu, Yu Zhang, Katerina Akassoglou, Chen Dong, Edward M. Driggers & Sheng Ding in Nature. Published online August 2 2017 doi:10.1038/nature23475

CITE THIS NEUROSCIENCENEWS.COM ARTICLE
Gladstone Institute “How to Reprogram Cells in Our Immune System.” NeuroscienceNews. NeuroscienceNews, 3 August 2017.
<http://neurosciencenews.com/immune-system-reprogramming-7232/&gt;.

Abstract

The cell non-autonomous function of ATG-18 is essential for neuroendocrine regulation of Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan

Metabolism has been shown to integrate with epigenetics and transcription to modulate cell fate and function. Beyond meeting the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands of T-cell differentiation whether metabolism might control T-cell fate by an epigenetic mechanism is unclear. Here, through the discovery and mechanistic characterization of a small molecule, (aminooxy)acetic acid, that reprograms the differentiation of T helper 17 (TH17) cells towards induced regulatory T (iTreg) cells, we show that increased transamination, mainly catalysed by GOT1, leads to increased levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate in differentiating TH17 cells. The accumulation of 2-hydroxyglutarate resulted in hypermethylation of the Foxp3 gene locus and inhibited Foxp3 transcription, which is essential for fate determination towards TH17 cells. Inhibition of the conversion of glutamate to α-ketoglutaric acid prevented the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate, reduced methylation of the Foxp3 gene locus, and increased Foxp3 expression. This consequently blocked the differentiation of TH17 cells by antagonizing the function of transcription factor RORγt and promoted polarization into iTreg cells. Selective inhibition of GOT1 with (aminooxy)acetic acid ameliorated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in a therapeutic mouse model by regulating the balance between TH17 and iTreg cells. Targeting a glutamate-dependent metabolic pathway thus represents a new strategy for developing therapeutic agents against TH17-mediated autoimmune diseases.

“Metabolic control of TH17 and induced Treg cell balance by an epigenetic mechanism” by Tao Xu, Kelly M. Stewart, Xiaohu Wang, Kai Liu, Min Xie, Jae Kyu Ryu, Ke Li, Tianhua Ma, Haixia Wang, Lu Ni, Saiyong Zhu, Nan Cao, Dongwei Zhu, Yu Zhang, Katerina Akassoglou, Chen Dong, Edward M. Driggers & Sheng Ding in Nature. Published online August 2 2017 doi:10.1038/nature23475