Brain disorders, stress , sleep and diseases

12 Effects of Chronic Stress on Your Brain | Be Brain Fit

Chronic stress increases the stress hormone cortisol and affects many brain functions, putting you at risk for many mood disorders and other mental issues. … free radicals. If stress causes you to losesleep, eat junk food, drink too much alcohol, or smoke cigarettes to relax, these are contributing to your free radical load.

Extent and Health Consequences of Chronic Sleep Loss and Sleep …

It is estimated that 50 to 70 million Americans chronically suffer from a disorder of sleep and wakefulness, hindering daily functioning and adversely affecting health and … Adults with chronic sleeploss report excess mental distress, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and alcohol use (Baldwin and Daugherty, 2004; Strine and …

Traumatic stress: effects on the brain – NCBI – NIH

by JD Bremner – ‎2006 – ‎Cited by 259 – ‎Related articles

Traumatic stressors such as early trauma can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), whichaffects about 8% of Americans at some time In their lives, … PTSD is characterized by specific symptoms, including intrusive thoughts, hyperarousal, flashbacks, nightmares, and sleep disturbances, changes in memory and …

11 Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Your Body – Healthline

Jun 5, 2017 – Science has linked poor slumber with all kinds of health problems, from weight gain to a weakened immune system. sleep deprivation. Your body needs sleep, just as it needs air and food to function at its best. During sleep, your body heals itself and restores its chemical balance. Your brainforges new …

Chronic Stress Can Damage Brain Structure and Connectivity …

Feb 12, 2014 – The finding suggests a key role for oligodendrocytes in long-term and perhaps permanent changes in the brain that could set the stage for later mental problems. Chronic stress decreases the number of stem cells that mature into neurons and might provide an explanation for how chronic stressalso affects …

Sleep and mental health – Harvard Health

Jul 1, 2009 – In bipolar depression, however, studies report that 23% to 78% of patients sleep excessively (hypersomnia), while others may experience insomnia or restless sleep. … Sleep problems also adversely affect mood and contribute to relapse. Anxiety disorders.

The gut-brain connection – Harvard Health

In other words, stress (or depression or other psychological factors) can affect movement and contractions of the GI tract, make inflammation worse, or perhaps make you more susceptible toinfection. In addition, research suggests that some people with functional GI disorders perceive pain more acutely than other people …

10 Surprising Effects of Lack of Sleep – WebMD

https://www.webmd.com › Sleep Disorders › Feature Stories

Feb 13, 2014 – Here are 10 surprising — and serious — effects of sleep loss. … ProblemsSleep disordersand chronic sleep loss can put you at risk for: … According to some estimates, 90% of people with insomnia — a sleep disorder characterized by trouble falling and staying asleep — also have another health condition.

10 Facts You Might Not Know About Sleep and Mental Health …

May 23, 2017 – Poor sleep habits have been linked to problems like: depression and anxiety, increased risk for heart disease and cancer, memory issues, reduced immune … May is Mental Health Awareness Month, and to have a better understanding of how sleep affects your mental health, check out these 10 facts: 1.

Sleep Disorders | Anxiety and Depression Association of America, ADAA

Stress or anxiety can cause a serious night without sleep, as do a variety of other problems. Insomnia is the … Anxiety causes sleeping problems, and new research suggests sleep deprivation can cause ananxiety disorder. Research also … Sleeping recharges your brain and improves your focus, concentration, and mood.

The Role Gut Bacteria Plays in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Summary: Researchers report proteins produced by gut bacteria may cause protein misfolding in the brain and cerebral inflammation.

Source: University of Louisville.

Research at UofL funded by The Michael J. Fox Foundation shows proteins produced by gut bacteria may cause misfolding of brain proteins and cerebral inflammation.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are all characterized by clumped, misfolded proteins and inflammation in the brain. In more than 90 percent of cases, physicians and scientists do not know what causes these processes to occur.

Robert P. Friedland, M.D., the Mason C. and Mary D. Rudd Endowed Chair and Professor of Neurology at the University of Louisville School of Medicine, and a team of researchers have discovered that these processes may be triggered by proteins made by our gut bacteria (the microbiota). Their research has revealed that exposure to bacterial proteins called amyloid that have structural similarity to brain proteins leads to an increase in clumping of the protein alpha-synuclein in the brain. Aggregates, or clumps, of misfolded alpha-synuclein and related amyloid proteins are seen in the brains of patients with the neurodegenerative diseases AD, PD and ALS.

Alpha-synuclein (AS) is a protein normally produced by neurons in the brain. In both PD and AD, alpha-synuclein is aggregated in a clumped form called amyloid, causing damage to neurons. Friedland has hypothesized that similarly clumped proteins produced by bacteria in the gut cause brain proteins to misfold via a mechanism called cross-seeding, leading to the deposition of aggregated brain proteins. He also proposed that amyloid proteins produced by the microbiota cause priming of immune cells in the gut, resulting in enhanced inflammation in the brain.

The research, which was supported by The Michael J. Fox Foundation, involved the administration of bacterial strains of E. coli that produce the bacterial amyloid protein curli to rats. Control animals were given identical bacteria that lacked the ability to make the bacterial amyloid protein. The rats fed the curli-producing organisms showed increased levels of AS in the intestines and the brain and increased cerebral AS aggregation, compared with rats who were exposed to E. coli that did not produce the bacterial amyloid protein. The curli-exposed rats also showed enhanced cerebral inflammation.

Image shows slides from the study.

Similar findings were noted in a related experiment in which nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) that were fed curli-producing E. coli also showed increased levels of AS aggregates, compared with nematodes not exposed to the bacterial amyloid. A research group led by neuroscientist Shu G. Chen, Ph.D., of Case Western Reserve University, performed this collaborative study.

This new understanding of the potential role of gut bacteria in neurodegeneration could bring researchers closer to uncovering the factors responsible for initiating these diseases and ultimately developing preventive and therapeutic measures.

“These new studies in two different animals show that proteins made by bacteria harbored in the gut may be an initiating factor in the disease process of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and ALS,” Friedland said. “This is important because most cases of these diseases are not caused by genes, and the gut is our most important environmental exposure. In addition, we have many potential therapeutic options to influence the bacterial populations in the nose, mouth and gut.”

“We are pursuing studies in humans and animals to further evaluate the mechanisms of the effects we have observed and are exploring the potential for the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies,” Friedland said.

ABOUT THIS NEUROLOGY RESEARCH ARTICLE

Friedland is the corresponding author of the article, Exposure to the functional bacterial amyloid protein curli enhances alpha-synuclein aggregation in aged Fischer 344 rats and Caenorhabditis elegans, published online Oct. 6 in Scientific Reports, a journal of the Nature Publishing Group. UofL researchers involved in the publication in addition to Friedland include Vilius Stribinskis, Ph.D., Madhavi J. Rane, Ph.D., Donald Demuth, Ph.D., Evelyne Gozal, Ph.D., Andrew M. Roberts, Ph.D., Rekha Jagadapillai, Ruolan Liu, M.D., Ph.D., and Richard Kerber, Ph.D. Additional contributors on the publication include Eliezer Masliah, M.D., Ph.D. of the University of California San Diego.

Funding: This work supports recent studies indicating that the microbiota may have a role in disease processes in age-related brain degenerations. It is part of Friedland’s ongoing research on the relationship between the microbiota and age-related brain disorders, which involves collaborations with researchers in Ireland and Japan.

Source: Betty Coffman – University of Louisville
Image Source: NeuroscienceNews.com image is credited to the researchers/Scientific Reports.
Original Research: Full open access research for “Exposure to the Functional Bacterial Amyloid Protein Curli Enhances Alpha-Synuclein Aggregation in Aged Fischer 344 Rats and Caenorhabditis elegans” by Shu G. Chen, Vilius Stribinskis, Madhavi J. Rane, Donald R. Demuth, Evelyne Gozal, Andrew M. Roberts, Rekha Jagadapillai, Ruolan Liu, Kyonghwan Choe, Bhooma Shivakumar, Francheska Son, Shunying Jin, Richard Kerber, Anthony Adame, Eliezer Masliah and Robert P. Friedland in Scientific Reports. Published online October 6 2016 doi:10.1038/srep34477

Zinc Oxide in Medicine

Zinc oxide as a mixture with about 0.5% iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3) is called calamine and is used in calamine lotion. Two minerals, zincite and hemimorphite, have been historically called calamine. When mixed with eugenol, a ligand, zinc oxide eugenol is formed, which has applications as a restorative and prosthodontic in dentistry.[12][54]

Reflecting the basic properties of ZnO, fine particles of the oxide have deodorizing and antibacterial[55] properties and for that reason are added into materials including cotton fabric, rubber, oral care products,[56][57] and food packaging.[58][59]Enhanced antibacterial action of fine particles compared to bulk material is not exclusive to ZnO and is observed for other materials, such as silver.[60] This property results from the increased surface area of the fine particles.

Zinc oxide is widely used to treat a variety of other skin conditions, in products such as baby powder and barrier creams to treat diaper rashes, calamine cream, anti-dandruff shampoos, and antiseptic ointments.[44][61] It is also a component in tape (called “zinc oxide tape”) used by athletes as a bandage to prevent soft tissue damage during workouts.[62]

Zinc oxide can be used in ointments, creams, and lotions to protect against sunburn and other damage to the skin caused by ultraviolet light (see sunscreen). It is the broadest spectrum UVA and UVB reflector that is approved for use as a sunscreen by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA),[63] and is completely photostable.[64] When used as an ingredient in sunscreen, zinc oxide blocks both UVA (320–400 nm) and UVB (280–320 nm) rays of ultraviolet light. Zinc oxide and the other most common physical sunscreen, titanium dioxide, are considered to be nonirritating, nonallergenic, and non-comedogenic.[65] Zinc from zinc oxide is, however, slightly absorbed into the skin [66]

Many sunscreens use nanoparticles of zinc oxide (along with nanoparticles of titanium dioxide) because such small particles do not scatter light and therefore do not appear white. There has been concern that they might be absorbed into the skin.[67][68] A study published in 2010 found a 0.23% to 1.31% (mean 0.42%) of blood zinc levels in venous blood samples could be traced to zinc from ZnO nanoparticles applied to human skin for 5 days, and traces were also found in urine samples.[69] In contrast, a comprehensive review of the medical literature from 2011 says that no evidence of systemic absorption can be found in the literature.[70]

Zinc oxide nanoparticles can enhance the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin. It has been shown that nano ZnO which has the average size between 20 nm and 45 nm can enhance the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in vitro. The enhancing effect of this nanomaterial is concentration dependent against all test strains. This effect may be due to two reasons. First, zinc oxide nanoparticles can interfere with NorA protein, which is developed for conferring resistance in bacteria and has pumping activity that mediate the effluxing of hydrophilic fluoroquinolones from a cell. Second, zinc oxide nanoparticles can interfere with Omf protein, which is responsible for the permeation of quinolones into the cell.