Stem cell secretions may protect against glaucoma

NEI scientists find that stem cell exosomes promote survival of retinal ganglion cells in rats.

A new study in rats shows that stem cell secretions, called exosomes, appear to protect cells in the retina, the light-sensitive tissue in the back of the eye. The findings, published in Stem Cells Translational Medicine, point to potential therapies for glaucoma, a leading cause of blindness in the United States. The study was conducted by researchers at the National Eye Institute (NEI), part of the National Institutes of Health.

Exosomes are tiny membrane-enclosed packages that form inside of cells before getting expelled. Long thought of as part of a cellular disposal system, scientists have more recently discovered that exosomes are packed with proteins, lipids and gene-regulating RNA. Studies have shown that exosomes from one cell can be taken up by another by fusing with the target cell’s membrane, spurring it to make new proteins. Exosomes also facilitate cell-to-cell interactions and play a signaling role, prompting research into their potential therapeutic effect.

In his study, Ben Mead, Ph.D., a post-doctoral fellow at NEI, investigated the role of stem cell exosomes on retinal ganglion cells, a type of retinal cell that forms the optic nerve that carries visual information from the eye to the brain. The death of retinal ganglion cells leads to vision loss in glaucoma and other optic neuropathies.

Stem cells have been the focus of therapeutic attempts to replace or repair tissues because of their ability to morph into any type of cell in the body. However, from a practical standpoint, using exosomes isolated from stem cells presents some key advantages over transplanting whole stem cells.

“Exosomes can be purified, stored and precisely dosed in ways that stem cells cannot,” Mead said.

Another important advantage of exosomes is they lack the risks associated with transplanting live stem cells into the eye, which can potentially lead to complications such as immune rejection and unwanted cell growth.

In a rat glaucoma model, Mead studied the effects of exosomes isolated from bone marrow stem cells on retinal ganglion cells. Exosomes were injected weekly into the rats’ vitreous, the fluid within the center of the eye. Prior to injection, the exosomes were fluorescently labelled allowing the researchers to track the delivery of the exosome cargo into the retinal ganglion cells. Exosome-treated rats lost about a third of their retinal ganglion cells following optic nerve injury, compared with a 90-percent loss among untreated rats. Stem cell exosome-treated retinal ganglion cells also maintained function, according to electroretinography, which measures electrical activity of retinal cells.

The researchers determined that the protective effects of exosomes are mediated by microRNA, molecules that interfere with or silence gene expression. Further research is needed to understand more about the specific contents of the exosomes, said Stanislav Tomarev, Ph.D., a principal investigator at NEI and the study’s coauthor.

“We need to know which particular microRNA – there are more than 2000 different microRNA molecules – are delivered into the retinal ganglion cells and what proteins or signaling pathways are being targeted upon arrival,” said Tomarev. “We also need to attempt to target exosomes to specific sets of neurons and other cell types or groups of cells.”

Finally, the most optimal exosome approach needs to be identified, Tomarev added. It may be that the best approach would be to combine exosomes with additional therapies. From a treatment feasibility standpoint, a lot will depend on how frequently exosomes need to be administered to achieve a therapeutic effect.

This work was supported by the Intramural Research Programs of the National Eye Institute.

NEI leads the federal government’s research on the visual system and eye diseases. NEI supports basic and clinical science programs that result in the development of sight-saving treatments and address special needs of people with vision loss. For more information, visit www.nei.nih.gov.

Eye inflammation and gut bacteria

uveaGut bacteria may provide the trigger for autoimmune uveitis, a destructive inflammation of the eye, researchers at the US National Eye Institute (NEI) reported in a study published today (August 18) in Immunity. Autoimmune uveitis is a painful condition that can lead to debilitating blindness. It often hits adults 20 to 60 years old, and is responsible for up to 15 percent of all blindness and severe visual impairment in developed countries.

Researchers believe activated retina-specific T cells attack the eye, causing the inflammation, but the antigen that activates those T cells lies inside the normally immune-privileged eye, meaning T cells are not able to circulate in that area. How those T cells become activated without exposure to the eye has been poorly understood. The NEI’s Reiko Horai,Rachel Caspi, and their colleagues used a mouse model prone to developing uveitis and found that the animals’ intestines showed signs of increased T cell activation prior to the onset of uveitis.

“It’s the first study to show the potential of the microbiome to induce an autoimmune disease specific to the eye,” said Andrew Taylor, an ocular immunologist at the Boston University School of Medicine who was not involved in the research.

The team also found that the model mouse intestines showed high levels of interleukin-17A, a proinflammatory cytokine produced by T cells. In another experiment, the researchers administered a wide-spectrum antibiotic cocktail to the mice in an effort to reduce the gut microbiome. The antibiotics appeared to slow the development of uveitis in the mice and reduce the number of activated T cells. The researchers also found that microbe-rich extracts from model mouse intestines activated retina-specific T cells.

“It’s been known for other autoimmune diseases that gut bacteria can provide a necessary component, but the mechanism wasn’t known,” Caspi told The Scientist. “What appears to be happening is that they make some substance that, to the T-cells, looks like a protein from the retina.”

The researchers were unable, however, to identify the specific proteins or the bacteria that might produce this substance, which Caspi noted was a limitation of the study. It may be that a combination of bacteria work together to trigger the retina-specific T-cells, making the task of identifying the responsible proteins and bacteria even more challenging, she added.

The team was also unable to directly demonstrate that the retina-specific T helper cells in the gut are the same cells circulating to the eye—breaching the immune-privileged barrier to cause inflammation and disease, noted Veena Taneja, an immunologist at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, who was not involved in the study. “They have not shown that these cells are the cells that cause disease,” she said. “And they have not shown that these cells are actually being activated in gut.”

Caspi said the team plans to continue to isolate the specific bacteria and/or proteins involved in activating the retina-specific T cells. “We don’t know what that actual protein is and I don’t know how long it will take to find it,” she said. “It may that we have to search far and wide for this mimic.”

R. Horai et al., “Microbiota-dependent activation of an autoreactive T cell receptor provokes autoimmunity in an immunologically privileged site,” Immunity,doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2015.07.014, 2015.

From Wiki:

Onset of uveitis can broadly be described as a failure of the ocular immune system and the disease results from inflammation and tissue destruction. Uveitis is driven by the Th17 T cell sub-population that bear T-cell receptors specific for proteins found in the eye.[15] These are often not deleted centrally whether due to ocular antigen not being presented in the thymus (therefore not negatively selected) or a state of anergy is induced to prevent self targeting.[16][17]

Autoreactive T cells must normally be held in check by the suppressive environment produced by microglia and dendritic cells in the eye.[18] These cells produce large amounts of TGF beta and other suppressive cytokines, including IL-10, to prevent damage to the eye by reducing inflammation and causing T cells to differentiate to inducible T reg cells. Innate immune stimulation by bacteria and cellular stress is normally suppressed by myeloid suppression while inducible Treg cells prevent activation and clonal expansion of the autoreactive Th1 and Th17 cells that possess potential to cause damage to the eye.

Whether through infection or other causes, this balance can be upset and autoreactive T cells allowed to proliferate and migrate to the eye. Upon entry to the eye, these cells may be returned to an inducible Treg state by the presence of IL-10 and TGF-beta from microglia. Failure of this mechanism leads to neutrophil and otherleukocyte recruitment from the peripheral blood through IL-17 secretion. Tissue destruction is mediated by non-specific macrophage activation and the resulting cytokine cascades.[19] Serum TNF-α is significantly elevated in cases while IL-6 and IL-8 are present in significantly higher quantities in the aqueous humour in patients with both quiescent and active uveitis.[20] These are inflammatory markers that non-specifically activate local macrophages causing tissue damage.


Connie’s comments: Take your probiotic (acidophilus,yogurt,pickled veggies) and prebiotic (raw garlic, yellow foods) for the health of your gut and eyes.

Restore your vision naturally y Dr. Mercola

yellow

Contrary to popular belief, deteriorating vision is primarily a side effect of modern lifestyle. Aging does not automatically mean you will lose your eyesight. The key is to properly nourish your eyes throughout the years, and avoid chronic eye strain.
For example, I noticed my near vision started to deteriorate around 20 years ago, but after applying these principles, at 61, I don’t wear reading glasses unless I need to see small print and there is very little light.

  • Staring at a computer screen for hours on end is a common cause of blurred vision, short-sightedness, and other eye problems.
  • Spending time outdoors is helpful, and research suggests that children playing outdoors for at least 40 minutes a day have a reduced risk of short-sightedness.
  • Your diet may be paramount though. Chronic vitamin A deficiency, for example, can lead to total blindness. Other nutrient insufficiencies significantly contribute to the development of macular degeneration.
  • Macular Degeneration Can Be Slowed or Prevented

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness among the elderly, followed by cataracts. There are two forms of macular degeneration:3 dry and wet.

Dry macular degeneration is the milder version that causes few symptoms, but it can degenerate into the wet form, in which blood vessels start growing in the back of your eye, causing your vision to blur.

A hallmark of wet AMD is loss of vision in the center of your field of vision. A healthy diet can likely prevent AMD in the first place, but supplements have also been shown to help slow down or stop the progression from the dry to the more advanced wet form.
“The federally funded Age-Related Eye Disease Study… found that people at high risk for advanced age-related macular degeneration could cut that risk by about 25 percent by taking a supplement that included:
500 milligrams of vitamin C, 400 I.Us of vitamin E, 10 milligrams of lutein, 2 milligrams of zeaxanthin, 80 milligrams of zinc, and 2 milligrams of copper.”

Antioxidant-Rich Diet Protects Your Vision

Macular degeneration and cataracts are largely driven by free radical damage, and may in many cases be largely preventable by eating foods rich in antioxidants, such as:

Anthocyanins, found in blueberries, bilberries, and black currants
Lutein and zeaxanthin,5 found in green leafy vegetables and orange and yellow fruits and vegetables.
Research shows those who consume the highest levels of lutein and zeaxanthin have a 40 percent lower risk of advanced wet macular degeneration compared to those who eat the least6

High quality animal-based omega-3 fats like those found in krill oil and wild-caught Alaskan salmon
Bioflavonoids found in tea, cherries, and citrus fruits
Vitamin D, found to some extent in various foods such as meats, but primarily created in response to direct sun exposure on bare skin. Vitamin D is particularly important for those with genetic risk factors for AMD.
Recent research7,8,9 found that middle-aged women who have a high-risk genotype and are vitamin D deficient are 6.7 times more likely to develop AMD than those without this genetic risk factor who also have sufficient vitamin D.

Lutein and Zeaxanthin — Two Key Nutrients for Your Eyes

Lutein and zeaxanthin are two key nutrients for eye health,10 as both of them are found in high concentrations in your macula,11 the small central part of your retina responsible for detailed central vision.

Lutein is also found in your macular pigment – known for helping to protect your central vision, and aid in blue light absorption — and zeaxanthin is found in your retina.

Though there’s no recommended daily intake for lutein and zeaxanthin, studies have found protective benefits at a dosage of 10 mg of lutein per day, and 2 mg per day of zeaxanthin.

Lutein and zeaxanthin are often found together in foods, although zeaxanthin is far scarcer than lutein. They’re primarily found in green leafy vegetables, with kale and spinach topping the list of lutein-rich foods.

Carrots, squash, and other orange and yellow fruits and vegetables also contain high amounts. In fact, the word lutein comes from the Latin word “luteus,” which means “yellow.” If you remember this, it may help you pick out vegetables likely to contain higher amounts of these two nutrients.

According to a 1998 study in the British Journal of Ophthalmology,12 orange pepper had the highest amount of zeaxanthin of the 33 fruits and vegetables tested.

Egg yolk from organically-raised, free-range pastured eggs is another source of both lutein and zeaxanthin that is well absorbed by your body. Interestingly, research13,14 shows that adding a couple of eggs to your salad can increase the carotenoid absorption you get from the whole meal as much as nine-fold.

Astaxanthin, a Powerful Promoter of Eye Health

Astaxanthin is a highly effective antioxidant produced by the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis. When the water supply dries up, this microalgae produces astaxanthin to protect itself from ultraviolet radiation. There are only two main sources of astaxanthin: the microalgae that produce it, and the sea creatures that consume the algae, such as salmon, shellfish, and krill.

Compelling evidence suggests astaxanthin may be among the most important nutrients for the prevention of blindness. As noted by Valensa:15 “[A]ntioxidants which can cross the blood brain/eye barrier would be expected to provide enhanced protection of the retina particularly if the antioxidant can reach the central retinal macula.”

Dr. Mark Tso,16 who works at the Wilmer Eye Institute at Johns Hopkins University, was the head of clinic when I worked at the University of Illinois Eyebank in the1970s. He has demonstrated that astaxanthin easily crosses the eye barrier, and exerts its effects with more potency than any of the other carotenoids — including lutein and zeaxanthin — without any adverse reactions.

Other researchers17,18 have confirmed Dr. Tso’s findings, and studies have demonstrated that astaxanthin offers potent protection against a number of eye-related problems, including:

• Cataracts
• Age-related macular degeneration
• Cystoid macular edema
• Inflammatory eye diseases (i.e., retinitis, iritis, keratitis, and scleritis)
• Diabetic retinopathy
• Glaucoma
• Retinal arterial occlusion
• Venous occlusion
Astaxanthin also helps maintain appropriate eye pressure levels that are already within the normal range, and supports your eyes’ energy levels and visual acuity. Depending on your individual situation, you may want to take an astaxanthin supplement. I recommend starting with 4 mg per day. Krill oil also contains high quality animal-based omega-3 fat in combination with naturally-occurring astaxanthin, albeit at lower levels than what you’ll get from an astaxanthin supplement.

Black Currants and Bilberries, Two Powerful Berries for Eye Health

Dark blue or purplish, almost black-colored berries like black currants and bilberries contain high amounts of the antioxidant anthocyanins. Black currants contain some of the highest levels. They’re also rich in essential fatty acids, lending added support to its anti-inflammatory properties. For medicinal purposes, many opt for using black currant seed oil, but eating the whole food is always an option, especially when they’re in season.

Bilberry,19,20 a close relative of the blueberry, also contains high amounts of anthocyanins, just like the black currant. Research suggests the bilberry may be particularly useful for inhibiting or reversing macular degeneration. A 2005 study in the journal Advances in Gerontology21 found that rats with early senile cataract and macular degeneration who received 20 mg of bilberry extract per kilo of body weight suffered no impairment of their lens and retina, while 70 percent of the control group suffered degeneration over the three month long study.

“The results suggest that… long-term supplementation with bilberry extract is effective in prevention of macular degeneration and cataract.”

As for dosage, Total Health Magazine22 recently noted that “positive results in trials required the ingestion of 50 mg or more per day of anthocyanins. A prudent level of intake would be on the order of 90 or 100 mg of the anthocyanins per day.” Similar dosage suggestions are given by the editors of PureHealthMD,23 who note that:

“When looking for a bilberry supplement for the eye, choose one that also includes 10 to 20 mg lutein and 1 to 2 mg zeaxanthin. Patients should target 80 to 160 mg daily. Those seeking prevention of eye disease, or just protection of the cells, can target 40 to 80 mg daily in combination with other antioxidant vitamins or in fruit combinations, such as blueberry/bilberry/raspberry.”

The Bates Method May Help You See More Clearly
While it’s easy to assume that once your vision has begun deteriorating there’s no going back, this assumption may not be entirely true. According to Greg Marsh, a certified natural vision coach and the creator of the CD program Reclaim Your Eyesight Naturally, clear vision is achievable, even if you’re already wearing strong corrective lenses.

The method Greg teaches is known as the Bates Method, conceived by Dr. William H. Bates over 100 years ago. A board-certified ophthalmologist at the top of his field, Dr. Bates helped many people regain their vision with his technique. In fact, it was so effective that optometrists lobbied the local politicians to ban it! Unfortunately, they succeeded, and the Bates Method ceased to be used.

The method is based on a rather simple premise. When you strain your eyes, such as when you squint, this action squeezes your eyeballs, contorting them. This makes your vision blurry, as it alters where the field of vision “lands” on your retina. By identifying the source of the stress and strain, you can learn to let it go, relax, and thereby getting your vision back.

Basically, your vision is not compromised because of weak eye muscles. They’re strong enough. But, they’re too tensed to work properly, so you have to learn to relax them. Unfortunately, when you wear glasses, you’re actually retraining your eyes to strain in order to see all day long. So, ideally, you’ll want to remove your glasses whenever you can safely do so. Also make sure you have appropriate lighting, especially when reading.

Two Sample Bates Method Techniques

A technique called the Bates Long Swing can help your eyes relax by relaxing your body. Begin by simply swaying your body back and forth. The simple act of languidly moving your body, even just a little bit, has a very soothing effect on your brain and thought patterns, and that alone can sometimes help you feel more relaxed during stressful situations.

Your eyes also respond. Instead of being locked in a stare, like a deer in headlights, they can begin to relax and move naturally again. You can do the Long Swing just about anywhere, anytime, provided you’re standing up. One of the most famous Bates Method techniques is palming:

Start by looking around and noticing the level of clarity of your vision at present.
Place the center of your palms over your eyes. Relax your shoulders. You may want to lean forward onto a table or a stack of pillows, to facilitate relaxation. Relax like this for at least two minutes, focusing on relaxing your eyes, and sending love to your eyes through your palms. Feel free to engage your imagination here too, by imagining your eyes resuming their natural round shape.
After about two minutes, remove your hands, open your eyes, and notice whether anything looks clearer. Usually, it will.
To learn more about this method, listen to my interview with Greg Marsh. You can also find a lot of information about the Bates Method on the web. Greg’s program, Reclaim Your Eyesight Naturally, consists of six CDs and a 62-page guidebook that helps tie everything together. Just keep in mind that if you are looking for a quick fix, the Bates Method is probably not for you.

Computer Screens Are a Common Cause of Eye Strain

Many people these days spend a large portion of their days staring at computer screens of varying sizes, and this is a major source of eye strain and fatigue. A recent Epoch Times article24 offers a number of common-sense suggestions for minimizing computer-related eye strain, and All About Vision25 also lists helpful ways to protect your eyes when working in front of a screen. Some of these suggestions include the following:

Prevent screen glare by installing an anti-glare screen on your monitor, or a computer hood if you have large open windows causing glare on your screen. Darker colored walls with a matte finish are also preferable to bright white walls
Optimize your lighting by making sure your screen is the brightest thing in the room. According to All About Vision, “when you use a computer your ambient lighting should be about half as bright as that typically found in most offices”
Sit at least an arm’s length away from your computer screen, and make sure the screen is positioned just below eye level
Adjust the color temperature, brightness, text size, and contrast on your screen. If a website with white background glows like a light source, it’s too bright. Blue light is also associated with more eye strain than orange and red wavelengths, so reducing the color temperature (the amount of blue light) of your display may be helpful
Practice your distance vision. Every 20 minutes or so, take a break from the screen to look at something further away from you, such as across the street if you’re by a window
Other Natural Strategies That Help Protect Your Vision

In my opinion, there are natural, common-sense strategies you can employ to help protect your healthy vision, starting with your diet. As discussed above, certain foods are more or less necessary for optimal vision, and can go a long way toward protecting your eyesight throughout life. Besides the suggestions detailed above, here are a few other lifestyle strategies that can help optimize your eye health.

  1. Quit smoking, if you currently do. Smoking ramps up free radical production throughout your body, and puts you at risk for a number of conditions rooted in chronic inflammation, including poor vision.
  2. Care for your cardiovascular system by getting regular exercise. High blood pressure can cause damage to the miniscule blood vessels on your retina, obstructing free blood flow. A regular, effective exercise program consisting of aerobics, Peak Fitness exercises, core building, and strength training, can go a long way toward reducing your blood pressure. It’s also critical for optimizing your insulin and leptin levels.
  3. Avoid processed foods and added sugars, particularly fructose.26 This is another primary way to maintain optimal blood pressure. Consuming 74 grams or more per day of fructose (equal to 2.5 sugary drinks) increases your risk of having blood pressure levels of 160/100 mmHg by 77 percent.
  4. Normalize your blood sugar. Excessive sugar in your blood can pull fluid from the lens of your eye, affecting your ability to focus. It can also damage the blood vessels in your retina, thereby obstructing blood flow. To keep your blood sugar in a healthy range, follow my comprehensive nutrition guidelines, exercise, and avoid processed foods and excess sugar, especially fructose.
  5. Avoid trans fats. A diet high in trans fat appears to contribute to macular degeneration by interfering with omega-3 fats in your body. Trans fat is found in many processed foods and baked goods, including margarine, shortening, fried foods like French fries, fried chicken, and doughnuts, cookies, pastries, and crackers.
  6. Avoid aspartame. Vision problems are one of the many potential acute symptoms of aspartame poisoning.

Liver cleanse to help your vision and memory

One of the ways to tell if you have a liver problem is the yellow color in your eyes, insomnia, constipation and chronic fatigue.

Healthy warm tonic drink for liver and eyes: add a pinch of ginger, turmeric, cinnamon, roobois tea, lemon, pineapple to your favorite drink or soup.

Statistics: Average age of cataract patient is between 65 and 70 with 12% of global population is age 60 or older. There are nearly 22 million cataract surgeries performed globally in 2013.

In addition to age, other factors may increase the risk of cataract development. These include:
• Diabetes
• Smoking
• Overexposure to sunlight (protect your eyes with sunglasses or hats)
• Certain medications, such as steroids

The liver is our body’s most important organ after the heart, performing many important functions including metabolism, detoxification, and formation of important compounds including blood clotting factors. It also filters, regulates, and stores blood. Stress, poor diet, and over-medication are common problems in our “civilized” lifestyle. These may lead to stress and functional damage to the liver. As a result, “sluggish” liver has become a common ailment. It may affect memory, sleep, thyroid, body weight, and other body functions.
Both estrogen and androgen stimulate cell division. Elevated levels of these hormones may lead to abnormal cell growth such as womens’ uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts, endometriosis, breast cysts, and breast cancer or mens’ prostate enlargement and prostate cancer.

Since the liver is the principal organ which removes these hormones, its failure to remove them efficiently often leads to their accumulation in the body and is a major cause of the above diseases.

Liver health is related to eye health
The eye and brain cells are especially affected because the blood has to flow against gravity to reach them.

In an article on Alzheimer disease in the January 1988 issue of the Mayo Clinic Health Letter, malfunction of the liver and kidneys was mentioned as one of the causes leading to Alzheimer disease.

Brain tumour, which physically blocks blood flow to the brain, was also cited as one of the causes.

The brain is only 2% of our body weight, yet it needs 20% of our oxygen supply. If the toxin-loaded blood from a weak liver has limited capacity to carry oxygen, the brain cells are affected most.

The liver is the most important organ after the heart. It performs hundreds of functions including:
• Circulation: transfer of blood from portal to systemic circulation, activity of the liver’s reticulo-endothelial system (kupffer cells) in the immune system. The liver stores and regulates the blood and is responsible for nourishing every cell in our body. Every part of the body depends on blood from the liver for nourishment and sustenance.
• Excretion: formation and secretion of bile for digestion and cleansing of blood; removal of ammonia from blood; excretion of substances filtered from the blood by the liver such as heavy metals or dyes.
• Metabolism: carbohydrate, protein, lipid (fat), mineral and vitamin metabolism; manufacturing and storage of many nutrients such as glucose and vitamins; production of heat through metabolism.
• Protection and detoxification: removal of foreign bodies from the blood (phagocytosis); detoxification by conjugation, methylation, oxidation and reduction.
• Production; formation of urea, serum albumin, glycogen and blood coagulating proteins such as prothrombin, fibrinogen and heparin; erythrocyte (red blood cells) destruction.
• Regulation of hormones: inactivation and elimination of hormones through the bile or urine. Since estrogen and androgen are both growth hormones which stimulate cell division, elevation of their levels in the blood due to the liver’s failure to remove them efficiently can cause their accumulation in tissue. This in turn may lead to abnormal growths such as uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts, endometriosis, breast cysts and breast cancer, prostate enlargement or prostate cancer. Excessive estrogen is also the most common cause of painful menstruations.

The liver also regulates body functions which affect emotional and mental activities. In a diseased condition, the liver’s blood storage and regulatory functions are affected and bleeding or clots can result.

When liver blood is deficient, nourishment to tendons and blood vessels is curtailed, the joints become stiff, and muscles become spasmodic and numb. Blood deficiency in the liver may even lead to stroke, dizziness, headaches, tinnitus, deafness, fainting or convulsion. When the liver blood is so deficient that it cannot nourish the eyes, night blindness or blurring may result. If the liver is affected by stress or unhappy feelings, its vitality may be repressed and the sides hurt, and hiccups or hernia may develop. The bowels may become constipated and sleep may be disturbed causing nightmare or insomnia.

Turmeric

Turmeric is used to cleanse, protect and support liver function. The liver is said to release toxins by creating bile. Turmeric is reported to increase the production of bile. It is used in Eastern medicine as a blood purifier and to promote a healthy digestive system. Turmeric is believed to protect the liver from harmful toxins in the same way that milk thistle can. It is also believed to be one of the strongest anti-inflammatory spices.

Yellow Dock
Yellow dock is used in Eastern medicine to cleanse the body of toxins by cleansing and rejuvenating the liver and supporting a healthy digestive system. It is used to treat liver conditions such as jaundice and hepatitis. It is known as a blood cleanser and is also used to stimulate the production of bile. Yellow dock is also reported to help with treating a variety of skin conditions such as psoriasis and eczema.

Gentian
Gentian is a bitter herb that has been used as liver tonic and digestion aid for centuries in the east. It is reported to increase the production of bile and act as a stimulant for the liver to function well and the digestion system to work efficiently. It is used as a blood cleanser and is also used to improve circulation. It is also believed to be able to protect the liver from being affected by viruses.

About Cataracts
Cataracts are a common age-related vision problem. About 22 million Americans age 40 and older have cataracts, and the older a person gets the greater the risk for developing cataracts. Women are more likely to develop cataracts than men, and African-Americans and Hispanic Americans are at particularly high risk.

Symptoms
During the early stages, cataracts may have little effect on vision. Symptoms vary due to the location of the cataract in the eye (nuclear, cortical, or posterior subcapsular). Depending on the type and extent of the cataract, patients may experience the following symptoms:
• Cloudy vision
• Double or blurry vision
• Glare and sensitivity to bright lights
• Colors appear faded
• Difficulty reading due to reduced black-white contrast
• Difficulty driving at night

Source: Cataracts | University of Maryland Medical Center http://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/cataracts#ixzz2Z93JhN65
University of Maryland Medical Center