Knowing more about our brain for longevity

Image shows the bbb.

A RECIPE TO MAKE A HUMAN BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER

Researchers have defined a process that can help to create more realistic human blood-brain barriers in a dish. READ MORE…

Image shows a visualization of brainwaves.

BURSTS OF BETA WAVES, NOT SUSTAINED RHYTHMS, FILTER SENSORY PROCESSING IN BRAIN

In both human and animal subject, bursts of beta wave activity in the brain help to filter distraction in order to process different sensations, a new study reports. READ MORE…

a brain

BRAIN IMAGING REVEALS ADHD AS A COLLECTION OF DIFFERENT DISORDERS

A new study sheds light on ADHD, reporting teens with the disorder fit into one of three specific subgroups with distinct brain impairments and no common abnormalities between them. READ MORE…

Image shows neurons.

HIGHER ESTROGEN LEVELS LINKED TO INCREASED ALCOHOL SENSITIVITY IN BRAIN’S REWARD CENTER

Neurons in the ventral tegmental area, an area of the brain considered to be the reward center, fire more rapidly to alcohol when estrogen levels are elevated, a new study reports. The study may shed light on how alcohol addiction develops in some women. READ MORE…
Image shows the selective response of a subplate neuron.

SOURCE OF EARLY BRAIN ACTIVITY IDENTIFIED

A new study reveals a mechanism that may explain the link between sound input and cognitive function in the developing brain. READ MORE…
Image shows a section of the optic tectum.

ROLE OF THYROID HORMONE IN BRAIN DEVELOPMENT

Researchers report a thyroid hormone is critical for the earliest stages of brain development. READ MORE…
Image shows neurons.

BLAME TIRED BRAIN CELLS FOR MENTAL LAPSES AFTER POOR SLEEP

UCLA researchers report sleep deprivation prevents neurons from correctly connecting with each other, resulting in temporary cognitive lapses in visual perception and memory. READ MORE…
Image shows an Alzheimer's brain.

HIGHER BRAIN GLUCOSE LEVELS MAY MEAN MORE SEVERE ALZHEIMER’S

A new NIH study reveals abnormalities in brain glucose metabolism could be linked to the severity of Alzheimer’s pathology. READ MORE…
Image shows people talking.

BRAIN TREATS DIALECT AS LANGUAGE

A new study reports the brain treats language and different dialects in the same way. READ MORE…
Image shows a lady sitting next to a monitor undergoing rTMS.

EXPERIMENTAL BRAIN TECHNOLOGY CAN REWIND ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

Researchers report repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can help to reverse some of the signs of Alzheimer’s disease. So long as patients receive the treatments, cognitive decline appears to halt and, in some cases, cognitive abilities improve. READ MORE…

WHY OUR BRAINS NEED SLEEP, AND WHAT HAPPENS IF WE DON’T GET ENOUGH

From consolidating memories to cleaning out toxins in the brain that accumulate during waking hours, researchers explore why sleep is so important and what happens when we don’t get enough. READ MORE…

a brain

BRAIN ACTIVITY IS INHERITED: FINDINGS MAY INFORM TREATMENT FOR ADHD AND AUTISM

Machine learning study reveals that, much like genetics, brain connectivity patterns are passed down from parents to children.  READ MORE…
Image shows a brain.

HERE’S WHAT WE THINK ALZHEIMER’S DOES TO THE BRAIN

A new paper explores different findings about the development of Alzheimer’s and considers how personalized treatments may help combat this complex disease. READ MORE…
a woman sleeping

SLEEPING THROUGH SNORING: NEURONS THAT ROUSE BRAIN TO BREATH IDENTIFIED

Researchers have identified a mechanism that helps rouse the brains of mice suffering from simulated sleep apnea. The findings could help develop new treatments for people with obstructive sleep apnea and provide new insights into SIDS. READ MORE…
brain and neurons

BRAIN’S ALERTNESS CIRCUITRY CONSERVED THROUGH EVOLUTION

Optogenetics research reveals brain circuits critical for alertness. READ MORE…
Image shows DNA.

BLOOD CLOTTING PROTEIN PREVENTS REPAIR IN THE BRAIN

A new study sheds light on demylination diseases like Multiple Sclerosis. Researchers discovered a blood clotting protein can leak into the central nervous system and prevent myelin production. READ MORE…
neurons

ELECTRON MICROSCOPY UNCOVERS UNEXPECTED CONNECTIONS IN FRUIT FLY BRAIN

Microscopy technology allows researchers to discover new connections in brain areas associated with memory and learning in fruit flies. READ MORE…
neuron

HOW NEWBORN NEURONS FIND THEIR PROPER PLACE IN THE ADULT BRAIN

CSHL researchers document how neuroblasts make their journey through the rostral migratory stream to their target destination in the olfactory bulb. READ MORE…
neurons

TOO MANY BRAIN CONNECTIONS MAY BE AT THE ROOT OF AUTISM

Researchers report too many connections form between neurons in the cerebellum and learning difficulties are expressed in mice who lack the RNF8 gene. READ MORE…

MIDDLE AGE INFLAMMATION LINKED TO BRAIN SHRINKAGE DECADES LATER

According to a new study, people who have inflammation biomarkers in their blood during middle age are more likely to have increased brain shrinkage as they grow older. Researchers report the brain cell loss associated with inflammation was most prevalent in areas affected in Alzheimer’s disease. READ MORE…
Image shows neurons.

HOW DO ADULT BRAIN CIRCUITS REGULATE NEW NEURON PRODUCTION?

UNC researchers have identified a brain circuit that runs from near the front of the brain to the hippocampus that helps to control neurogenesis. READ MORE…
Image shows a diagram of neurons.

AUTISM TREATMENTS MAY RESTORE BRAIN CONNECTIONS

Researchers report they have identified potential treatments that could restore brain function in people on the autism spectrum who lack a gene critical for neural connections. READ MORE…

neurons

MATURITY MOLECULE HELPS ADOLESCENT BRAIN GROW UP

Mice lacking a gene called laminin alpha 5 suffer defects in synaptic maturation during teen brain development, leading to fewer synapses in adulthood. This may contribute to neuropsychological conditions, such as Schizophrenia, which can appear during later adolescence.READ MORE…

The image shows brains as the feet of musical notes.

NEUROSCIENCE OF MUSIC – HOW MUSIC ENHANCES LEARNING THROUGH NEUROPLASTICITY

Neuroscience research into the neuroscience of music shows that musicians’ brains may be primed to distinguish meaningful sensory information from noise.  READ MORE…

THOUGHT CONTROL OF PROSTHETIC LIMBS FUNDED BY DARPA

Thought control of prosthetic limbs via brain-controlled interfaces will be tested and developed with funding from DARPA. Human subjects will test neural interface systems used to control prosthetic limbs.  READ MORE…

GUT BACTERIA CAN AFFECT ONSET OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

Gut bacteria, previously considered benign, has the ability to alter the immune system of mice enough to affect the rate of Multiple Sclerosis occurance.  READ MORE…
article placeholder

NEUROBIOLOGY RESEARCH FINDS GABA INTERFERES WITH MEMORY OF NEUROFIBROMATOSIS TYPE 1 PATIENTS

Neurobiology research from UCLA indicates the possibility of GABA interfering with working memory in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1, or NF1. READ MORE…

3 BLIND MICE COULD SEE? IPRGCS HELP RODS AND CONES WITH IMAGE FORMATION

Mice without rods and cones were able to use ipRGCs to detect light and possibly form low acuity images. READ MORE…

RESEARCH SHOWS SIRT1 ENHANCES SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY AND MEMORY

Researchers at MIT have discovered that Sirtuin1, a protein encoded by the SIRT1 gene, promotes synaptic plasticity and boosts memory. READ MORE…

CHEMICAL P7C3 GROWS NEW NEURONS AND IMPROVES LEARNING

Scientists find the chemical P7C3 grows new neuronal growth within the dentate gyrus and improves learning and memory. READ MORE…

AUTISM RESEARCH: MISOPROSTOL INTERFERES WITH NEURONAL CELL FUNCTION

Neuroscience research on Autism has shown how misoprostol interferes with neuronal cell function.  READ MORE…

NATURAL MECHANISM THAT CONTROLS COCAINE USE DISCOVERED

A natural mechanism that controls cocaine use was discovered by Scripps Research scientists. READ MORE…

SCIENTISTS PREDICT YOUR BEHAVIORS BETTER THAN YOU

Scientists predict your behavior better than you according to new neuroscience research. READ MORE…
article placeholder

COFFEE AND NIGHTTIME JOBS DON’T MIX, STUDY FINDS

Night-shift workers should avoid drinking coffee if they wish to improve their sleep, according to research published in the journal Sleep Medicine. READ MORE…

article placeholder

NEW GUIDELINES IDENTIFY BEST TREATMENTS TO HELP ALS PATIENTS LIVE LONGER, EASIER

ST. PAUL, Minn. – New guidelines from the American Academy of Neurology identify the most effective treatments for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), often caREAD MORE…

NEUROBIOLOGICAL MARKERS FOR DEPRESSION

Neuroscience researchers suggest that utilizing fMRI studies could help to provide biomarkers for the diagnosis of depression. A recent fMRI study of patients with depression showed marked abnormal activations in the medial prefronal cortex. Researchers believe that by identifying the neurobiological markers for depression, psychiatrists can tailor medications and therapies to suit the needs of individual patients. READ MORE…

NERVE CELL REGENERATION IN HIPPOCAMPUS CAN PREVENT MEMORY LOSS

New research released from the University of Florida suggests the production of new nerve cells within the Hippocampus could prevent memory loss and assist in improving memory. READ MORE…

OLDER CORPUS COLLOSUM CROSSTALK SLOWS RESPONSE TIMES

This research shows that the loss of connections in the corpus collosum could be partly responsible for slower response times seen in older animals and humans due to too much crosstalk and confusion between the brain hemispheres. READ MORE…

SINGLE NEURONS AND DENDRITES CAN DETECT DIFFERENT INPUT SEQUENCES

UCL neuroscientists have shown that a single neuron, and even a single dendrite, can respond differently to unique sequences of input. READ MORE…

PERFORANT PATH IDENTIFIED IN HUMANS – EARLY ID OF ALZHEIMER’S POSSIBLE

UC Irvine researchers have identified the perforant path in humans with the diffusion tensor imaging technique. READ MORE…

REGENERATION OF NERVE CONNECTIONS AFTER SPINAL CORD INJURY – PTEN DELETION

Deleting the enzyme PTEN allowed neurology researchers to regenerate corticospinal tract neurons after spinal cord injuries in rodents. READ MORE…

ARTIFICIAL BEE EYES SHOW WORLD FROM BEE’S POINT OF VIEW

Researchers have developed a camera system that mimics the bee eye. The artificial bee eyes allow the researchers to take images that are believed to be similar to the bee’s viewpoint. READ MORE…

MEMORIES WITH EMOTIONAL CONTENT FORM EVEN WHEN AMYGDALA IS DAMAGED

A new study from researchers at UCLA indicates that new memories with emotional content can be formed even if the amygdala is damaged. Researchers believe that other areas compensated for the damaged amygdala, and aided learning and memory. READ MORE…

NEUROGLOBIN COULD BE KEY TO PREVENTING ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

Research scientists from UC Davis and the University of Auckland have discovered that neuroglobin might be key to preventing Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroglobin can prevent apoptosis in response to nautral stress.  READ MORE…

HARD TO CATCH UP ON SLEEP LOSS STUDY FINDS

Sleeping in on the weekends may not allow you to recover from the sleep lost during the work week according to a recent sleep study. READ MORE…

A library aisle is shown.

EARLY EDUCATION FIGHTS DEMENTIA

Brain research reveals a correlation between amount of education and dementia.READ MORE…

N

FIRST DIRECT EVIDENCE THAT ADHD IS A GENETIC DISORDER FOUND

Neuroscience researchers from Cardiff University have found the first direct evidence that ADHD is a genetic disorder. READ MORE…

EARLY LIFE STRESSES COULD HAVE LASTING EFFECTS ON GAD1 GENE

Neuroscience research published in September’s Journal of Neuroscience suggests early life stresses may modify the GAD1 gene, which controls the production of GABA. Through their research on rats, researchers were able to note that those who experienced a lack of affection showed an obstruction within the DNA which controls the GAD1 gene. As it is believed that GABA deficits might be apparent within schizophrenic patients, researchers propose that the modification of GAD1 might determine a child’s predisposition to mental illness. READ MORE…

CHANGING RIGHT HANDERS TO LEFT HANDERS

Neuroscientists at UC Berkeley have discovered that stimulation of a certain area of the brain can cause a change in which hand a person favors to perform a task. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation on right handed test subjects, researchers discovered that stimulating the posterior parietal cortex on the left side caused an increase in the use of the left hand. Researchers suggested this finding might be useful in discovering methods to help patients overcome learned limb disuse. READ MORE…

GAMERS HAVE ADVANTAGE IN PERFORMING VISUOMOTOR TASKS

A study published in October’s Cortex has shown young people who regularly play video games have an advantage in performing tasks which require visuomotor skills. The study also found that gamers show increased activity in the prefrontal cortex when asked to perform visuomotor tasks. By contrast, non-gamers had more reliant use of the parietal cortex, an area which involves hand-eye coordination, when performing visuomotor tasks. READ MORE…

CAN CAREER CHOICES INFLUENCE DEMENTIA?

Correlating data from 588 patients diagnosed with frontotemporal lobe degeneration (FTLD), researchers found that subjects with professions which related highly for verbal skills had greater tissue loss on the right hand side of the brain. By contrast, those whose professions required less aptitude for verbal skills, for example flight engineers, had more tissue damage to the left hand side of the brain. READ MORE…

DISABLING THE RGS14 GENE MAKES MICE SMARTER

Researchers have discovered that disabling the RGS14 gene in mice can make them smarter. When the RGS14 gene was disabled within the CA2 region of the hippocampus, researchers found that mice were better able to remember objects they had explored and learn to navigate mazes better than regular mice.  READ MORE…

INTROSPECTIVE PEOPLE HAVE LARGER PREFRONTAL CORTEX

Neuroscience researchers have discovered the anterior prefrontal cortex appears to be larger in people with strong introspective abilities. Additionally, the structure of white matter within this area of the brain is also linked to the process of introspection. READ MORE…

PHYSICALLY FIT CHILDREN HAVE BIGGER HIPPOCAMPAL VOLUME

Neuroscientists have reported they have found an association between physical fitness and brain development in children. The report suggests children who are physically fitter tend to have larger hippocampi and perform better in memory based tests than their less fit counterparts.  READ MORE…

DECREASED NEURAL INHIBITION MAKES DECISION MAKING HARDER FOR THE ANXIOUS

New psychology research from CU-Boulder suggests that “neural inhibition” is a critical component in our ability to make choices. Psychologists have proposed people who suffer from anxiety could have decreased neuronal inhibition, which makes it more difficult to make important decisions. READ MORE…

NEW MOLECULAR PATHWAY UNDERLYING PARKINSON’S DISEASE IDENTIFIED

Neuroscience researchers have identified a new molecular pathway underlying Parkinson’s disease. The pathway involves polyamines, which were discovered to be responsible for increased build-up of other toxic proteins in neurons. The research also suggests polyamine lowering drugs could have a protective effect from Parkinson’s disease.  READ MORE…

TWO STEPS DURING LTP REMODEL INTERNAL SKELETON OF DENDRITIC SPINES

Neuroscience researchers have discovered how a structural component within neurons performs coordinated movements when connections are strengthened. Researchers also distinguished two separate steps during long term potentiation which are involved in remodeling the internal “skeletons” of dendritic spines. The research could be influential in providing further understanding of many neurological, cognitive and neurodegenerative diseases. READ MORE…

Gender bias in treating or preventing blood clots in women

Animation of the formation of an occlusive thrombus in a vein. A few platelets attach themselves to the valve lips, constricting the opening and causing more platelets and red blood cells to aggregate and coagulate. Coagulation of unmoving blood on both sides of the blockage may propagate a clot in both directions.

A thrombus occurs when the hemostatic process, which normally occurs in response to injury, becomes activated in an uninjured or slightly injured vessel. A thrombus in a large blood vessel will decrease blood flow through that vessel (termed a mural thrombus). In a small blood vessel, blood flow may be completely cut off (termed an occlusive thrombus), resulting in death of tissue supplied by that vessel. If a thrombus dislodges and becomes free-floating, it is considered an embolus.

Some of the conditions which elevate risk of blood clots developing include atrial fibrillation (a form of cardiac arrhythmia), heart valve replacement, a recent heart attack (also known as a myocardial infarction), extended periods of inactivity (see deep venous thrombosis), and genetic or disease-related deficiencies in the blood’s clotting abilities.

Formation

Platelet activation can occur through different mechanisms such as a vessel wall breach that exposes collagen, or tissue factor encryption.[clarification needed] The platelet activation causes a cascade of further platelet activation, eventually causing the formation of the thrombus.[2]This process is regulated through thromboregulation.

Prevention and treatment

Blood clot prevention and treatment reduces the risk of stroke, heart attack and pulmonary embolism. Heparin and warfarin are often used to inhibit the formation and growth of existing thrombi; the former binds to and activates the enzyme inhibitor antithrombin III, while the latter inhibits vitamin K epoxide reductase, an enzyme needed to synthesize mature clotting factors.

Some treatments have been derived from bacteria. One drug is streptokinase, which is an enzyme secreted by several streptococcal bacteria. This drug is administered intravenously and can be used to dissolve blood clots in coronary vessels. However, streptokinase is nonspecific and can digest almost any protein, which can lead to many secondary problems. Another clot-dissolving enzyme that works faster and is more specific is called tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). This drug is made by transgenic bacteria and it converts plasminogen into the clot-dissolving enzyme plasmin.[3] There are also some anticoagulants that come from animals that work by dissolving fibrin. For example, Haementeria ghilianii, an Amazon leech, produces an enzyme called hementin from its salivary glands.[4] As of 2012, this enzyme has now been successfully produced by genetically engineered bacteria and administered to cardiac patients.

Prognosis

Thrombus formation can have one of four outcomes: propagation, embolization, dissolution, and organization and recanalization.[5]

  1. Propagation of a thrombus occurs towards the direction of the heart. This means that it is anterograde in veins or retrograde in arteries.
  2. Embolization occurs when the thrombus breaks free from the vascular wall and becomes mobile. A venous embolus (mostly from deep vein thrombosis in the lower limbs) will travel through the systemic circulation, reach the right side of the heart, and travel through the pulmonary artery resulting in a pulmonary embolism. Arterial thrombosis resulting from hypertension or atherosclerosis can become mobile and the resulting emboli can occlude any artery or arteriole downstream of the thrombus formation. This means that cerebral stroke, myocardial infarction, or any other organ can be affected.
  3. Dissolution occurs when the fibrinolytic mechanisms break up the thrombus and blood flow is restored to the vessel. This may be aided by drugs (for example after occlusion of a coronary artery). The best response to fibrinolytic drugs is within a couple of hours, before the fibrin meshwork of the thrombus has been fully developed.
  4. Organization and recanalization involves the ingrowth of smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts and endothelium into the fibrin-rich thrombus. If recanalization proceeds it provides capillary-sized channels through the thrombus for continuity of blood flow through the entire thrombus but may not restore sufficient blood flow for the metabolic needs of the downstream tissue.[citation needed]

Stroke in women

A number of factors are likely behind the surprising rise in strokes in women, including:

  • Increasing rates of obesity (women’s waists have grown by nearly two inches in the last 10 years)
  • Vitamin D3 deficiency due to lack of sun exposure. Sun avoidance also increases your risk of vitamin D sulfate deficiency, which may be an underlying cause of arterial plaque buildup (a risk factor for stroke)
  • Rising prevalence of high blood sugar levels
  • eating unprocessed, preferably organic, foods, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight will help to reduce your risk of stroke. Two additional risk factors that can have a direct impact on your stroke risk are:
    • Psychological distress. According to a 2008 study published in the journal Neurology, the more stressed you are, the greater your risk. The researchers actually found that for every notch lower a person scored on their well-being scale, their risk of stroke increased by 11 percent. Not surprisingly, the relationship between psychological distress and stroke was most pronounced when the stroke was fatal.
    • Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and birth control pills. If you’re on one of the hormonal birth control methods (whether it’s the pill, patch, vaginal ring or implant), it is important to understand that you are taking synthetic progesterone and synthetic estrogen — something that is clearly not advantageous if you want to maintain optimal health. These contraceptives contain the same synthetic hormones as those used in hormone replacement therapy (HRT), which has well-documented risks, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, heart attack, and breast cancer.

Diet Soda May Dramatically Increase Your Stroke Risk

Earlier this year, research presented at the American Stroke Association’s International Stroke Conference showed that people who drink just one diet soda a day may increase their risk of stroke by 48 percent!

According to the authors:

“This study suggests that diet soda is not an optimal substitute for sugar-sweetened beverages, and may be associated with a greater risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death than regular soda.”

While more research will likely be needed to confirm this potential link, there’s plenty of evidence showing that artificial sweeteners such as aspartame and sucralose (Splenda) can be dangerous to your health. I believe aspartame is, by far, the most dangerous artificial sweetener on the market. Reports of adverse reactions to the US FDA also support this, as aspartame accounts for over 75 percent of the adverse reactions to food additives reported to the FDA.

Embolism

An embolism is the lodging of an embolus, a blockage-causing piece of material, inside a blood vessel.[1] The embolus may be a blood clot (thrombus), a fat globule, a bubble of air or other gas (gas embolism), or foreign material. An embolism can cause partial or total blockage of blood flow in the affected vessel.[2] Such a blockage (a vascular occlusion) may affect a part of the body distant from where the embolus originated. An embolism in which the embolus is a piece of thrombus is called a thromboembolism. Thrombosis, the process of thrombus formation, often leads to thromboembolism.

An embolism is usually a pathologic event (that is, part of illness or injury). Sometimes it is created intentionally for a therapeutic reason, such as to stop bleeding or to kill a cancerous tumor by stopping its blood supply. Such therapy is called embolization.


Gender bias in treating or preventing blood clots in women

In health care, gender disparities are especially pernicious. If you are a woman, studies have shown, you are not only less likely to receive blood clot prophylaxis, but you may also receive less intensive treatment for a heart attack. If you are a woman older than 50 who is critically ill, you are at particular risk of failing to receive lifesaving interventions. If you have knee pain, you are less likely to be referred for a knee replacement than a man, and if you have heart failure, it may take longer to get EKGs.

When Dr. Elliott Haut and his team at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore designed their blood clot prevention protocol back in 2006, they didn’t expect to discover systemic gender bias. But the data were clear and the implications were alarming: Women who were trauma patients at Johns Hopkins Hospital were in considerably greater danger of dying of preventable blood clots than men.

Why? Because doctors were less likely to provide them with the appropriate blood clot prevention treatment. At Hopkins, as at many hospitals, both men and women were receiving treatment at less than perfect rates, but while 31 percent of male trauma patients were failing to get proper clot prevention, for women, the rate was 45 percent. That means women were nearly 50 percent more likely to miss out on blood clot prevention.

Blood clots, gelatinous tangles that can travel through the body and block blood flow, kill more people every year than breast cancer, AIDS and car crashes combined. But many of these clots can be avoided — if doctors prescribe the right preventive measures.

Such implicit bias, as researchers now understand, happens when we unintentionally use stereotypes or associations to make judgments. “Perhaps we take women’s symptoms less seriously, or we interpret them as having an emotional cause as opposed to a physical cause,” said Dr. Christine Kolehmainen, the associate director for women’s health at the Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital in Madison, Wis. Studies bear this out: in one study of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, doctors were more likely to suggest that male patients receive X-rays and more likely to offer female patients tranquilizers and lifestyle advice.

In the case of blood clot prevention, doctors’ assumptions about women’s risk factors could lead to disparities in treatment. “There might be stereotypes about women’s biology or environment or occupation that could all play into medical decision-making,” Kolehmainen said.

Whether unintentional, unconscious or simply based on erroneous assumptions, treatment differentials clearly exist. Interventions like the Hopkins checklist can help correct them.


Google Women , blood clots, birth control,  pills trauma, PTSD , pregnancy