A novel link between movement control and genetics

The team at Sussex, led by Dr Claudio Alonso, found that fruit flies had difficulty in righting themselves when placed upside down after changes were made to tiny pieces of their genetic material encoding microRNAs (miRNAs).MiRNAs are molecules encoded in the genome of all animals, including humans, that regulate the activity of individual genes.

MiRNAs have been shown to affect the formation of the nervous system, but the Sussex-led research due to be published on-line in Science on Thursday (22 October) is the first to show that they might also have very specific roles in controlling certain movements.

Dr Alonso, a Wellcome Trust Investigator and Reader in Developmental Genetics in the School of Life Sciences, explains: “We know very little about how simple movements are encoded in the genome.

“Yet, the survival of all animals – including humans – strongly depends on our ability to perform simple movements since the moment of birth, such as primitive reflexes essential for feeding.”

“This knowledge might in the long-term contribute to the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of human disorders of the nervous system that lead to loss of movement coordination, such as Parkinson’s disease.”

The researchers had originally tried ‘switching off’ individual microRNA molecules to investigate how this affected the formation of fruit flies’ nervous systems.

When they found no apparent effects on the structure of the nervous system of fruit flies lacking the miRNA, they instead investigated whether the nervous system ‘worked’ properly.

Microscopic image of fruit fly's CNS.

This was when they discovered that fruit flies lacking a specific miRNA could not correct their position when placed upside down.

Dr Alonso and his team are now turning their attention to whether different miRNA molecules could be responsible for other movements both in the fruit fly and in other organisms.

Fruit flies are small insects that are often used for genetic research as they reproduce quickly, are easy to breed in laboratory conditions and share many of the same fundamental mechanisms and pathways found in more complex organisms such as humans.

The research was primarily carried out by Dr Joao Picao-Osorio and Dr Alonso, and was further strengthened by Dr Jamie Johnston (also at Sussex) and Drs Matthias Landgraf and Jimena Berni at the University of Cambridge.

ABOUT THIS GENETICS RESEARCH

Funding: The work was supported by the Wellcome Trust, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council.

Source: Jacqui Bealing – University of Sussex
Image Source: The image is credited to Claudio Alonso
Original Research: Abstract for “MicroRNA-encoded behavior in Drosophila” by Joao Picao-Osorio, Jamie Johnston, Matthias Landgraf, Jimena Berni, and Claudio R. Alonso in Science. Published online October 22 2015 doi:10.1126/science.aad0217


Abstract

MicroRNA-encoded behavior in Drosophila

The relationship between microRNA regulation and the specification of behavior is only beginning to be explored. Here we find that mutation of a single microRNA locus (miR-iab4/8) in Drosophila larvae affects the animal’s capacity to correct its orientation if turned upside-down (self-righting). One of the microRNA targets involved in this behavior is the Hox gene Ultrabithorax whose derepression in two metameric neurons leads to self-righting defects. In vivo neural activity analysis reveals that these neurons, the self-righting node (SRN), have different activity patterns in wild type and miRNA mutants while thermogenetic manipulation of SRN activity results in changes in self-righting behavior. Our work thus reveals a microRNA-encoded behavior and suggests that other microRNAs might also be involved in behavioral control in Drosophila and other species.

“MicroRNA-encoded behavior in Drosophila” by Joao Picao-Osorio, Jamie Johnston, Matthias Landgraf, Jimena Berni, and Claudio R. Alonso in Science. Published online October 22 2015 doi:10.1126/science.aad0217

How to test movement in the gym using ROM as biofeedback

Exercise and Biofeedback

Biofeedback testing is a way to measure your body’s own feedback in response to a stimulus like exercise. While advanced hardware technology exists to measure things like heart rate variability (HRV), muscle strength, or reflex speed testing your range of motion is free, easy, and you already have all the equipment you need: your body.

You can test any range of motion of the body. Some of the easiest and most obvious to detect changes are:

  • Forward flexion – toe touch
  • Arm abduction – side arm raise
  • Arm flexion – front arm raise
  • Hip abduction – side leg lift

Range of Motion

In a healthy individual, any range of motion in which you can notice a change can be used. If someone has a restricted range of motion in a joint, it can be used to quickly assess improvement. For example, if a person had trouble abducting their leg at the hip, they could use hip abduction as a quick and easy test to see if a movement was making them better or worse.

Yoga can be hard on your body. Crossfit might be too much (I only choose light weight and do a 30-min cross fit at nc-fit.com ).

https://nc.fit/
Mention Connie Dello Buono when you join for a 30min cross fit every day for $60 per month.
Seek a gym coach to help you reach your goals.
Seek a health coach for the nutrition and lifestyle changes. Email motherhealth@gmail.com to be coached on this one.
Connie

Running marathons permanently damage the heart if you are not careful and do not know the tricks and prep.

It seems that no matter what exercise activity you choose, it has the potential to do a lot of harm.

On the other hand, the list of benefits conferred by strength training, yoga, cycling, running, and other exercise activities is nearly endless. So, exercise is good for you? What is the explanation for this contradiction?

Everything is an experiment.

The reality is that there is no such thing as a “good movement” and there is no such thing as “bad movement”. There is only movement that is good for you and movement that is bad for you right now.

In addition to the millions of movements the body is capable of, there is also the question of how much? This is the source of endless debate in the fitness and training world. Ask 10 trainers, and you’ll get 10 answers as to how many reps to do for a given movement and the desired outcome. They’re all right, and they’re all wrong.

No matter how good a trainer or coach is, they can not possibly know all of the interactions going on in your body. Only your body knows what the entire roadmap looks like, and whether you realize it or not your body knows exactly what it needs.

The Gym Movement protocol teaches you how to perform certain tests to unlock this knowledge already inside you.

Other gym coaches are also helpful. Listen to your body.
Connie

Since everything is either good or bad and affects us immediately, testing can be accomplished by measuring the change in any quantity in the body. Examples include finger tapping rate, eye blink rate, movement speed, hand grip strength, or range of motion.

How exactly we test is beyond the scope of this article, but why we test is that it tells us the following things in real-time:

  • Whether or not a given movement is good or bad for the body, right now.
  • How we might improve the movement with a small change to make it even better, right now.
  • Whether or not we’ve done the right number of repetitions of a movement, right now.
  • When we should stop doing a movement for the day.
  • Allowing our body to answer these questions for us eliminates almost all points of debate in a training program.
  • We have a saying within The Movement community that is a sort of go-to response for any discussion about training.
  • The saying is: “Or…you could just do whatever tests well.” The point is, there is no sense in discussing whether 3 reps or 5 reps is better when your body can tell you exactly how many reps to do.
  • Simply put: We’ve found we get better results when we test our movement.

Why We Test Movement

Reward yourself after exercise or after a habit of healthy living

In 2002, researchers at New Mexico State University studied 266 individuals, most of whom worked out at least three times a week. They found that many of them had started running or lifting weights almost on a whim, or because they suddenly had free time or wanted to deal with unexpected stresses in their lives.

However, the reason they continued exercisingwhy it became a habit — was because of a specific cue and a specific reward.

If you want to start running each morning, it’s essential that you choose a simple cue (like always lacing up your sneakers before breakfast or always going for a run at the same time of day) and a clear reward (like a sense of accomplishment from recording your miles, or the endorphin rush you get from a jog). But countless studies have shown that, at first, the rewards inherent in exercise aren’t enough.

So to teach your brain to associate exercise with a reward, you need to give yourself something you really enjoy — like a small piece of chocolate — after your workout.

This is counterintuitive, because most people start exercising to lose weight. But the goal here is to train your brain to associate a certain cue (“It’s 5 o’clock”) with a routine (“Three miles down!”) and a reward (“Chocolate!”).

Eventually, your brain will start expecting the reward inherent in exercise (“It’s 5 o’clock. Three miles down! Endorphin rush!”), and you won’t need the chocolate anymore. In fact, you won’t even want it. But until your neurology learns to enjoy those endorphins and the other rewards inherent in exercise, you need to jump-start the process.

And then, over time, it will become automatic to lace up your jogging shoes each morning. You won’t want the chocolate anymore. You’ll just crave the endorphins. The cue, in addition to triggering a routine, will start triggering a craving for the inherent rewards to come.


Join 25,000 people in helping redefine health with health concierge and precision medicine.

https://clubalthea.com/2016/10/14/your-complete-dna-sequence-will-help-shape-the-future-of-medicine/

Anabolic and catabolic process, hormones and exercise

catabolic hormones.JPG

The body faces a catabolic state during normal metabolic functions. This idea, opposed to an anabolic state, actually defines the breakdown of foods and nutrients so that they will later have the ability to build up and add to the muscle or tissue growth process.

Exercise

Catabolic exercises are largely aerobic, meaning they consume oxygen, and help burn calories and fat. The use of oxygen is a key factor in catabolism, as oxygen is a reducing agent in many chemical processes. Typical catabolic/aerobic exercises are jogging, cycling, swimming, dancing or any physical activity done for at least 20 minutes at moderate intensity. Time is a major factor in getting results because after about 15-20 minutes, the body switches from using glucose and glycogen to using fat to sustain the energy requirements of the body. For that catabolic process, oxygen is required. By combining aerobic and anaerobic exercises on a consistent basis, a person can use anabolic and catabolic processes to reach or maintain an ideal body weight as well as improve and sustain overall health.

Anabolic processes

Anabolic processes use simple molecules within the organism to create more complex and specialized compounds. This synthesis, the creation of a product from a series of components, is why anabolism is also called “biosynthesis.” The process uses energy to create its end products, which the organism can use to sustain itself, grow, heal, reproduce or adjust to changes in its environment. Growing in height and muscle mass are two basic anabolic processes. At the cellular level, anabolic processes can use small molecules called monomers to build polymers, resulting in often highly complex molecules. For example, amino acids (monomers) can be synthesized into proteins (polymers), much like a builder can use bricks to create a large variety of buildings.

Catabolic processes

Catabolic processes break down complex compounds and molecules to release energy. This creates the metabolic cycle, where anabolism then creates other molecules that catabolism breaks down, many of which remain in the organism to be used again.

The principal catabolic process is digestion, where nutrient substances are ingested and broken down into simpler components for the body to use. In cells, catabolic processes break down polysaccharides such as starch, glycogen, and cellulose into monosaccharides (glucose, ribose and fructose, for example) for energy. Proteins are broken down into amino acids, for use in anabolic synthesis of new compounds or for recycling. And nucleic acids, found in RNA and DNA, are catabolized into nucleotides as part of the body’s energy needs or for the purpose of healing.

The Catabolic Idea

By defining the catabolic state within the human body, avid fitness enthusiasts have the ability to achieve their goals more easily. For example, by knowing that muscles actually endure a break down phase because of hormones released during each workout, you have the ability to counteract this phenomenon by consuming high-quality nutrient sources before, during or after your exercise sessions.

In the most basic written form, the catabolic process involves anything and everything that naturally occurs or induces the breakdown of larger molecules into several smaller building blocks. These separate parts eventually combine in a process known as anabolism, which greatly benefits muscle tissue growth.

Both catabolism and anabolism work together naturally in the human body in order to maintain a healthy energy level and durable, functional muscle tissue. However, before any muscle gains the ability to benefit from these two major processes, simple scientific factors have to take their proper course.

The Catabolic Process

When food enters the body, from the very first moment, larger sized molecules naturally become smaller. The idea of digestion actually implies catabolism. Once food particles break down into smaller nutrients, these chemical strains that once composed the larger nutrient molecules release energy through an oxidation process.

The catabolic process releases energy that works to help maintain proper muscle activity. The oxidation process that occurs during catabolism helps synthesize the necessary chemical building blocks that adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Multiple ATP molecules give cells the power to transfer more energy produced during the catabolic process to the anabolic process.

In basic terms, catabolism acts as the sole energy provider for the proper preservation and growth in nearly all cells.

Importance of Catabolism

Aside from helping fuel the human body with energy that’s necessary to grow and function, catabolism sometimes acts as a negative process that leads to adverse health effects. This does not occur often, but when the body has an extremely high rate of catabolism, as opposed to anabolism, muscle tissue and essential fat deposits found within the body become depleted.

For example, during rest, the body tends to recover and remain in an anabolic state. When the body does not properly rest for long periods of time, as in prolonged vigorous exercise, muscle tissue will continue to break down. Without proper nutritional intake, the natural process of tissue growth and repair will not take place.

Catabolism is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy, or used in other anabolic reactions.[1] Catabolism breaks down large molecules (such as polysaccharides, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins) into smaller units (such as monosaccharides, fatty acids, nucleotides, and amino acids, respectively).

Cells use the monomers released from breaking down polymers to either construct new polymer molecules, or degrade the monomers further to simple waste products, releasing energy. Cellular wastes include lactic acid, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and urea. The creation of these wastes is usually an oxidation process involving a release of chemical free energy, some of which is lost as heat, but the rest of which is used to drive the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This molecule acts as a way for the cell to transfer the energy released by catabolism to the energy-requiring reactions that make up anabolism. (Catabolism is seen as destructive metabolism and anabolism as constructive metabolism). Catabolism therefore provides the chemical energy necessary for the maintenance and growth of cells. Examples of catabolic processes include glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, the breakdown of muscle protein in order to use amino acids as substrates for gluconeogenesis, the breakdown of fat in adipose tissue to fatty acids, and oxidative deamination of neurotransmitters by monoamine oxidase.

Hormones

There are many signals that control catabolism. Most of the known signals are hormones and the molecules involved in metabolism itself. Endocrinologists have traditionally classified many of the hormones as anabolic or catabolic, depending on which part of metabolism they stimulate. The so-called classic catabolic hormones known since the early 20th century are cortisol, glucagon, and adrenaline (and other catecholamines).

In recent decades, many more hormones with at least some catabolic effects have been discovered, including cytokines, orexin (also known as hypocretin), and melatonin.

Many of these catabolic hormones express an anti-catabolic effect in muscle tissue. One study found that the administration of epinephrine (adrenaline) had an anti-proteolytic effect, and in fact suppressed catabolism rather than promoted it.[2] Another study found that catecholamines in general (the main ones being, epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine), greatly decreased the rate of muscle catabolism.

Catabolic hormones include:

  • Adrenaline: Also called “epinephrine,” adrenaline is produced by the adrenal glands. It is the key component of the “fight or flight” response that accelerates heart rate, opens up bronchioles in the lungs for better oxygen absorption and floods the body with glucose for fast energy.
  • Cortisol: Also produced in the adrenal glands, cortisol is known as the “stress hormone.” It is released during times of anxiety, nervousness or when the organism feels prolonged discomfort. It increases blood pressure, blood sugar levels and suppresses the body’s immune processes.
  • Glucagon: Produced by the alpha cells in the pancreas, glucagon stimulates the breakdown of glycogen into glucose. Glycogen is stored in the liver and when the body needs more energy (exercise, fighting, high level of stress), glucagon stimulates the liver to catabolize glycogen, which enters the blood as glucose.
  • Cytokines: This hormone is a small protein that regulates communication and interactions between cells. Cytokines are constantly being produced and broken down in the body, where their amino acids are either reused or recycled for other processes. Two examples of cytokines are interleukin and lymphokines, most often released during the body’s immune response to invasion (bacteria, virus, fungus, tumor) or injury.

Foods

Foods with very high water content, such as celery, also have this tiny catabolic effect. But the nutritional value of water and celery are not high enough to properly sustain an organism, so relying solely on these foods to lose weight can lead to serious health complications

What is your molecular age? P16 protein can ID your molecular age

Aging biomarket test –  coming soon

Researchers report the development of a new blood test that they say may show your “molecular age,” as opposed to your chronological age.

That test measures levels of a protein called p16. A new study shows that p16 levels rise as people age, that smokers have higher levels of p16 than nonsmokers, and that people who exercise have lower levels of p16.

The test isn’t available to the public yet. But if it was, would you want to know your “molecular age”?

Let’s say you took the test and found out your molecular age was greater than your chronological age, suggesting that your aging process is on the fast track. Or maybe you’d find out that the opposite is true, that your clock isn’t ticking quite as fast as you thought.

What would you do with that information? Would it spur you to make lifestyle changes to try to stave off aging, or would you be looking for reassurance that your healthy habits are paying off?

Role in senescence

Concentrations of p16INK4a increase dramatically as tissue ages. p16INK4a, along with senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, is regarded to be a biomarker of cellular senescence.[32] Therefore, p16INK4a could potentially be used as a blood test that measures how fast the body’s tissues are aging at a molecular level.[33]

It has been used as a target to delay some aging changes in mice. P16 along with SABG can be a biomarker of cellular senescence.

Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-β-gal or SABG) is a hypothetical hydrolase enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of β-galactosidesinto monosaccharides only in senescent cells. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, along with p16Ink4A, is regarded to be a biomarker of cellular senescence.[1]

Its existence was proposed in 1995 by Dimri et al.[2] following the observation that when beta-galactosidase assays were carried out at pH 6.0, only cells in senescence state develop staining. They proposed a cytochemical assay based on production of a blue-dyed precipitate that results from the cleavage of the chromogenic substrate X-Gal. Since then, even more specific quantitative assays were developed for its detection at pH 6.0.[3][4][5]

Today this phenomenon is explained by the overexpression and accumulation of the endogenous lysosomal beta-galactosidase specifically in senescent cells.[6] Its expression is not required for senescence. However, it remains as the most widely used biomarker for senescent and aging cells, because it is easy to detect and reliable both in situ and in vitro.

P16 Role in cancer

Mutations resulting in deletion or reduction of function of the CDKN2A gene are associated with increased risk of a wide range of cancers and alterations of the gene are frequently seen in cancer cell lines.[13][14] Examples include:

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is often associated with mutations in the CDKN2A gene.[15][16][17]

Carriers of germline mutations in CDKN2A have besides their high risks of melanoma also increased risks of pancreatic, lung, laryngeal and oropharyngeal cancers and tobacco smoking exacerbates carriers’ susceptibility for such non-melanoma cancers.[18]

Homozygous deletion of p16 are frequently found in esophageal cancer and gastric cancer cell lines.[19]

Germline mutations in CDKN2A are associated with an increased susceptibility to develop skin cancer.[20]

Hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes has been implicated in various cancers. In 2013, a meta-analysis of 39 articles using analysis cancer tissues and 7 articles using blood samples, revealed an increased frequency of DNA methylation of p16 gene in esophageal cancer. As the degree of tumor differentiation increased, so did the frequency of DNA methylation.

Tissue samples of primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) display hypermethylation in the promoter regions of p16. Cancer cells show a significant increase in the accumulation of methylation in CpG islands in the promoter region of p16. This epigenetic change leads to the loss of tumor suppressor gene function through two possible mechanisms. Methylation can physically inhibit the transcription of the gene or methylation can lead to the recruitment of transcription factors that repress transcription. Both mechanisms lead to the same end result—downregulation of gene expression that leads to decreased levels of the p16 protein. It has been suggested that this process is responsible for the development of various forms of cancer serving as an alternative process to gene deletion or mutation.[21][22][23][24][25][26]

Clinical use

Use as a biomarker

Furthermore, p16 is now being explored as a prognostic biomarker for a number of cancers. For patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, using immunohistochemistry to detect the presence of the p16 biomarker has been shown to be the strongest indicator of disease course. Presence of the biomarker is associated with a more favorable prognosis as measured by cancer-specific survival (CSS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), locoregional control (LRC), as well as other measurements. The appearance of hyper methylation of p16 is also being evaluated as a potential prognostic biomarker for prostate cancer.[27][28][29]

p16 FISH

p16 deletion detected by FISH in surface epithelial mesothelial proliferations is predictive of underlying invasive mesothelioma.[30]

p16 immunochemistry

Gynecologic cancers

p16 is a widely used immunohistochemical marker in gynecologic pathology. Strong and diffuse cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of p16 in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the female genital tract is strongly associated with high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and neoplasms of cervical origin. The majority of SCCs of uterine cervix express p16. However, p16 can be expressed in other neoplasms and in several normal human tissues.[31]

Urinary bladder SCCs

More than a third of urinary bladder SCCs express p16. SCCs of urinary bladder express p16 independent of gender. p16 immunohistochemical expression alone cannot be used to discriminate between SCCs arising from uterine cervix versus urinary bladder.[31]

Email motherhealth@gmail.com if you want more info on testing your molecular age next year as we will add this service at avatarcare.net  soon.


P16 (gene) has been shown to interact with:

———

Exercise your brain with cross-fit training

It’s been three months with a crossfit training coach at NC Fit when my coach asked me why I attend my 30min group training every day. I told my coach Brandon, that I wanted to increase 10 yrs in my life. I want to help raise my future grandchildren and be able to experience life everyday and share it with others.

http://nc.fit/memberships

Mention my name (Connie Dello Buono) when joining this cross fit gym in the bay area. My team asked what I eat for breakfast and I said one pouched egg and Roibois tea. I also use VEGA protein powder and Garden of Life after working out. My mom cooks fish and veggie for me and my friend shares his garden produce with me.

I want to be a good example for my children and hopefully I will not spend any fortune when it is time for me to be taken cared for during old age.

I worked two jobs, sending my children to college and some nieces in the Philippines to college. I have a fitness and financial goals.

NC Fit cross fit.JPG

150 min of moderate-intensity exercise per week

500 metabolic equivalents per week (MET/week)  or 150 min of moderate-intensity exercise per week reduces the occurrence of major cancers by 20%.

METs and MET-minutes

A well-known physiologic effect of physical activity is that it expends energy. A metabolic equivalent, or MET, is a unit useful for describing the energy expenditure of a specific activity. A MET is the ratio of the rate of energy expended during an activity to the rate of energy expended at rest. For example, 1 MET is the rate of energy expenditure while at rest. A 4 MET activity expends 4 times the energy used by the body at rest. If a person does a 4 MET activity for 30 minutes, he or she has done 4 x 30 = 120 MET-minutes (or 2.0 MET-hours) of physical activity. A person could also achieve 120 MET-minutes by doing an 8 MET activity for 15 minutes.

MET-Minutes and Health Benefits

A key finding of the Advisory Committee Report is that the health benefits of physical activity depend mainly on total weekly energy expenditure due to physical activity. In scientific terms, this range is 500 to 1,000 MET-minutes per week. A range is necessary because the amount of physical activity necessary to produce health benefits cannot yet be identified with a high degree of precision; this amount varies somewhat by the health benefit. For example, activity of 500 MET-minutes a week results in a substantial reduction in the risk of premature death, but activity of more than 500 MET-minutes a week is necessary to achieve a substantial reduction in the risk of breast cancer.

Dose Response

The Advisory Committee concluded that a dose-response relationship exists between physical activity and health benefits. A range of 500 to 1,000 MET-minutes of activity per week provides substantial benefit, and amounts of activity above this range have even more benefit. Amounts of activity below this range also have some benefit. The dose-response relationship continues even within the range of 500 to 1,000 MET-minutes, in that the health benefits of 1,000 MET-minutes per week are greater than those of 500 MET-minutes per week.

Two Methods of Assessing Aerobic Intensity

The intensity of aerobic physical activity can be defined in absolute or relative terms.

Absolute Intensity

The Advisory Committee concluded that absolute moderate-intensity or vigorous-intensity physical activity is necessary for substantial health benefits, and it defined absolute aerobic intensity in terms of METs:

  • Light-intensity activities are defined as 1.1 MET to 2.9 METs.
  • Moderate-intensity activities are defined as 3.0 to 5.9 METs. Walking at 3.0 miles per hour requires 3.3 METs of energy expenditure and is therefore considered a moderate-intensity activity.
  • Vigorous-intensity activities are defined as 6.0 METs or more. Running at 10 minutes per mile (6.0 mph) is a 10 MET activity and is therefore classified as vigorous intensity.

Relative Intensity

Intensity can also be defined relative to fitness, with the intensity expressed in terms of a percent of a person’s (1) maximal heart rate, (2) heart rate reserve, or (3) aerobic capacity reserve. The Advisory Committee regarded relative moderate intensity as 40 to 59 percent of aerobic capacity reserve (where 0 percent of reserve is resting and 100 percent of reserve is maximal effort). Relatively vigorous-intensity activity is 60 to 84 percent of reserve.

To better communicate the concept of relative intensity (or relative level of effort), the Guidelines adopted a simpler definition:

  • Relatively moderate-intensity activity is a level of effort of 5 or 6 on a scale of 0 to 10, where 0 is the level of effort of sitting, and 10 is maximal effort.
  • Relatively vigorous-intensity activity is a 7 or 8 on this scale. This simplification was endorsed by the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association in their recent guidelines for older adults.1 This approach does create a minor difference from the Advisory Committee Report definitions, however. A 5 or 6 on a 0 to 10 scale is essentially 45 percent to 64 percent of aerobic capacity reserve for moderate intensity. Similarly, a 7 or 8 on a 0 to 10 scale means 65 percent to 84 percent of reserve is the range for relatively vigorous-intensity activity.