Parasites and Diabetes

A Possible Link Between Gut Bacteria and PTSD

Could bacteria in your gut be used to cure or prevent neurological conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety or even depression? Two researchers sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) think that’s a strong possibility.

Dr. John Bienenstock and Dr. Paul Forsythe–who work in The Brain-Body Institute at McMaster University in Ontario, Canada, are investigating intestinal bacteria and their effect on the human brain and mood.

“This is extremely important work for U.S. warfighters because it suggests that gut microbes play a strong role in the body’s response to stressful situations, as well as in who might be susceptible to conditions like PTSD,” said Dr. Linda Chrisey, a program officer in ONR’s Warfighter Performance Department, which sponsors the research.

The trillions of microbes in the intestinal tract, collectively known as the gut microbiome, profoundly impact human biology; digesting food, regulating the immune system and even transmitting signals to the brain that alter mood and behavior. ONR is supporting research that’s anticipated to increase warfighters’ mental and physical resilience in situations involving dietary changes, sleep loss or disrupted circadian rhythms from shifting time zones or living in submarines.

Through research on laboratory mice, Bienenstock and Forsythe have shown that gut bacteria seriously affect mood and demeanor. They also were able to control the moods of anxious mice by feeding them healthy microbes from fecal material collected from calm mice.

Bienenstock and Forsythe used a “social defeat” scenario in which smaller mice were exposed to larger, more aggressive ones for a couple of minutes daily for 10 consecutive days. The smaller mice showed signs of heightened anxiety and stress–nervous shaking, diminished appetite and less social interaction with other mice. The researchers then collected fecal samples from the stressed mice and compared them to those from calm mice.

“What we found was an imbalance in the gut microbiota of the stressed mice,” said Forsythe. “There was less diversity in the types of bacteria present. The gut and bowels are a very complex ecology. The less diversity, the greater disruption to the body.”

Bienenstock and Forsythe then fed the stressed mice the same probiotics (live bacteria) found in the calm mice and examined the new fecal samples. Through magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), a non-invasive analytical technique using powerful MRI technology, they also studied changes in brain chemistry.

“Not only did the behavior of the mice improve dramatically with the probiotic treatment,” said Bienenstock, “but it continued to get better for several weeks afterward. Also, the MRS technology enabled us to see certain chemical biomarkers in the brain when the mice were stressed and when they were taking the probiotics.”

Image shows microbiota.

Both researchers said stress biomarkers could potentially indicate if someone is suffering from PTSD or risks developing it, allowing for treatment or prevention with probiotics and antibiotics.

Later this year, Bienenstock and Forsythe will perform experiments involving fecal transplants from calm mice to stressed mice. They also hope to secure funding to conduct clinical trials to administer probiotics to human volunteers and use MRS to monitor brain reactions to different stress levels.

Gut microbiology is part of ONR’s program in warfighter performance. ONR also is looking at the use of synthetic biology to enhance the gut microbiome. Synthetic biology creates or re-engineers microbes or other organisms to perform specific tasks like improving health and physical performance. The field was identified as a top ONR priority because of its potential far-ranging impact on warfighter performance and fleet capabilities.

ABOUT THIS PTSD RESEARCH

Source: Bob Freeman – Office of Naval Research
Image Source: The image is credited to Nicola Fawcett and is licensed CC BY-SA 4.0.
Original Research: Abstract for “Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Does the Gut Microbiome Hold the Key?” by Sophie Leclercq, Paul Forsythe, and John Bienenstock in Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Published online February 24 2016 doi:10.1177/0706743716635535


Abstract

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Does the Gut Microbiome Hold the Key?

Gut bacteria strongly influence our metabolic, endocrine, immune, and both peripheral and central nervous systems. Microbiota do this directly and indirectly through their components, shed and secreted, ranging from fermented and digested dietary and host products to functionally active neurotransmitters including serotonin, dopamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid. Depression has been associated with enhanced levels of proinflammatory biomarkers and abnormal responses to stress. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to be marked in addition by low cortisol responses, and these factors seem to predict and predispose individuals to develop PTSD after a traumatic event. Dysregulation of the immune system and of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis observed in PTSD may reflect prior trauma exposure, especially early in life. Early life, including the prenatal period, is a critical time in rodents, and may well be for humans, for the functional and structural development of the immune and nervous systems. These, in turn, are likely shaped and programmed by gut and possibly other bacteria. Recent experimental and clinical data converge on the hypothesis that imbalanced gut microbiota in early life may have long-lasting immune and other physiologic effects that make individuals more susceptible to develop PTSD after a traumatic event and contribute to the disorder. This suggests that it may be possible to target abnormalities in these systems by manipulation of certain gut bacterial communities directly through supplementation or indirectly by dietary and other novel approaches.

“Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Does the Gut Microbiome Hold the Key?” by Sophie Leclercq, Paul Forsythe, and John Bienenstock in Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Published online February 24 2016 doi:10.1177/0706743716635535

A Window to the Gut’s Brain

Summary: Researchers have developed a new system that allows for real time viewing of the enteric nervous system, and could provide a new way to identify gastrointestinal disorders.

Source: Duke University.

Real-time view of enteric nervous system provides new way to study gastrointestinal disorders.

Duke researchers have developed a system that allows real-time optical and electrical observations of the gut’s nervous system in a live animal.

And if you weren’t aware that the gut had its own nervous system, don’t worry, you’re not alone.

“The first time I ever heard of the enteric nervous system was two years ago, and I was like ‘What’s that?’” said Xiling Shen, associate professor of biomedical engineering at Duke University and author of the study appearing June 7 in Nature Communications. “Even with neurobiologists, their only exposure to it is typically something like a half-page in a textbook. But it’s actually very important.”

Consisting of five times more neurons than the spinal cord and often termed as a “second brain,” the enteric nervous system is a mesh-like sheath of neurons that controls the gastrointestinal tract. It regulates how food moves through the digestive system and communicates potential problems to the immune system. And while it has a direct line to both the brain and spinal cord, the enteric system has the ability to direct the organs under its control independent of either system.

Image shows ens.

Despite its importance, however, very little is known about the enteric nervous system, such as how it responds to medications or what can go wrong with it to cause disease.

“About one-quarter of the world’s population is affected by a functional gastrointestinal disorder,” Shen said. “You’ve probably heard of the term functional GI disorder, which encompasses diseases like irritable bowel syndrome, constipation and incontinence. If you look at the physiology in these diseases, the gut looks fine. It’s the nerves that are somehow malfunctioning. And the reason the term includes so many diseases is because we really don’t have any idea what’s going on with those nerves.”

Shen is looking to change that by literally installing an observation window.

In the new study, Shen implanted a transparent window made of tough borosilicate glass into the skin over the stomachs of mice. With no skull or bone structures to anchor the window, he needed to devise a 3D-printed surgical insert for stabilization. The device prevents the intestines from moving too much while maintaining normal digestive functions, allowing researchers to look at the same spot over multiple days.

Being the first to get a live look at the enteric nervous system, Shen was not about to waste the view. Because the gut can be a busy, noisy environment, he devised a system to record both electrical and optical activity at the same time — also a first for the field.
The experiment uses transgenic mice with nerves that light up with a green hue when firing. By using a transparent graphene sensor to obtain electrical signals from the nerves, Shen gained an unobstructed view of the neural activity.

uke biomedical engineer Xiling Shen has created the first system that allows direct observation of the neurons that make up the enteric nervous system — your gut’s brain. Genetic alterations make the neurons in this rat’s gut glow green when they fire. This video shows one of the first views of the enteric nervous system in action.

The optical signal gives spatial resolution, allowing researchers to tell which neuron is firing. The electrical signal provides time resolution, which pins down the exact waveform of the firing neurons. Shen said the enteric nervous system is now ready to be explored.

“So much is known about the brain and spinal cord because we can open them up, look at them, record the neural activities and map their behaviors,” said Shen. “Now we can start doing the same for the gut.

We can see how it reacts to different drugs, neurotransmitters or diseases. We have even artificially activated individual neurons in the gut with light, which nobody has ever done before. This innovation will help us understand this ‘dark’ nervous system that we currently have completely no idea about.”

ABOUT THIS NEUROLOGY RESEARCH ARTICLE

Funding: This research was supported by the DARPA Electrical Prescriptions Program (N66001-15-2-4059) and the National Institutes of Health (R01GM114254).

Source: Ken Kingery – Duke University
Image Source: This NeuroscienceNews.com image is credited to Cheng Fang.
Video Source: Video is credited to Duke Engineering.
Original Research: Full open access research for “Simultaneous optical and electrical in vivo analysis of the enteric nervous system” by Nikolai Rakhilin, Bradley Barth, Jiahn Choi, Nini L. Muñoz, Subhash Kulkarni, Jason S. Jones, David M. Small, Yu-Ting Cheng, Yingqiu Cao, Colleen LaVinka, Edwin Kan, Xinzand& Xiling Shen in Nature Communications. Published online June 7 2016 doi:10.1038/ncomms11800

CITE THIS NEUROSCIENCENEWS.COM ARTICLE
Duke University. “A Window to the Gut’s Brain.” NeuroscienceNews. NeuroscienceNews, 7 June 2016.
<http://neurosciencenews.com/ens-gastrointestinal-disorders-4396/&gt;.

Abstract

Simultaneous optical and electrical in vivo analysis of the enteric nervous system

The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a major division of the nervous system and vital to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and its communication with the rest of the body. Unlike the brain and spinal cord, relatively little is known about the ENS in part because of the inability to directly monitor its activity in live animals. Here, we integrate a transparent graphene sensor with a customized abdominal window for simultaneous optical and electrical recording of the ENS in vivo. The implanted device captures ENS responses to neurotransmitters, drugs and optogenetic manipulation in real time.

“Simultaneous optical and electrical in vivo analysis of the enteric nervous system” by Nikolai Rakhilin, Bradley Barth, Jiahn Choi, Nini L. Muñoz, Subhash Kulkarni, Jason S. Jones, David M. Small, Yu-Ting Cheng, Yingqiu Cao, Colleen LaVinka, Edwin Kan, Xinzand& Xiling Shen in Nature Communications. Published online June 7 2016 doi:10.1038/ncomms11800

Diet high in meat promote the growth of a gut bacteria, carnitine, black walnut, pork parasitic worms

1. According to the researchers, an earlier study found that a compound called trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) may promote the growth of artery-clogging plaques. TMAO is formed when bacteria from our digestive tract breaks down a compound found in meat known as carnitine.
Diets high in meat promote the growth of a gut bacteria that breaks down carnitine, the researchers explained, which leads to more TMAO, which in turn leads to atherosclerosis. Carnitine (red meat and energy drinks) was originally found as a growth factor for mealworms.

2. Woman Contracts Parasitic Worm In Her Brain From Pork Taco

3. Body cleanse: Kill intestinal (parasite) worms. See your doctor. Eat garlic, pumpkin seeds, ginger, and:
• Wormwood contains sesquiterpene lactones, highly-effective chemical compounds which weaken parasite’s membranes and strips them of the ability to survive. That is also why a synthesized derivative of Wormwood is used in anti-malarial medication today. There is no better herb then Wormwood to rid yourself of parasites. That is why it is first. There are however some helpers I would like to use. Next to our Wormwood, we will add Black Walnut Hull.

• Black Walnut Hull will move the colon to empty itself of the dying worms and at the same time inhibit certain enzymes the parasites require for metabolic function. Once again, we are killing the worms without ingesting poisons. Aren’t herbs fun! Black Walnut Hull powder is full of a chemical compound called Juglone. If you ever look under a Black Walnut tree you will notice many of the plants have stunted growth; Juglone is why. The last thing we have to deal with is the eggs. Some of these parasites have copious amounts of young brewing in you right now and since we have not eaten poison, they won’t die. And trust me, we would very much like for them to die. So now we eat Cloves.

• Cloves do not kill the parasites – cloves contain a volatile oil called Eugenol which dissolves the hard casing around the parasite’s eggs. That, in turn, allows the Wormwood and Black Walnut Hull to do their job and kill them all! Eugenol is the volatile oil responsible for the aroma of cloves and it starts to dissipate as soon as they are ground. We keep only the highest quality products, so to keep our cloves fresh we only sell them whole. You will need to grind the cloves up in your blender to make them as effective as possible. The irradiated powder cloves you can buy at the grocery store are worthless for eradicating worm’s larvae.

Collected by
Connie Dello Buono
Email for travel and health enthusiasts : motherhealth@gmail.com 408-854-1883
http://www.clubalthea.worldventures.biz for those who love to travel, share and retire wisely

http://www.clubalthea.zealforlife.com Now in 2 countries, USA and Canada
Needing sales and marketers to grow this 3-yr old business. Be a business owner now as jobs are hard to keep in this economy. Call 408-854-1883 ; motherhealth@gmail.com

Detox, Weight Loss, Ulcerative Colitis, Crohn’s Disease

Here is an update on healing our intestines, where 70% of our immune system resides. A happy gut, is a happy person. Flush out toxins in the morning with warm water and then add lemon after warming it.
Be sure that your breakfast from 7-9am has fiber, fruits and veggies. To clean your body, do a detox for a week by avoiding red meat and eating veggies and selected fruits instead. Remember that 4 calories of carbs is equal to one calorie of sugar. Check with your doctor before going for detox or whole body cleanse. There is a special supplement needed for your protein and essential fat intake. Aloe vera juice can be added to your water throughout the day, be sure to check for its sugar content.

What are the details in whole body detox? What are the details in a one week cleanse to lose excess weight?

Contact Connie for detox and a health/finance make over. Call 408-854-1883 ; motherhealth@gmail.com

Diet for Colitis:
– avoid sugar, caffeine, carbonated, salty, fried, moldy, malted, cheese, milk, fatty red meats, processed foods, fruit juices
– do not eat fruits on empty stomach, avoid acidic fruits such as grapefruit and oranges, do eat fruits in between meals

– eat cooked foods, grains, vegetables, baked, steamed or boiled
– include garlic, onion family, root veggies with skin, yellow foods, protein-rich veggies

– eat fiber-rich food, add flaxseeds, sesame seeds
– add probiotic
– drink glass of water 30min before and 30min after meal

Dear Connie,

My 29 year old brother has ulcerative colitis and what can we do while waiting for the doctors’ investigations about his health and pain.

Hope you can give us few tips that we can offer to him for holistic healing.

Regards,

Anna

Dear Anna,

We can start by making his blood and body alkaline and to stop consuming allergy-producing foods,  dairy, meat with hormones, corn, sugar but more on whole foods.  And add the following to flush out toxins in his body: probiotics, acidophilus, fresh green juice, lemon in water, sea salt in moderation, replace sugar with maple syrup and light cranberry juice diluted with filtered alkaline water and garlic/onion and yellow veggies.

For protein, boiled hormone free eggs, brown rice powder protein for soups and warm drinks.  The following supplements and tinctures are helpful in healing our tissues: black walnut, fluradix iron in the morning, aloe vera juice, coconut water, 2 brazil raw nuts, pistachio raw nuts, sunflower seeds, blueberry

Remember to wash veggies and fruits well with salt.  Add fiber-rich veggies (cabbage and tomatoes) when eating processed foods to cancel the preservatives and chemicals. Avoid all canned (soda, sausage) and processed foods for 2 months or forever.

In my web site ( www.clubalthea.com  ), the timing on when we should eat the following foods has an effect on our body:

Iron-rich food in the morning and calcium-rich food in the afternoon
Complex carbs and protein in the evening
Warm soup before a meal
Boiled egg for breakfast every other day, 1 tsp of goat cheese
Fiber with meals
Apples, nuts, pear for snack
Pineapple/papaya for morning snack/breakfast
Yogurt for morning snack
Protein shake before a meal
Alkaline water w lemon 30 min before and 30 min after meal
Raw salad with complex carbs and protein, all colors if possible
Vit C-rich food in most meals
Cooked root crops such as yams, cassava with raw food
Warm lemon water early morning drink
Protein with light alcohol drink
Protein with eggs after a hangover
Rice soup with ginger when stomach poisoned or only liquid
With allergies, up Vit C and Bs and colored foods devoid of sugar and preservatives
With depression, up colored foods and calcium/magnesium rich food
With losing weight, use small portion meals every 3-4hrs
With health, add a dose of love, support and happy disposition in life

I will write some more…

Blessings,

Connie Dello Buono, Motherhealth Inc for affordable caregivers for homebound seniors motherhealth@gmail.com 408-854-1883

Tell amazing stories together as we explore health and healing for the world.

Let us not fear cancer or disease anymore.

We already knew what our body like and when our body is in pain.

One third of drug overdose in the US are from prescription neuro meds.

Passion in our hearts determines the winner.

Wanted Sports Nutrition independent reps or Ambassador at USA, Sweden and Australia at http://gogyv.com/cdellobuono/

Have your own site for free before end of August and invest in your health monthly for a favorite anti-aging supplements of athletes powered by Biogenesis. Email Connie ->  motherhealth@gmail.com or text 408-854-1883 for more info for your sports nutrition business online

%d bloggers like this: