Parasites and Diabetes

Serotonin Deficiency Implicated in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Ra symptoms and pathology worse in mice missing enzyme needed for serotonin synthesis, according to report in the American Journal of Pathology.

For the first time, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) has been directly implicated in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although 5-HT is predominantly known as a neurotransmitter within the central nervous system, new evidence points to additional important functions for serotonin in the periphery. A report in The American Journal of Pathology shows that experimentally-induced RA in serotonin-deficient mice is worse than disease reported in controls and that some effects of RA can be reduced by serotonin or its agonists (compounds that activate serotonin receptors).

These findings may lay the groundwork for new treatment approaches for RA. “Our study highlights that 5-HT has a direct immunoregulatory role in arthritis. The development of treatments targeting 5-HT or 5-HT receptors could represent an exciting prospect to regulate the immune response in RA and open new perspectives to improve the therapeutic options for patients,” explained co-lead investigator Marie-Christine de Vernejoul of BIOSCAR, INSERM UMR_S1132 of the Hôpital Lariboisière, Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) 1132, Université Paris Diderot (Paris, France).

The investigators used a mouse model of RA known as collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) that produces features similar to that of human RA. Disease manifestations include cartilage and bone destruction, as well as the activation of cells responsible for bone resorption, known as osteoclasts. They compared the effects of CIA in normal mice to those in mice genetically bred with a deficiency in tryptophan hydroxylase-1, a key enzyme needed for serotonin production in peripheral tissues.

The investigators found that both the number and activity of osteoclasts were higher in 5-HT-deficient mice with arthritis. In addition, more bone resorption was detected both at the affected joints and at remote sites.

The serotonin-deficient mice with arthritis also showed changes in certain cell-signaling molecules known as cytokines (higher IL-17, higher TNF-α, and lower IL-4) in their paws. Specifically, they displayed a shift in the balance between T cell subtypes, especially regulatory T cells and Th17 lymphocytes.

Image shows a ball-and-stick model of the serotonin molecule.

“Altogether, our data show that 5-HT deficient mice are characterized by a relative, dampened expansion of Treg associated with an enhanced shift toward a Th17 phenotype, a situation previously described in patients with arthritis,” noted co-lead investigator Francine Côté of the Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Hematological Disorders and Therapeutic Implications Institut Imagine INSERM U1163/CNRS ERL 8254, Hôpital Necker (Paris, France).

Subsequent experiments using cell cultures showed that the balance between Th17/Treg cells could be normalized by the addition of 5-HT or 5-HT receptor agonists, revealing a direct regulatory role of serotonin in RA. These novel data suggest a new therapeutic target that could be important for this disabling disease.

ABOUT THIS EPILEPSY RESEARCH

Funding: The study was funded by Arthritis Courtin’s Fundation, la Fondation pour la Recherche Medical, le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris Descartes.

Source: Eileen Leahy – Elsevier
Image Source: The image is credited to Ben Mills and is in the public domain.
Original Research: Abstract for “Serotonin Is Involved in Autoimmune Arthritis through Th17 Immunity and Bone Resorption” by Yasmine Chabbi-Achengli, Tereza Coman, Corinne Collet, Jacques Callebert, Michelangelo Corcelli, Hilène Lin, Rachel Rignault, Michel Dy, Marie-Christine de Vernejoul, and Francine Côté in American Journal of Pathology. Published online March 8 2016 doi:10.1016/j.ajpath.2015.11.018


Abstract

Serotonin Is Involved in Autoimmune Arthritis through Th17 Immunity and Bone Resorption

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic disease that results in a disabling and painful condition as it progresses to destruction of the articular cartilage and ankylosis of the joints. Although the cause of the disease is still unknown, evidence argues that autoimmunity plays an important part. There are increasing but contradictory views regarding serotonin being associated with activation of immunoinflammatory pathways and the onset of autoimmune reactions. We studied serotonin’s involvement during collagen-induced arthritis in wild-type and Tph1−/− mice, which have markedly reduced peripheral serotonin levels. In wild-type mice, induction of arthritis triggered a robust increase in serotonin content in the paws combined with less inflammation. In Tph1−/− mice with arthritis, a marked increase in the clinical and pathologic arthritis scores was noticed. Specifically, in Tph1−/− mice with arthritis, a significant increase in osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption was observed with an increase in IL-17 levels in the paws and in Th17 lymphocytes in the draining lymph nodes, whereas T-regulatory cells were dampened. Ex vivo serotonin and agonists of the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors restored IL-17 secretion from splenocytes and Th17 cell differentiation in Tph1−/− mice. These findings indicate that serotonin plays a fundamental role in arthritis through the regulation of the Th17/T-regulatory cell balance and osteoclastogenesis.

“Serotonin Is Involved in Autoimmune Arthritis through Th17 Immunity and Bone Resorption” by Yasmine Chabbi-Achengli, Tereza Coman, Corinne Collet, Jacques Callebert, Michelangelo Corcelli, Hilène Lin, Rachel Rignault, Michel Dy, Marie-Christine de Vernejoul, and Francine Côté in American Journal of Pathology. Published online March 8 2016 doi:10.1016/j.ajpath.2015.11.018

Dr Mercola on eating right for the benefit of healthy gut

One of the reasons your gut has so much influence over your health has to do with the 100 trillion bacteria — about three pounds worth — that line your intestinal tract. This is an extremely complex living system that aggressively protects your body from outside offenders.

In fact, 80 percent of your immune system is located in your digestive system, so if your digestive system is crawling with unhealthy bacteria, there’s a good chance your immune system will be suppressed as a result.

The ratio between the “good” bacteria and the other bacteria is one of the critical factors determining your optimal health, as the good bacteria are essential for:

  • The proper development of your immune system
  • Protection against over-growth of other microorganisms that could cause disease
  • Digestion of food and absorption of nutrients

Why Else is it Important to Optimize Your Gut Bacteria?

Beyond the role gut flora has on your immune system, the probiotics in your gut also play a role in helping numerous bodily functions, such as:

  • Digesting and absorbing certain carbohydrates
  • Producing vitamins, absorbing minerals and eliminating toxins
  • Keeping bad bacteria under control
  • Preventing allergies. Friendly bacteria train your immune system to distinguish between pathogens and non-harmful antigens, and to respond appropriately.

The microflora in your digestive system is also emerging as a major player in weight management. A baby’s gut bacteria is linked to his or her future weight, and babies that are given the best start nutritionally by being breastfed (the source of your first immune-building good bacteria) also tend to have intestinal microflora in which beneficial bifidobacteria predominate over potentially harmful bacteria.

One Washington University professor likened the functioning of this gut microflora in your body to that of an ant farm that works together as an intelligence to perform an array of functions you’re unable to manage on your own.

One of those chores includes extracting calories from the foods you eat, and multiple studies have shown that obese people have different intestinal bacteria than slim people. It appears that the microbes in an overweight body are much more efficient at extracting calories from food.

So you can see that probiotics perform a wide variety of functions, which renders them useful and beneficial for a number of health concerns, including the prevention or control of:

What is the Best Way to Improve Your Gut Flora?

As the dietician in the above article pointed out, eating healthy foods designed for your nutritional type is the best way to maintain a healthy balance of good vs. bad bacteria in your digestive tract.

Part of “eating right” includes limiting sugars and grains. If you are eating as many sugars as the typical American then you are feeding the “bad” bacteria rather than promoting the “good” bacteria that help protect you from disease.

In addition to limiting the sugar and grains you eat, it’s also necessary to eat plenty of rich probiotic sources, and these come from fermented foods.

Fermented foods are part of nearly every traditional culture. As far back as Roman times, people ate sauerkraut because of its taste and benefits to overall health. In ancient Indian society it became commonplace (and still is) to enjoy a before-dinner yogurt drink called a lassi.

Bulgarians are known both for their longevity and their high consumption offermented milk and kefir. In Asian cultures, pickled fermentations of cabbage, turnips, eggplant, cucumbers, onions, squash and carrots still exist today. One such variety that I personally eat often is a type of fermented soy called natto.

If you eat a diet rich in fermented foods that have NOT been pasteurized (this will kill the probiotics), then you will likely enjoy great digestive health.

For ideas, some traditionally fermented foods you can try are:

  • Natto
  • Miso
  • Kimchee
  • Tempeh
  • Kefir
  • Yogurt
  • Olives
  • Sauerkraut
  • Pickles

It is important to note that traditionally fermented foods are not the equivalent of the same foods in commercially processed form. The best way to ensure you’re consuming the real thing is to prepare your own fermented foods at home, and Sally Fallon’s cookbook Nourishing Traditions is an excellent guide on how to do this.

You Might Not be Getting Enough Good Bacteria from the Food You Eat

If you eat a lot of processed foods or rely on mostly cooked foods, the balance of bacteria in your digestive tract will have a hard time staying optimal. And again, sugar is also an incredibly efficient fertilizer for growing bad bacteria and yeast in your gut, so if you indulge in a lot of it you’re fueling the bad bacteria.

Likewise, stress, pollution, and taking antibiotics can further upset your gut bacteria balance in a negative way.

So proper food choices will help shift the bacteria in your gut in the direction of the good guys, particularly if you avoid eating a lot of sugar and grains and eat plenty of fermented foods.

But, just like your lawn, sometimes you may need to “reseed” areas that have become barren for whatever reason.

This is why probiotics are one of only two supplements that are recommended to all new patients who come to the Natural Health Center (the other being an omega-3 fat supplement). It’s also one of the few supplements that I personally take every day.

Normally, you don’t need to take probiotics forever, but I have found them to be incredibly helpful at certain times, such as when you stray from your healthy diet and consume excess grains or sugar, or if you have to take antibiotics.

It’s also useful to take high-quality probiotics with you when you’re traveling in the event you get an infectious diarrhea. Typically, large doses of a high-quality probiotic — about one-half to one full bottle in one day — are quite useful for a rapid resolution of the diarrhea.

Healthy eating, not supplements, is the best way to keep the good bacteria in your gut healthy, says a dietitian and researcher. As with vitamins, it’s best to get the bacteria you need from healthy food rather than taking often expensive and potentially ineffective supplements, says Gail Cresci, Medical College of Georgia, dietitian and researcher.

She equates the good bacterium in your gastrointestinal tract to another living being inside that helps keeps you healthy.

“If you do good by your bacteria, they will do good by you,” Ms. Cresci says.

There is even mounting evidence that a healthy gut microbiota helps maintain a healthy weight. Studies have shown, for example, that when bacteria from a genetically fat mouse are placed in a lean germ-free mouse, it gains weight without changing its food intake.

Unfortunately poor diets are hurting the bacteria in many of us and the overuse of antibiotics is taking its toll as well, particularly the common, broad-spectrum antibiotics that wipe out anything in their path, good and bad bacteria included.

Cresci cites inadequate fiber and excess unhealthful fats as contributing to the problem, and states that a good daily diet has adequate high-quality protein, fiber, healthy fats and fresh fruits and vegetables.

Connie’s Comments: Sugar is food for cancer cells. Apple Cider Vinegar (organic, with mother) tsp in the morning is cleansing to the body.  Vinegar when eaten with foods help absorb the calcium in the food.

Wanted Sports Nutrition independent reps or Ambassador at USA, Sweden and Australia at http://gogyv.com/clubalthea/

Have your own site for free before end of August and invest in your health monthly for a favorite anti-aging supplements of athletes powered by Biogenesis. Email Connie ->  motherhealth@gmail.com or text 408-854-1883 for more info for your sports nutrition business online

Dr. Mercola’s top 5 tips that will help you beat the flu

Here are Dr. Mercola’s top 5 tips that will help you beat the flu:

  1. Get enough vitamin D – Dr. Mercola believes that lack of vitamin D is the likely cause of seasonal flu viruses. A recent large-scale study showed that people with low vitamin D levels were more prone to colds and bouts with the flu.
  2. Take a probiotic supplement and eat plenty of probiotic-rich fermented foods– Protect your gastrointestinal system because eighty percent of your immune system, your body’s natural defense against disease, is located in your gut.
  3. Eliminate or drastically reduce your sugar intake – Sugar is a natural enemy of your immune  system.
  4. Get enough sleep and rest – Listen to your body. Take a break when you need to because your body will easily succumb to the flu virus if you’re always fatigued.
  5. Manage your stress levels – A stressful lifestyle rarely leads to a healthy body. You can’t separate wellness from emotions. How you deal with stress directly affects your state of health.

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Add ginger, garlic, onions, turmeric and some essential oils such as eucalyptus, tea tree, clove, rosemary and peppermint. Connie

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Wanted Sports Nutrition independent reps or Ambassador at USA, Sweden and Australia at http://gogyv.com/cdellobuono/

Have your own site for free before end of August and invest in your health monthly for a favorite anti-aging supplements of athlete powered by Biogenesis. Email Connie ->  motherhealth@gmail.com or text 408-854-1883 for more info for your sports nutrition business online

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