Happy 21st birthday to my daughter Esther

Happy birthday Esther!

You are my confidant, my loving daughter and my inspiration.

I am glad you found your career goal to teach art to aspiring art students.

You help them prepare their portfolio so that they can get in to the best art school.

You have been advising your friends since you are in middle school and I am proud of the way you look at life and make decisions.

I am happy that you are working as an art teacher while completing your Art Education degree at the San Jose State University.

For you will be ahead of your peers in experience and being early to identify your life’s goals.

I always tell stories to my GFs how I delivered you at home with a nurse midwife and that it only took 30 minutes to push you.

I will always love you and forever.

Stay loving and caring always,

Mom Connie

esther bday

Pregnancy diet high in refined grains could increase child obesity risk by age 7, NIH study suggests

Wheat breaddanishc/iStock/Thinkstock

What

Children born to women with gestational diabetes whose diet included high proportions of refined grains may have a higher risk of obesity by age 7, compared to children born to women with gestational diabetes who ate low proportions of refined grains, according to results from a National Institutes of Health study. These findings, which appear online in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, were part of the Diabetes & Women’s Health Study, a research project led by NIH’s Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD).

Gestational diabetes, or high blood sugar during pregnancy, affects about 5 percent of all pregnancies in the United States and may lead to health problems for mothers and newborns. The authors noted that previous studies have linked diets high in refined grains — such as white rice — to obesity, type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

The researchers compared records from 918 mother-child pairs who took part in the Danish National Birth Cohort, a study that followed the pregnancies of more than 91,000 women in Denmark. They found that children born to women with gestational diabetes who consumed the most refined grain (more than 156 grams per day) were twice as likely to be obese at age 7, compared to children born to women with gestational diabetes who ate the least amount of refined grain (less than 37 grams per day). The link between maternal grain consumption during pregnancy and obesity by age 7 still persisted when the researchers controlled for factors that could potentially influence the children’s weight — such as physical activity level and consumption of vegetables, fruit and sweets. The authors called for additional studies to confirm their results and to follow children through later childhood, adolescence and adulthood to see if the obesity risk persists later in life.

Article

Zhu, Yeyi, et al.  Maternal dietary intakes of refined grains during pregnancy and growth through the first 7 years of life among children born to women with gestational diabetes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. doi:10.3945/ajcn.116.136291

Who

Cuilin Zhang, M.D., Ph.D, Epidemiology Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health.

Depression in Pregnancy and Low Birth Weight Tied to Biomarker

Summary: Researchers discover a link between low levels of BDNF protein, depression in pregnant women and low birth weight.

Source: Mediasource.

Depression is very common during pregnancy, with as many as one in seven women suffering from the illness and more than a half million women impacted by postpartum depression in the U.S. alone. The disorder not only affects the mother’s mood, but has also been linked to influencing the newborn’s development, according to recent research.

Lower blood levels of a biomarker called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been associated with depression in multiple studies, mainly in non-pregnant adults.

Now, in a study published in the journal Psychoneuroendocrinology, research from The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center found that BDNF levels change during pregnancy, and can cause depression in the mother and low birth weight in the baby.

“Our research shows BDNF levels change considerably across pregnancy and provide predictive value for depressive symptoms in women, as well as poor fetal growth. It’s notable that we observed a significant difference in BDNF in women of different races,” said Lisa M. Christian , an associate professor of psychiatry in the Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research at Ohio State’s Wexner Medical Center and principal investigator of the study.

Researchers took blood serum samples during and after pregnancy from 139 women and observed that BDNF levels dropped considerably from the first through the third trimesters, and subsequently increased at postpartum.

Image shows a pregnant woman.

Overall, black women exhibited significantly higher BDNF than white women during the perinatal period.

Controlling for race, lower BDNF levels at both the second and third trimesters predicted greater depressive symptoms in the third trimester. In addition, women delivering low versus healthy weight infants showed significantly lower BDNF in the third trimester, but didn’t differ in depressive symptoms at any point during pregnancy, which suggests separate effects.

“The good news is there are some good ways to address the issue,” Christian said. “Antidepressant medications have been shown to increase BDNF levels. This may be appropriate for some pregnant women, but is not without potential risks and side effects.”

“Luckily, another very effective way to increase BDNF levels is through exercise,” she said.” With approval from your physician, staying physically active during pregnancy can help maintain BDNF levels, which has benefits for a woman’s mood, as well as for her baby’s development.”

Other Ohio State researchers who participated in this study were Amanda M. Mitchell, Shannon L. Gillespie and Marilly Palettas.

ABOUT THIS NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH ARTICLE

Funding: Funding from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development supported this research.

Source: Drew Schaar – Mediasource
Image Source: NeuroscienceNews.com image is credited to The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center.
Video Source: Video credited to OSU Wexner Medical Center.
Original Research: Abstract for “Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) across pregnancy and postpartum: Associations with race, depressive symptoms, and low birth weight” by Lisa M. Christian, Amanda M. Mitchell, Shannon L. Gillespie, and Marilly Palettas in Psychoneuroendocrinology. Published online August 27 2016 doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2016.08.025

CITE THIS NEUROSCIENCENEWS.COM ARTICLE
Mediasource “Depression in Pregnancy and Low Birth Weight Tied to Biomarker.” NeuroscienceNews. NeuroscienceNews, 12 January 2017.
<http://neurosciencenews.com/bdnf-depression-weight-birth-5926/&gt;.

Abstract

Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) across pregnancy and postpartum: Associations with race, depressive symptoms, and low birth weight

Background
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated as a causal factor in major depression and is critical to placental development during pregnancy. Longitudinal data on BDNF across the perinatal period are lacking. These data are of interest given the potential implications for maternal mood and fetal growth, particularly among Black women who show ∼2-fold greater risk for delivering low birth weight infants.

Methods
Serum BDNF, serum cortisol, and depressive symptoms (per CES-D) were assessed during each trimester and 4–11 weeks postpartum among 139 women (77 Black, 62 White). Low birth weight (<2500 g) was determined via medical record. Results Serum BDNF declined considerably from 1st through 3rd trimesters (ps ≤ 0.008) and subsequently increased at postpartum (p < 0.001). Black women exhibited significantly higher serum BDNF during the 1st trimester, 2nd trimester, and postpartum (ps ≤ 0.032) as well as lower serum cortisol during the 2nd and 3rd trimester (ps ≤ 0.01). Higher serum cortisol was concurrently associated with lower serum BDNF in the 2nd trimester only (p < 0.05). Controlling for race, serum BDNF at both the 2nd and 3rd trimester was negatively associated with 3rd trimester depressive symptoms (ps ≤ 0.02). In addition, women delivering low versus healthy weight infants showed significantly lower serum BDNF in the 3rd trimester (p = 0.004). Women delivering low versus healthy weight infants did not differ in depressive symptoms at any time point during pregnancy (ps ≥ 0.34).

Conclusions
Serum BDNF declines considerably across pregnancy in Black and White women, with overall higher levels in Blacks. Lower serum BDNF in late pregnancy corresponds with higher depressive symptoms and risk for low birth weight in Black and White women. However, the predictive value of serum BDNF in pregnancy is specific to within-race comparisons. Potential links between racial differences in serum BDNF and differential pregnancy-related cortisol adaptation require further investigation.

“Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) across pregnancy and postpartum: Associations with race, depressive symptoms, and low birth weight” by Lisa M. Christian, Amanda M. Mitchell, Shannon L. Gillespie, and Marilly Palettas in Psychoneuroendocrinology. Published online August 27 2016 doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2016.08.025

Maternal Depression Across Child’s Early Years Impacts Neural Basis of Empathy

Summary: Children whose mothers experienced depression early in their life are more susceptable to socio-emotional problems and a reduction in empathy toward others, a new study reports.

Source: Elsevier.

Exposure to early and chronic maternal depression markedly increases a child’s susceptibility to psychopathology and social-emotional problems, including social withdrawal, poor emotion regulation, and reduced empathy to others. Since 15-18% of women in industrial societies and up to 30% in developing countries suffer from maternal depression, it is of clinical and public health concern to understand the effects of maternal depression on children’s development. A study published in the January 2017 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP) followed children of mothers with depression from birth to preadolescence and tested depression’s impact on children’s neural empathic response to others’ distress.

While previous studies have demonstrated the effects of maternal depression on children’s limited response to other’s pain, this new study is the first to examine this topic in a longitudinal sample of mother-child pairs followed from birth to age 11. This carefully selected sample of women with no comorbid contextual risk, who were repeatedly assessed for maternal depression across the first years of life, was utilized in order to compare children of mothers who were chronically depressed and children who were never exposed to any maternal psychopathology. 27 children of mothers with depression took part in the study, as well as 45 controls. They were home-visited at 9 months and 6 years to examine mother-child interaction patterns and were invited to a magnetoencephalography (MEG) session at age 11 in order to evaluate their neural reaction to pain in others.

“We were amazed to see that maternal depression in and of itself was related to differential neural processing of others’ pain in 11-year-old children. We found that the neural reaction to pain in children of depressed mothers stops earlier than in controls, in an area related to socio-cognitive processing, so that children of depressed mothers seem to reduce mentalizing-related processing of others’ pain, perhaps because of difficulty in regulating the high arousal associated with observing distress in others,” said Prof. Ruth Feldman, director of the Developmental Social Neuroscience Lab and the Irving B. Harris Early Childhood Community Clinic at Bar-Ilan University and lead author of the study.

The researchers also found that mother-child interaction patterns had a crucial role on this effect. When mother-child interactions were more synchronous, that is, mother and child were better attuned to one another, and when mothers were less intrusive, children showed higher mentalizing-related processing in this crucial brain area.

Image shows a crying woman.

“It is encouraging to see the role of mother-child interactions in our findings. Depressed mothers are repeatedly found to show less synchronous and more intrusive interactions with their children, and so it might explain some of the differences found between children of depressed mothers and their peer controls in our study,” added Prof. Feldman. “If so, our findings highlight a point of entry, where future interventions can focus their attention to help reduce the effects of maternal depression on children’s psychosocial development.”

Asked what next steps should be taken, Feldman responded: “The main clinical question now becomes: what strategies are most effective to improve mother-child interaction patterns for depressed mothers and their offspring. Moreover, if we are able to help these mothers be more attuned and less intrusive, will it be enough in order to enable resilience in the offspring? In addition, there are further scientific questions about the manner in which patterns of maternal care implement in the development of children’s brain, endocrine systems, behavior, and relationships.”

To that end, Feldman and her team are studying how maternal depression and mother-child interactions are associated with children’s stress hormones, behavioral empathy, hormones related to bond formation, and their neural reaction to affiliative cues. Feldman is planning to study intervention strategies that focus on the mother-child interaction pattern, and is hopeful that if successful, these strategies will improve mental health and social adjustment in children of mothers with depression. “Wouldn’t it be interesting and promising if an intervention focused on synchronous mother-child interactions could also reduce the prevalence of psychopathology in the children of depressed mothers?” she concluded.

ABOUT THIS GENETICS RESEARCH ARTICLE

Source: Mary Billingsley – Elsevier
Image Source: NeuroscienceNews.com image is in the public domain.
Original Research: Abstract for “Maternal Depression Across the First Years of Life Impacts the Neural Basis of Empathy in Preadolescence” by Maayan Pratt, MA, Abraham Goldstein, PhD, Jonathan Levy, PhD, Ruth Feldman, PhD in Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published online January 3 2017 doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2016.10.012

CITE THIS NEUROSCIENCENEWS.COM ARTICLE
Elsevier “Maternal Depression Across Child’s Early Years Impacts Neural Basis of Empathy.” NeuroscienceNews. NeuroscienceNews, 3 January 2017.
<http://neurosciencenews.com/maternal-depression-empathy-children-5851/&gt;.

Abstract

Maternal Depression Across the First Years of Life Impacts the Neural Basis of Empathy in Preadolescence

Objective
Exposure to maternal depression across the first years of life markedly increases children’s susceptibility to psychopathology, yet no study has tested its effects on the maturation of children’s social brain.

Method
Using a birth cohort of mothers with no contextual risk (N = 1,983), families were followed at 7 time points from birth to 11 years and repeatedly assessed for maternal depression across the first 6 years to form 2 cohorts: mothers continuously depressed from birth to 6 years and controls without depression. At 11 years of age, children’s (n = 72; depressed, n = 27; nondepressed, n = 45) brain response to others’ pain was measured by magnetoencephalography.

Results
Preadolescents displayed a unique oscillatory pattern with higher alpha power to pain versus no pain expressing as alpha rebound, not alpha suppression, at a late time window (1,100–1,300 ms post-stimulus) in the supplementary motor area. This suggests that top-down processing in areas of the pain matrix can underpin the maturation of vicarious empathy. Children of mothers with depression showed enhanced alpha rebound to pain in the right posterior superior temporal gyrus, which was unrelated to emotion detection abilities, pointing to decreased late processing of others’ overwhelming experiences in socio-cognitive areas. Alpha power in the posterior superior temporal gyrus was predicted by higher maternal intrusiveness and lower synchrony across early childhood.

Conclusion
These findings, from the first study to examine maternal depression and early caregiving as long-term predictors of children’s neural empathic response, pinpoint a decrease in top-down socio-cognitive mechanisms as potential pathways for the cross-generational transfer of vulnerability from mothers with depression to their offspring and highlight the need for early interventions focused on enhancing maternal attunement.

“Maternal Depression Across the First Years of Life Impacts the Neural Basis of Empathy in Preadolescence” by Maayan Pratt, MA, Abraham Goldstein, PhD, Jonathan Levy, PhD, Ruth Feldman, PhD in Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published online January 3 2017 doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2016.10.012

Babies Exposed to Stimulation Get a Brain Boost

Summary: Contrary to popular belief, exposing children to stimuli early can help to boost their development, researchers report.

Source: NTNU.

Many new parents still think that babies should develop at their own pace, and that they shouldn’t be challenged to do things that they’re not yet ready for. Infants should learn to roll around under their own power, without any “helpful” nudges, and they shouldn’t support their weight before they can stand or walk on their own. They mustn’t be potty trained before they are ready for it.

According to neuroscientist Audrey van der Meer, a professor at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) this mindset can be traced back to the early 1900s, when professionals were convinced that our genes determine who we are, and that child development occurred independently of the stimulation that a baby is exposed to. They believed it was harmful to hasten development, because development would and should happen naturally.

Early stimulation in the form of baby gym activities and early potty training play a central role in Asia and Africa. The old development theory also contrasts with modern brain research that shows that early stimulation contributes to brain development gains even in the wee ones among us.

Using the body and senses

Van der Meer is a professor of neuropsychology and has used advanced EEG technology for many years to study the brain activity of hundreds of babies.

The results show that the neurons in the brains of young children quickly increase in both number and specialization as the baby learns new skills and becomes more mobile. Neurons in very young children form up to a thousand new connections per second.

Van der Meer’s research also shows that the development of our brain, sensory perception and motor skills happen in sync. She believes that even the smallest babies must be challenged and stimulated at their level from birth onward. They need to engage their entire body and senses by exploring their world and different materials, both indoors and out and in all types of weather. She emphasizes that the experiences must be self-produced; it is not enough for children merely to be carried or pushed in a stroller.

Unused brain synapses disappear

“Many people believe that children up to three years old only need cuddles and nappy changes, but studies show that rats raised in cages have less dendritic branching in the brain than rats raised in an environment with climbing and hiding places and tunnels. Research also shows that children born into cultures where early stimulation is considered important, develop earlier than Western children do,” van der Meer says.

She adds that the brains of young children are very malleable, and can therefore adapt to what is happening around them. If the new synapses that are formed in the brain are not being used, they disappear as the child grows up and the brain loses some of its plasticity.

Van der Meer mentions the fact that Chinese babies hear a difference between the R and L sounds when they are four months old, but not when they get older. Since Chinese children do not need to distinguish between these sounds to learn their mother tongue, the brain synapses that carry this knowledge disappear when they are not used.

Loses the ability to distinguish between sounds

Babies actually manage to distinguish between the sounds of any language in the world when they are four months old, but by the time they are eight months old they have lost this ability, according to van der Meer.

In the 1970s, it was believed that children could only learn one language properly. Foreign parents were advised not to speak their native language to their children, because it could impede the child’s language development. Today we think completely differently, and there are examples of children who speak three, four or five languages fluently without suffering language confusion or delays.

Brain research suggests that in these cases the native language area in the brain is activated when children speak the languages. If we study a foreign language after the age of seven, other areas of the brain are used when we speak the language, explains Van der Meer.

She adds that it is important that children learn languages by interacting with real people.

“Research shows that children don’t learn language by watching someone talk on a screen, it has to be real people who expose them to the language,” says van der Meer.

Early intervention with the very young

Since a lot is happening in the brain during the first years of life, van der Meer says that it is easier to promote learning and prevent problems when children are very young.

The term “early intervention” keeps popping up in discussions of kindergartens and schools, teaching and learning. Early intervention is about helping children as early as possible to ensure that as many children as possible succeed in their education and on into adulthood – precisely because the brain has the greatest ability to change under the influence of the ambient conditions early in life.

“When I talk about early intervention, I’m not thinking of six-year-olds, but even younger children from newborns to age three. Today, 98 per cent of Norwegian children attend kindergarten, so the quality of the time that children spend there is especially important. I believe that kindergarten should be more than just a holding place – it should be a learning arena – and by that I mean that play is learning,” says van der Meer.

Too many untrained staff

She adds that a two-year old can easily learn to read or swim, as long as the child has access to letters or water. However, she does not want kindergarten to be a preschool, but rather a place where children can have varied experiences through play.

“This applies to both healthy children and those with different challenges. When it comes to children with motor challenges or children with impaired vision and hearing, we have to really work to bring the world to them,” says van der Meer.

“One-year-olds can’t be responsible for their own learning, so it’s up to the adults to see to it. Today untrained temporary staff tend to be assigned to the infant and toddler rooms, because it’s ‘less dangerous’ with the youngest ones since they only need cuddles and nappy changes. I believe that all children deserve teachers who understand how the brains of young children work. Today, Norway is the only one of 25 surveyed OECD countries where kindergarten teachers do not constitute 50 per cent of kindergarten staffing,” she said.

More children with special needs

Lars Adde is a specialist in paediatric physical therapy at St. Olavs Hospital and a researcher at NTNU’s Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children’s and Women’s Health. He works with young children who have special needs, in both his clinical practice and research.

Image shows a baby playing.

He believes it is important that all children are stimulated and get to explore the world, but this is especially important for children who have special challenges. He points out that a greater proportion of children that are now coming into the world in Norway have special needs.

“This is due to the rapid development in medical technology, which enables us to save many more children – like extremely premature babies and infants who get cancer. These children would have died 50 years ago, and today they survive – but often with a number of subsequent difficulties,” says Adde.

New knowledge offers better treatment

Adde says that the new understanding of brain development that has been established since the 1970s has given these children far better treatment and care options.

For example, the knowledge that some synapses in the brain are strengthened while others disappear has led to the understanding that we have to work at what we want to be good at – like walking. According to the old mindset, any general movement would provide good general motor function.

Babies who are born very prematurely at St. Olavs Hospital receive follow-up by an interdisciplinary team at the hospital and a municipal physiotherapist in their early years. Kindergarten staff where the child attends receive training in exactly how this child should be stimulated and challenged at the appropriate level. The follow-up enables a child with developmental delays to catch up quickly, so that measures can be implemented early – while the child’s brain is still very plastic.

A child may, for example, have a small brain injury that causes him to use his arms differently. Now we know that the brain connections that govern this arm become weaker when it is used less, which reinforces the reduced function.

“Parents may then be asked to put a sock on the “good” hand when their child uses his hands to play. Then the child is stimulated and the brain is challenged to start using the other arm,” says Adde.

Shouldn’t always rush development

Adde stresses that it is not always advisable to speed up the development of children with special needs who initially struggle with their motor skills.

A one–year old learning to walk first has to learn to find her balance. If the child is helped to standing position, she will eventually learn to stand – but before she has learned how to sit down again. If the child loses her balance, she’ll fall like a stiff cane, which can be both scary and counterproductive.

In that situation, “we might then ask the parents to instead help their child up to kneeling position while it holds onto something. Then the child will learn to stand up on its own. If the child falls, it will bend in the legs and tumble on its bum. Healthy children figure this out on their own, but children with special challenges don’t necessarily do this,” says Adde.

ABOUT THIS NEURODEVELOPMENT RESEARCH ARTICLE

Source: NTNU
Image Source: NeuroscienceNews.com image is in the public domain.
Original Research: Full open access research for “Development of Visual Motion Perception for Prospective Control: Brain and Behavioral Studies in Infants” by Seth B. Agyei, F. R. (Ruud) van der Weel and Audrey L. H. van der Meer in Frontiers in Psychology. Published online February 9 2016 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00100

Abstract for “Longitudinal study of preterm and full-term infants: High-density EEG analyses of cortical activity in response to visual motion” bySeth B. Agyei, F.R. (Ruud) van der Weel, Audrey L.H. van der Meer in Neuropsychologia. Published online April 2016 doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.02.001

CITE THIS NEUROSCIENCENEWS.COM ARTICLE
NTNU “Babies Exposed to Stimulation Get a Brain Boost.” NeuroscienceNews. NeuroscienceNews, 30 January 2017.
<http://neurosciencenews.com/baby-stimulation-neurodevelopment-5844/&gt;.

Abstract

Development of Visual Motion Perception for Prospective Control: Brain and Behavioral Studies in Infants

During infancy, smart perceptual mechanisms develop allowing infants to judge time-space motion dynamics more efficiently with age and locomotor experience. This emerging capacity may be vital to enable preparedness for upcoming events and to be able to navigate in a changing environment. Little is known about brain changes that support the development of prospective control and about processes, such as preterm birth, that may compromise it. As a function of perception of visual motion, this paper will describe behavioral and brain studies with young infants investigating the development of visual perception for prospective control. By means of the three visual motion paradigms of occlusion, looming, and optic flow, our research shows the importance of including behavioral data when studying the neural correlates of prospective control.

“Development of Visual Motion Perception for Prospective Control: Brain and Behavioral Studies in Infants” by Seth B. Agyei, F. R. (Ruud) van der Weel and Audrey L. H. van der Meer in Frontiers in Psychology. Published online February 9 2016 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00100


Abstract

Longitudinal study of preterm and full-term infants: High-density EEG analyses of cortical activity in response to visual motion

Electroencephalogram (EEG) was used to investigate brain electrical activity of full-term and preterm infants at 4 and 12 months of age as a functional response mechanism to structured optic flow and random visual motion. EEG data were recorded with an array of 128-channel sensors. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and temporal spectral evolution (TSE, time-dependent amplitude changes) were analysed. VEP results showed a significant improvement in full-term infants’ latencies with age for forwards and reversed optic flow but not random visual motion. Full-term infants at 12 months significantly differentiated between the motion conditions, with the shortest latency observed for forwards optic flow and the longest latency for random visual motion, while preterm infants did not improve their latencies with age, nor were they able to differentiate between the motion conditions at 12 months. Differences in induced activities were also observed where comparisons between TSEs of the motion conditions and a static non-flow pattern showed desynchronised theta-band activity in both full-term and preterm infants, with synchronised alpha-beta band activity observed only in the full-term infants at 12 months. Full-term infants at 12 months with a substantial amount of self-produced locomotor experience and neural maturation coupled with faster oscillating cell assemblies, rely on the perception of structured optic flow to move around efficiently in the environment. The poorer responses in the preterm infants could be related to impairment of the dorsal visual stream specialized in the processing of visual motion.

“Longitudinal study of preterm and full-term infants: High-density EEG analyses of cortical activity in response to visual motion” bySeth B. Agyei, F.R. (Ruud) van der Weel, Audrey L.H. van der Meer in Neuropsychologia. Published online April 2016 doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.02.001