Babies Exposed to Stimulation Get a Brain Boost

Summary: Contrary to popular belief, exposing children to stimuli early can help to boost their development, researchers report.

Source: NTNU.

Many new parents still think that babies should develop at their own pace, and that they shouldn’t be challenged to do things that they’re not yet ready for. Infants should learn to roll around under their own power, without any “helpful” nudges, and they shouldn’t support their weight before they can stand or walk on their own. They mustn’t be potty trained before they are ready for it.

According to neuroscientist Audrey van der Meer, a professor at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) this mindset can be traced back to the early 1900s, when professionals were convinced that our genes determine who we are, and that child development occurred independently of the stimulation that a baby is exposed to. They believed it was harmful to hasten development, because development would and should happen naturally.

Early stimulation in the form of baby gym activities and early potty training play a central role in Asia and Africa. The old development theory also contrasts with modern brain research that shows that early stimulation contributes to brain development gains even in the wee ones among us.

Using the body and senses

Van der Meer is a professor of neuropsychology and has used advanced EEG technology for many years to study the brain activity of hundreds of babies.

The results show that the neurons in the brains of young children quickly increase in both number and specialization as the baby learns new skills and becomes more mobile. Neurons in very young children form up to a thousand new connections per second.

Van der Meer’s research also shows that the development of our brain, sensory perception and motor skills happen in sync. She believes that even the smallest babies must be challenged and stimulated at their level from birth onward. They need to engage their entire body and senses by exploring their world and different materials, both indoors and out and in all types of weather. She emphasizes that the experiences must be self-produced; it is not enough for children merely to be carried or pushed in a stroller.

Unused brain synapses disappear

“Many people believe that children up to three years old only need cuddles and nappy changes, but studies show that rats raised in cages have less dendritic branching in the brain than rats raised in an environment with climbing and hiding places and tunnels. Research also shows that children born into cultures where early stimulation is considered important, develop earlier than Western children do,” van der Meer says.

She adds that the brains of young children are very malleable, and can therefore adapt to what is happening around them. If the new synapses that are formed in the brain are not being used, they disappear as the child grows up and the brain loses some of its plasticity.

Van der Meer mentions the fact that Chinese babies hear a difference between the R and L sounds when they are four months old, but not when they get older. Since Chinese children do not need to distinguish between these sounds to learn their mother tongue, the brain synapses that carry this knowledge disappear when they are not used.

Loses the ability to distinguish between sounds

Babies actually manage to distinguish between the sounds of any language in the world when they are four months old, but by the time they are eight months old they have lost this ability, according to van der Meer.

In the 1970s, it was believed that children could only learn one language properly. Foreign parents were advised not to speak their native language to their children, because it could impede the child’s language development. Today we think completely differently, and there are examples of children who speak three, four or five languages fluently without suffering language confusion or delays.

Brain research suggests that in these cases the native language area in the brain is activated when children speak the languages. If we study a foreign language after the age of seven, other areas of the brain are used when we speak the language, explains Van der Meer.

She adds that it is important that children learn languages by interacting with real people.

“Research shows that children don’t learn language by watching someone talk on a screen, it has to be real people who expose them to the language,” says van der Meer.

Early intervention with the very young

Since a lot is happening in the brain during the first years of life, van der Meer says that it is easier to promote learning and prevent problems when children are very young.

The term “early intervention” keeps popping up in discussions of kindergartens and schools, teaching and learning. Early intervention is about helping children as early as possible to ensure that as many children as possible succeed in their education and on into adulthood – precisely because the brain has the greatest ability to change under the influence of the ambient conditions early in life.

“When I talk about early intervention, I’m not thinking of six-year-olds, but even younger children from newborns to age three. Today, 98 per cent of Norwegian children attend kindergarten, so the quality of the time that children spend there is especially important. I believe that kindergarten should be more than just a holding place – it should be a learning arena – and by that I mean that play is learning,” says van der Meer.

Too many untrained staff

She adds that a two-year old can easily learn to read or swim, as long as the child has access to letters or water. However, she does not want kindergarten to be a preschool, but rather a place where children can have varied experiences through play.

“This applies to both healthy children and those with different challenges. When it comes to children with motor challenges or children with impaired vision and hearing, we have to really work to bring the world to them,” says van der Meer.

“One-year-olds can’t be responsible for their own learning, so it’s up to the adults to see to it. Today untrained temporary staff tend to be assigned to the infant and toddler rooms, because it’s ‘less dangerous’ with the youngest ones since they only need cuddles and nappy changes. I believe that all children deserve teachers who understand how the brains of young children work. Today, Norway is the only one of 25 surveyed OECD countries where kindergarten teachers do not constitute 50 per cent of kindergarten staffing,” she said.

More children with special needs

Lars Adde is a specialist in paediatric physical therapy at St. Olavs Hospital and a researcher at NTNU’s Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children’s and Women’s Health. He works with young children who have special needs, in both his clinical practice and research.

Image shows a baby playing.

He believes it is important that all children are stimulated and get to explore the world, but this is especially important for children who have special challenges. He points out that a greater proportion of children that are now coming into the world in Norway have special needs.

“This is due to the rapid development in medical technology, which enables us to save many more children – like extremely premature babies and infants who get cancer. These children would have died 50 years ago, and today they survive – but often with a number of subsequent difficulties,” says Adde.

New knowledge offers better treatment

Adde says that the new understanding of brain development that has been established since the 1970s has given these children far better treatment and care options.

For example, the knowledge that some synapses in the brain are strengthened while others disappear has led to the understanding that we have to work at what we want to be good at – like walking. According to the old mindset, any general movement would provide good general motor function.

Babies who are born very prematurely at St. Olavs Hospital receive follow-up by an interdisciplinary team at the hospital and a municipal physiotherapist in their early years. Kindergarten staff where the child attends receive training in exactly how this child should be stimulated and challenged at the appropriate level. The follow-up enables a child with developmental delays to catch up quickly, so that measures can be implemented early – while the child’s brain is still very plastic.

A child may, for example, have a small brain injury that causes him to use his arms differently. Now we know that the brain connections that govern this arm become weaker when it is used less, which reinforces the reduced function.

“Parents may then be asked to put a sock on the “good” hand when their child uses his hands to play. Then the child is stimulated and the brain is challenged to start using the other arm,” says Adde.

Shouldn’t always rush development

Adde stresses that it is not always advisable to speed up the development of children with special needs who initially struggle with their motor skills.

A one–year old learning to walk first has to learn to find her balance. If the child is helped to standing position, she will eventually learn to stand – but before she has learned how to sit down again. If the child loses her balance, she’ll fall like a stiff cane, which can be both scary and counterproductive.

In that situation, “we might then ask the parents to instead help their child up to kneeling position while it holds onto something. Then the child will learn to stand up on its own. If the child falls, it will bend in the legs and tumble on its bum. Healthy children figure this out on their own, but children with special challenges don’t necessarily do this,” says Adde.

ABOUT THIS NEURODEVELOPMENT RESEARCH ARTICLE

Source: NTNU
Image Source: NeuroscienceNews.com image is in the public domain.
Original Research: Full open access research for “Development of Visual Motion Perception for Prospective Control: Brain and Behavioral Studies in Infants” by Seth B. Agyei, F. R. (Ruud) van der Weel and Audrey L. H. van der Meer in Frontiers in Psychology. Published online February 9 2016 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00100

Abstract for “Longitudinal study of preterm and full-term infants: High-density EEG analyses of cortical activity in response to visual motion” bySeth B. Agyei, F.R. (Ruud) van der Weel, Audrey L.H. van der Meer in Neuropsychologia. Published online April 2016 doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.02.001

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Abstract

Development of Visual Motion Perception for Prospective Control: Brain and Behavioral Studies in Infants

During infancy, smart perceptual mechanisms develop allowing infants to judge time-space motion dynamics more efficiently with age and locomotor experience. This emerging capacity may be vital to enable preparedness for upcoming events and to be able to navigate in a changing environment. Little is known about brain changes that support the development of prospective control and about processes, such as preterm birth, that may compromise it. As a function of perception of visual motion, this paper will describe behavioral and brain studies with young infants investigating the development of visual perception for prospective control. By means of the three visual motion paradigms of occlusion, looming, and optic flow, our research shows the importance of including behavioral data when studying the neural correlates of prospective control.

“Development of Visual Motion Perception for Prospective Control: Brain and Behavioral Studies in Infants” by Seth B. Agyei, F. R. (Ruud) van der Weel and Audrey L. H. van der Meer in Frontiers in Psychology. Published online February 9 2016 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00100


Abstract

Longitudinal study of preterm and full-term infants: High-density EEG analyses of cortical activity in response to visual motion

Electroencephalogram (EEG) was used to investigate brain electrical activity of full-term and preterm infants at 4 and 12 months of age as a functional response mechanism to structured optic flow and random visual motion. EEG data were recorded with an array of 128-channel sensors. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and temporal spectral evolution (TSE, time-dependent amplitude changes) were analysed. VEP results showed a significant improvement in full-term infants’ latencies with age for forwards and reversed optic flow but not random visual motion. Full-term infants at 12 months significantly differentiated between the motion conditions, with the shortest latency observed for forwards optic flow and the longest latency for random visual motion, while preterm infants did not improve their latencies with age, nor were they able to differentiate between the motion conditions at 12 months. Differences in induced activities were also observed where comparisons between TSEs of the motion conditions and a static non-flow pattern showed desynchronised theta-band activity in both full-term and preterm infants, with synchronised alpha-beta band activity observed only in the full-term infants at 12 months. Full-term infants at 12 months with a substantial amount of self-produced locomotor experience and neural maturation coupled with faster oscillating cell assemblies, rely on the perception of structured optic flow to move around efficiently in the environment. The poorer responses in the preterm infants could be related to impairment of the dorsal visual stream specialized in the processing of visual motion.

“Longitudinal study of preterm and full-term infants: High-density EEG analyses of cortical activity in response to visual motion” bySeth B. Agyei, F.R. (Ruud) van der Weel, Audrey L.H. van der Meer in Neuropsychologia. Published online April 2016 doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.02.001

Fetal alcohol syndrome

fasExposure of fetus to alcohol

Although most nutrients are affected by alcohol intake, specific nutrients noted from numerous studies are thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-12, vitamin E, selenium, vitamin A, vitamin C, folic acid, vitamin D, zinc, and a few trace minerals. Alcohol is metabolized within hepatocytes by 1 of the 3 following pathways:

  • Alcohol dehydrogenase pathway (ADH): The first pathway, known as ADH, occurs in the cytosol of the hepatocyte (Fig. 2). ADH metabolizes ethanol to acetaldehyde, which is subsequently converted into acetic acid in mitochondria (20). In the ADH pathway, ethanol competes with vitamin A, or retinol, for metabolism because both substrates are metabolized by the same pathway (this is discussed later). Ultimately, ethanol is oxidized, which leads to the production of acetaldehyde and large amounts of NADH.

Alcohol effects on vitamin A

Alcohol consumption during pregnancy depletes maternal vitamin A stores, which can interrupt normal cell growth of the fetus. The proposed mechanism for this is that when both retinol and alcohol are present, ADH involved in the rate-limiting step of retinol oxidation has a higher affinity to alcohol, therefore preferentially metabolizing alcohol instead of retinol. This results in a deficiency in retinoic acid synthesis (39, 40), which is required to signal and control the cells involved in fetal development, organogenesis, organ homeostasis, cell and neuronal growth and differentiation, development of the CNS, and limb morphogenesis (16, 40).

DHA

DHA is highly important during fetal development because it plays an essential role in cognitive and visual development, as well as the development of the CNS (53, 54). DHA is also a precursor of a potent neurotrophic factor (neuroprotectin D1), which protects the brain and retina against injury-induced oxidative stress and enhances cell survivals in these tissues. Thus, it is recognized as a conditionally essential nutrient for infants. There is no RDA for DHA, but the Adequate Intake (AI) for n–3 FAs for pregnancy is 1.4 g/d (55). DHA is esterified to membrane phospholipids to maintain optimal fluidity and cellular integrity. Among phospholipids, phosphatidylserine has been the most studied in association with CNS development (54, 56, 57). Optimal neuronal development of the fetus is dependent on maternal intake and dietary status of DHA. In humans, the accumulation and integration of DHA into phosphatidylserine and cell membranes occurs from 16 wk to term and continues into the early postnatal development period (53). It is specifically during the last trimester in which DHA is rapidly incorporated into phosphatidylserine synthesis and storage in the hippocampus, because it is during this period in which human brain growth rapidly occurs (57, 58).

Folate (folic acid)

Folic acid, a water-soluble vitamin, has been identified as an essential nutrient that may provide a protective effect against gestational ethanol exposure. For folic acid to become metabolically active, it must be reduced to tetrahydrofolic acid (FH4) as a carrier for single-carbon moieties. FH4 is involved in the biosynthesis of the DNA and RNA precursors thymidylate and purine bases (64). Therefore, adequate maternal folic acid status is integral for optimal fetal growth and development. During pregnancy, the demand for folic acid is increased because it is not only required to support the mother for increased RBC formation but also to support the rapid growth of the fetus, including neural tube formation (65). The RDA for folic acid during pregnancy is 600 μg/d (66), and dietary sources are found in green leafy vegetables, beef, liver, pulses, and foods produced from whole wheat.

Alcohol effects on zinc

Alcohol consumption on a chronic basis itself reduces the availability of zinc because there is decreased intake and absorption and increased urinary excretion. When acute zinc deficiency occurs as a result of ethanol exposure, metallothionein, a low-molecular-weight protein body, sequesters plasma zinc to the liver, resulting in a reduction in plasma zinc. This leads to decreased amounts available for placental transport, resulting in fetal zinc deficiency (81, 82).

Choline

Choline and its metabolites are invaluable in neurotransmission (acetylcholine), structural integrity of cell plasma membranes (phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin), and cell signaling and in folate-independent pathways as a methyl donor via its metabolite, betaine (42, 90). This nutrient is the most-studied nutrient related to brain development and memory function and has been classified as an essential nutrient by the Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences in the United States (66).

Choline supplementation in animal models

A recent study looked at the effect of choline supplementation on specific neurons that are altered in FASD (94). Pregnant rat dams were fed an alcohol-containing liquid diet or a control diet during GDs 7 and 21 with or without choline (642 mg/L choline chloride). The results showed that gestational choline supplementation prevented the adverse effects of alcohol on the neurons (Table 1) (94). Previous research from Thomas and colleagues (9599) showed that perinatal choline supplementation can reduce the severity of FASD—specifically, hyperactivity and learning deficits in the rat model. The authors found that choline chloride supplementation (250 mg · kg−1 · d−1 choline chloride) prevented ethanol-induced alterations in tasks that require behavioral flexibility such as spontaneous alternation behavior and memory (Table 1) (98).

Antioxidants

Antioxidants are compounds that are produced to scavenge free radicals and other compounds that threaten cellular oxidation. Cells can neutralize and scavenge reactive oxygen species through the enzymatic activity of SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase. Nutrients such as folate, vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin E (α-tocopherol), selenium, and zinc are important contributors to antioxidant activity.

Selenium

Selenium is a micronutrient that serves as an important component for the generation of the enzyme GPx. GPx inhibits oxidation because it is involved in scavenging free radicals, specifically hydrogen peroxide, and converting them to harmless products such as water. Selenium-based GPx primarily is active within the cytosol or the mitochondria. The amount of selenium obtained from the diet is based on the amount in the soil or water where the food source was grown. Once consumed, it is predominantly stored in the liver, because alcohol metabolism in the liver produces various reactive oxygen species and free radicals. The RDA for selenium during pregnancy is 60 μg/d (105).

Alcohol effects on selenium.

Typically, selenium deposits and plasma concentratons are low in chronic alcoholics because of decreased dietary intake and increased production of free radicals resulting from alcohol metabolism (107). However, selenium concentrations in the plasma were reported to be increased and were significantly greater in women who drank heavily, defined as >140 g/wk, during their pregnancy in comparison to abstinent women and those who consumed alcohol moderately (108).

http://advances.nutrition.org/content/5/6/675.full#sec-40

How dangerous is it to be around a bunch of unvaccinated kids? What about while pregnant?

My answer to How dangerous is it to be around a bunch of unvaccinated kids? What about while pregnant?

Answer by Connie b. Dellobuono:

More dangerous to touch cat’s feces.

Up your immune system with sleep, massage,sunshine,Vit C and zinc, massage,and other de-stressful ways (laughter,music)

How dangerous is it to be around a bunch of unvaccinated kids? What about while pregnant?

answer

Pregnancy changes the brain for as long as two years

For the first time, scientists have found evidence of specific and long-lasting changes in the brains of pregnant women. The changes were measured in brain areas that are responsible for social cognition and the ability to understand the thoughts and intentions of others, suggesting that they may intensify maternal bonding with a newborn.

The neuroimaging study, conducted in Spain, was prospective, looking at the brains of 25 first-time mothers before and after pregnancy, and again two years after the women gave birth. The researchers compared the brain images of these new mothers to those of 19 first-time fathers, as well as 17 men and 20 women without children. The pattern of structural changes the researchers observed in the new mothers were so distinct that it was possible to identify the mothers just from their brain scans. Those changes endured for at least two years, except for a partial return to its previous state in the hippocampus, a brain structure heavily involved with memory.

The MRI study showed changes in gray matter, the outer layer of the brain that contains the cell bodies of neurons. The gray matter in certain areas shrunk in size after pregnancy, a phenomenon known as “gray matter pruning.” A similar shrinkage is seen in early childhood and during adolescence. The gray matter contains many interconnections among neurons, and during pruning, the most important connections are strengthened and the others are left to wither. Rather than indicating a loss of ability, pruning is generally taken to mean that a brain region has become more specialized.

The researchers also found that some women had more gray matter pruning than others, and those with the most pruning seemed to bond best with their babies. “The gray matter volume changes of pregnancy significantly predicted the quality of mother-to-infant attachment and the absence of hostility toward their newborns in the postpartum period,” the authors wrote in a study published Monday in Nature Neuroscience.

In a further experiment, the researchers showed women pictures of several babies and found, unsurprisingly, that the women’s brains responded more strongly to photos of their own babies. The brain images, they said, revealed “the strongest neural activity in response to the women’s babies corresponded to regions that lost gray matter volume across pregnancy.”

Pregnancy is associated with a surge of sex hormones akin to the heightened production of sex hormones during puberty. The researchers noted that gray matter also is pruned during adolescence, when a spectrum of emotional, cognitive and behavioral neural changes begin to fine tune the teenage brain.

Cordelia Fine, a psychologist at the University of Melbourne who had no part in this research, said that “this is a solid study,” despite the small sample size. Fine has written several books about gender and how male-female differences are often overstated in science. “The authors are appropriately careful not to conclude that the brain changes they observe are caused by hormones (or by hormones alone), since they don’t show this directly. However, this is certainly a plausible hypothesis.”

Fine cautions that the brain areas identified by the scientists are also responsible for other functions, not simply attachment. A more significant caveat, she said, is that while the authors of the study “speculate that the structural brain changes they see underlie maturation” of neural networks that “could facilitate attachment . . . it’s worth noting that the authors measured empathy before and after pregnancy, and found no change.”

According to the authors of the study, these brain changes may “serve an adaptive purpose for pending motherhood,” that is, the stronger the mother-child attachment, the greater chance the child survives.

Before, during and after pregnancy diet

Many tumors in young children might be influenced by the environment in utero and months before conception.

Some drugs or medications linger in a woman’s body months before conception. During the first trimester, a miscarriage is possible when the embryo or fetus is not completely formed (nervous system and major organs).

A study related the older age of a man who is alcoholic and young age (of mother with borderline diabetes) to the chance of having a baby with bipolar disorder.

Older women tend to have higher IQ babies. But I believe that nurture during and after the birth of the baby helps in ensuring healthy and growing cells.  I massaged my babies during the first year of their lives before each bath.

In cases of SID, blue babies or newborn who have difficulty breathing during labor and after birth or did not breath at all, they are greatly influenced by the environment (healthy mother with no environmental toxins) during pregnancy.

One mile walk a day (mother) can prevent a long labor and provide oxygenation to the growing baby. During labor, be in seated (sideways) or upright, incorporate deep belly breaths in between contractions and have a helper pressed your ankle to facilitate labor.

Any drugs, legal, OTC, prescribed, alcohol, toxic foods, pools with fungus,molds, parasites or bacteria, cat poops and other toxins can affect the growing fetus.

Pregnant mother’s diet

  • Fresh whole foods, avoiding crustaceans since they are bottom feeders and tend to soak up more toxins
  • Avoid too much consumption of sugar, alcohol and salt in the absence of fiber-rich veggies
  • Avoid medications, drugs, alcohol and smoking
  • Get some nature walks, sunshine
  • Cooked green veggies every day if possible
  • During the first trimester, eat more greens and proteins and more healthy carbs during the last trimester
  • Eat iron rich food during the last trimester such as greens, mollases, dark chocolates, raisins, liver and meat (Liquid Fluradix supplement from whole foods or chelated iron can be used if needed based on blood tests)
  • Lemon and vinegar helps in the absorption of nutrients from whole foods
  • Take probiotics or prepare a homemade pickled veggies
  • Make your own fresh squeezed veggies juice if possible
  • Wash fresh produce with salt water and/or diluted vinegar

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Alter Thyroid Levels in Pregnancy and May Affect Fetal Brain Development

A new study led by biologist R. Thomas Zoeller of the University of Massachusetts Amherst provides “the strongest evidence to date” that endocrine disrupting chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) found in flame retardant cloth, paint, adhesives and electrical transformers, can interfere with thyroid hormone action in pregnant women and may travel across the placenta to affect the fetus.

Results appeared in an early online edition and in the December print edition of the Endocrine Society’s Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. The paper was honored this week as an “extramural paper of the month” by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

Zoeller says, “As endocrine-disrupting chemicals, PCBs interfere with the way the thyroid hormone functions, but they don’t actually change the amount of the hormone found in the body. Although these effects are largely invisible in scientific studies that only judge thyroid activity by measuring hormone levels, they may be having a real impact on infants’ brain development.”

Although endocrine-disrupting PCBs were banned in the United States in 1979, they are still released into the environment from disposal sites or products manufactured before the ban. Most people have been exposed to low levels of PCBs, Zoeller points out.

In this prospective birth cohort study, he and colleagues looked at the effects of low-dose chemical exposure in 164 pregnant women. Tissue from their placentas, the uterine structure that provides oxygen and nutrients to the fetus, was analyzed for a specific enzyme, CYP1A1, which changes endocrine-disrupting chemicals into a form that can interfere directly with the body’s thyroid hormone receptors.

This work was a collaboration between scientists in the biology department at UMass Amherst and physician scientists led by Larissa Takser at the University of Sherbrooke, Québec, who collected placental tissue from a large epidemiological study. Biochemistry and experimental work conducted at Zoeller’s UMass Amherst laboratory over the past decade provided the framework for the analyses. “This led us to predict specific molecular events that might be occurring in the placenta,” he notes, “and as best as we can tell right now, we were correct.”

The image shows a pregnant woman. A ultrasound scan of a baby is layered on to her stomach.

Zoeller and colleagues found that in pregnancies where the placenta contained higher levels of CYP1A1, it also showed signs of thyroid disruption. Levels of two thyroid-regulated genes tended to be higher in these pregnancies, although the mother’s overall thyroid hormone levels did not change.

“Whatever is happening in the placenta likely reflects what is happening in the fetus,” says Zoeller. “To truly understand how endocrine-disrupting chemicals may be affecting pregnancies, the findings show we need to study not only hormone levels, but hormone activity at the cellular level.”

The effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals may be particularly insidious in people who smoke, Zoeller said. The enzyme CYP1A1 is supposed to clean the blood, and the body produces more of this enzyme when it is exposed to cigarette smoke. The researchers found pregnant women who smoked tended to have higher levels of the enzyme in the placental tissue.

ABOUT THIS NEURODEVELOPMENT RESEARCH

In addition to Zoeller, other authors at UMass Amherst are Thomas Luke Wadzinski, Katherine Geromini, Judy McKinley Brewer and Ruby Bansal, with Nadia Abdelouahab and Marie-France Langlois in addition to Takser at the University of Sherbrooke.

Contact: Janet Lathrop – University of Massachusetts Amherst
Source: University of Massachusetts Amherst press release
Image Source: The image is credited to Skitterphoto and is in the public domain
Original Research: Abstract for “Endocrine Disruption in Human Placenta: Expression of the Dioxin-Inducible Enzyme, Cyp1a1, Is Correlated With That of Thyroid Hormone-Regulated Genes” by Thomas L. Wadzinski, Katherine Geromini, Judy McKinley Brewer, Ruby Bansal, Nadia Abdelouahab, Marie-France Langlois, Larissa Takser and R. Thomas Zoeller in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. Published online October 9 2014 doi:10.1210/jc.2014-2629