Anti-inflammatory diet relieves pain

pain-foodWhole foods that contain the following foods and herbs have anti-inflammatory properties, relieve pain and promote cell growth and repair.

Pain can be remedied with healthy whole food diet of foods and spices such as:


Studies have linked turmeric to reduced inflammation in a number of conditions, including psoriasis. The chemical responsible for turmeric’s golden color, called curcumin, is considered a top anticancer agent, helping to quell the inflammation that contributes to tumor growth and working in much the same way as broccoli and cauliflower to clear carcinogens away before they can damage cellular DNA and to repair already damaged DNA.


Cayenne is thought to act as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Capsaicin, the oily compound in cayenne and its peppery cousins, is the active ingredient in many prescription and over-the-counter creams, ointments, and patches for arthritis and muscle pain.


Garlic has proven anti-inflammatory properties, and could be useful in relieving uncomfortable psoriasis outbreaks.

Olive oil

  • The quality of olive oil production—especially the stage of pressing—really does make a difference when it comes to health benefits. Recent studies have compared the anti-inflammatory benefits of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) obtained from the first pressing of the oil to the anti-inflammatory benefits of virgin olive oils (non-EVOO) obtained from later pressings. What researchers found was an ability of EVOO to lower inflammatory markers in the blood when non-EVOOs were unable to do so. (Study measurements included blood levels of thromboxane A2, or TXA2, and leukotriene B2, or LBT2.) This ability of extra virgin olive oil to help protect against unwanted inflammation is not surprising, since EVOO is known to contain stronger concentrations of phytonutrients (especially polyphenols) that have well-known anti-inflammatory properties.
  • Mediterranean Diet studies have long associated olive oil intake with decreased risk of heart disease. However, a recent group of studies has provided us with a fascinating explanation of olive oil’s cardioprotective effect. One of the key polyphenols in olive oil—hydroxytyrosol (HT)—helps protect the cells that line our blood vessels from being damaged by overly reactive oxygen molecules. HT helps protect the blood vessel cells by triggering changes at a genetic level. The genetic changes triggered by HT help the blood vessel cells to enhance their antioxidant defense system. In other words, olive oil supports our blood vessels not only by providing antioxidants like like vitamin E and beta-carotene. Olive oil also provides our blood vessels with unique molecules like HT that actually work at a genetic level to help the cellular walls of the blood vessels remain strong.
  • Olive oil has long been recognized for its high percentage of monounsaturated fat. This plant contains between 70-85% of its fat in the form of oleic acid – a monounsaturated, omega-9 fatty acid. As a concentrated source of monounsaturated fat, olive oil actually has some good company in the plant oil department. Three increasingly popular plant oils that immediate come to mind in this respect are high-oleic safflower oil, high-oleic sunflower oil, and avocado oil. The total fat content in each of these oils can rise to 70% or more in terms of monounsaturated fat. (Canola oil usually drops this percentage one step lower, with its monounsaturated fat content typically falling into the 60-65% range. And some popular plant oils drop the monounsaturated fat content down a lot more. Corn oil, for example, is usually 25-30% monounsaturated, and coconut oil is even lower at 5-7%.)When diets low in monounsaturated fat are altered to increase the monounsaturated fat content (by replacing other oils with olive oil), research study participants tend to experience a significant decrease in their total blood cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and LDL:HDL ratio. Recent research studies have taken these heart-healthy effects of olive oil one step further. Olive oil’s monounsaturated fat content (specifically, its high level of oleic acid) has now been determined to be a mechanism linking olive oil intake to decreased blood pressure. Researchers believe that the plentiful amount of oleic acid in olive oil gets absorbed into the body, finds its way into cell membranes, changes signaling patterns at a cell membrane level (specifically, altering G-protein associated cascades) and thereby lowers blood pressure. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the monounsaturated fat content of olive oil has been linked not only to cholesterol reduction, but also to reduction of blood pressure.
  • Cancer prevention has been one of the most active areas of olive oil research, and the jury is no longer out on the health benefits of olive oil with respect to cancer. Twenty-five studies on olive oil intake and cancer risk—including most of the large-scale human studies conducted up through the year 2010—have recently been analyzed by a team of researchers at the Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research Institute in Milan, Italy. Firmly established by this research team were the risk-reducing effects of olive oil intake with respect to cancers of the breast, respiratory tract, upper digestive tract and, to a lesser extent, lower digestive tract (colorectal cancers). These anti-cancer benefits of olive oil became most evident when the diets of routine olive oil users were compared with the diets of individuals who seldom used olive oil and instead consumed diets high in saturated added fat, especially butter.


Although scientific data is limited, some experts believe consuming pineapple may defend against osteoarthritis and possibly improve symptoms. The pineapple enzyme bromelain is thought to alleviate swelling associated with osteoarthritis, because this compound has demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity in laboratory research.

Soy (whole foods)

People with knee pain reported less discomfort and used fewer pain meds after eating soy protein every day for three months, according to Oklahoma State University research. Soy is rich in isoflavones, plant hormones with anti-inflammatory properties


Like many other spices, cinnamon has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, and it’s actually one of the most powerful healing spices, shown to help reduce heartburn and other conditions.


Cloves contain an anti-inflammatory chemical called eugenol. In recent studies, this chemical inhibited COX-2, a protein that spurs inflammation (the same protein that so-called COX-2 inhibitor drugs such as Celebrex quash). Cloves also ranked very high in antioxidant properties in one study. The combination of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties provides health benefits, from boosting protection from heart disease to helping stave off cancer, as well as slowing the cartilage and bone damage caused by arthritis.


For a long time, sage (Salvia) species have been used in traditional medicine for the relief of pain, protecting the body against oxidative stress, free radical damages, angiogenesis, inflammation, bacterial and virus infection, etc., Several studies suggest that sage species can be considered for drug development because of their reported pharmacology and therapeutic activities in many countries of Asia and Middle East, especially China and India. These studies suggest that Salvia species, in addition to treating minor common illnesses, might potentially provide novel natural treatments for the relief or cure of many serious and life-threatening diseases such as depression, dementia, obesity, diabetes, lupus, heart disease, and cancer. This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the botanical, chemical, and pharmacological aspects of sage.

This anti-inflammatory herb has also been shown in some research to boost memory. Perfect in poultry dishes, sage has been used for centuries and contains flavonoids that help to reduce swelling.



Just one more excuse to grab that second cup of Joe! Research suggests caffeine can reduce pain in those suffering from exercise-induced muscular injury and pain . Not only that, when taken with a standard dose of pain reliever (ibuprofen, for example), one study found that a 100mg to 130mg caffeine supplement — equal to about the amount of caffeine in one cup of coffee — increased pain relief .

Green tea

Used for centuries for a variety of medicinal purposes, green tea is an excellent source of polyphenols which may help to reduce free radicals in the body which can cause inflammation.


Ginger is basically a wonder root. It combats nausea and motion sickness, and fights off pain with its anti-inflammatory properties . Some especially great news for the ladies: One study showed that ginger (specifically in the form of a 250g or 500g capsule of powdered ginger) was as effective as ibuprofen in relieving menstrual pain ! Plus, ginger can be ingested a variety of ways, from supplements, to tea and cookies, to stir fry.

Ginger’s been used for thousands of years to help with a variety of ailments from stomachaches to heart conditions. This anti-inflammatory add-in is excellent on a variety of foods, even tea.


Not only is salmon tasty and a healthy protein, but it’s full of omega-3 fatty acids, which have been shown to reduce arthritic pain (especially in the neck and back) . In one study, the relief experienced from consuming omega-3s in the form of a fish oil supplement was comparable to the relief experienced from taking ibuprofen. Chow down on some of those omega-3s with this baked salmon with avocado yogurt sauce tonight.

Filled with Omega-3s, salmon provides an excellent source of protein and antioxidants. The fatty acids from this fish can help to lubricate tight joints in the body.

Tart Cherries

Turns out tart cherries are good for more than causing a pucker face. Studies have found they can help treat gout (a painful form of arthritis that causes swollen, hot, red joints caused by a buildup of uric acid in the blood)  . But it’s not just for gout—athletes can benefit, too. In one study, those who drank tart cherry juice for seven days prior to an intense running event showed reduced muscle-pain after the race  . Drink up!

Echinacea and Sage

Got an aching throat? Some research shows that throat sprays containing sage or echinacea can help provide relief from that nasty sore throat , though there have been few other studies on this benefit, so the evidence isn’t hulk strong. Another survey looking at 14 different studies found that echinacea can decrease the number of cold infections caught, and reduce their durations . Sage is easy to find at most grocery stores and is also especially tasty in any of these recipes, while echinacea is more commonly found in pill and ointment form. When choosing to take a supplement like echinacea, be aware: Supplements aren’t regulated by the FDA, so manufacturers can often get away with making unproven claims about both the contents of the pills and the benefits of those contents.


While vitamin C has been linked to helping prevent the onset of colds and respiratory infections, an antioxidant called beta-cryptoxanthin, found in oranges and other orange fruits and veggies such as sweet potato and cantaloupe, has been found to help reduce the risk of anti-inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis . Another reason to get out that juicer and start making fresh OJ each day. (Or, you know, just eat an orange.)

Evening Primrose

Usually found as an oil, this flower’s powers have been linked to treating atopic dermatitis (a chronic itchy skin condition), rheumatoid arthritis, and PMS symptoms  . The gamma-inolenic acid in the oil has anti-coagulant effects that may help reduce the effects of cardiovascular illnesses.

Raw Walnut

  • Researchers are convinced—more than ever before—about the nutritional benefits of walnuts when consumed in whole form, including the skin. We now know that approximately 90% of the phenols in walnuts are found in the skin, including key phenolic acids, tannins, and flavonoids. Some websites will encourage you to remove the walnut skin—that whitish, sometimes waxy, sometimes flaky, outermost part of shelled walnuts. There can be slight bitterness to this skin, and that’s often the reason that websites give for removing it. However, we encourage you not to remove this phenol-rich portion.
  • The form of vitamin E found in walnuts is somewhat unusual, and particularly beneficial. Instead of having most of its vitamin E present in the alpha-tocopherol form, walnuts provide an unusually high level of vitamin E in the form of gamma-tocopherol. Particularly in studies on the cardiovascular health of men, this gamma-tocopherol form of vitamin E has been found to provide significant protection from heart problems.
  • Most U.S. adults have yet to discover the benefits of walnuts. A recent study has determined that only 5.5% of all adults (ages 19-50) consume tree nuts of any kind! This small percentage of people actually do a pretty good job of integrating tree nuts (including walnuts) into their diet, and average about 1.25 ounces of tree nuts per day. But the other 94.5% of us report no consumption of tree nuts whatsoever. In a recent look at the nutritional differences between tree nut eaters and non-eaters, researchers have reported some pretty notable findings: on a daily average, tree nut eaters take in 5 grams more fiber, 260 milligrams more potassium, 73 more milligrams of calcium, 95 more milligrams of magnesium, 3.7 milligrams more vitamin E, and 157 milligrams less sodium!
  • Many of us can go local for our supply of walnuts. According to the latest trade statistics, 38% of all walnuts are grown in the U.S. Of that 38%, the vast majority (almost 90%) come from California, and particularly from the San Joaquin and Sacramento Valleys. Buying walnuts closer to home can provide great benefits from the standpoint of sustainability.
  • Phytonutrient research on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits of walnuts has moved this food further and further up the ladder of foods that are protective against metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular problems, and type 2 diabetes. Some phytonutrients found in walnuts—for example, the quinone juglone—are found in virtually no other commonly-eaten foods. Other phytonutrients—like the tannin tellimagrandin or the flavonol morin—are also rare and valuable as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory nutrients. These anti-inflammatory and antioxidant phytonutrients also help explain the decreased risk of certain cancers—including prostate cancer and breast cancer—in relationship to walnut consumption.


Coconut oil

They contain Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCTs) – which are fatty acids of a medium length.  Most of the fatty acids in the diet are long-chain fatty acids, but the medium-chain fatty acids in coconut oil are metabolized differently.  They go straight to the liver from the digestive tract, where they are used as a quick source of energy or turned into so-called ketones, which can have therapeutic effects on brain disorders like epilepsy and Alzheimer’s.

The medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) in coconut oil can increase how many calories you burn compared to the same amount of other fats.  One study found that 15-30 grams of MCTs per day increased 24 hour energy expenditure by 5%, totalling about 120 calories per day.

The fatty acids and breakdown products in coconut oil can kill harmful pathogens, potentially helping to prevent infections.

Another study in 14 healthy men discovered that those who ate the most MCTs at breakfast ate fewer calories at lunch.

Because the MCTs in coconut oil get shipped to the liver and turned into ketones, they are often used in epileptic patients to induce ketosis while allowing for a bit more carbs in the diet.

Studies in both humans and rats show that coconut oil improves important risk factors like Total, LDL and HDL cholesterol, which may translate to a reduced risk of heart disease.

Sesame seeds

  • Manganese – 0.7 mg. 35% RDA.
  • Copper – 0.7 mg. 35% RDA.
  • Calcium – 277 mg. 28% RDA.
  • Iron –  4.1 mg. 23% RDA.
  • Magnesium – 99.7 mg. 25% RDA.
  • Tryptophan – 93 mg.
  • Zinc – 2 mg. 13% RDA.
  • Fiber – 3.9 g. 16% RDA.
  • Thiamin – 0.2 mg. 15% RDA.
  • Vitamin B6 – 0.2 mg. 11% RDA.
  • Phosphorous – 179 mg. 18% RDA.
  • Protein – 4.7 g.
  • Promote Healthy, Beautiful Skin – Sesame seeds are full of zinc, an essential mineral for producing collagen and giving skin more elasticity. Zinc also helps damaged tissues in the body to repair. Sesame oil is also known to sooth burns and prevent skin related disorders.
  • Great for High-Protein Vegetarian Diet – Sesame seeds offer 4.7 grams of protein per ounce, giving them a perfect place in a high-protein vegetarian diet.
  • Sesame Seed Oil for Oral Health – One of the most prominent benefits of sesame seeds and sesame oil revolves around removing dental plaque and boosting oral health. By engaging in an activity known as oil pulling, which involves swishing oil around in your mouth, you can boost oral health and even whiten your teeth. One study showcases the oil pulling benefits on the oral level, where oil pulling with sesame oil was shown to reduce the amount of streptococcus mutants in both teeth plaque and mouth saliva, and boost overall health. (Click the next link to find out what oil pulling is and learn of oil pulling benefits).
  • Helps Prevent Diabetes – Thanks to magnesium and other nutrients, sesame seeds, and especially sesame oil, has been shown to combat diabetes. One study, published in 2011 in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, found that sesame oil “improved the effectiveness of the oral antidiabetic drug glibenclamide in type 2 diabetic patients”. Another study concluded that “substitution of sesame oil as the sole edible oil has an additive effect in further lowering BP and plasma glucose in hypertensive diabetics”.
  • Reduces Blood Pressure – As the above study concludes, sesame oil has been shown to lower blood pressure in hypertensive diabetics. Additionally, magnesium has been shown to help lower blood pressure – and sesame seeds are loaded with magnesium.
  • Promotes Heart Health – Further adding to the health benefits of sesame seeds, sesame seed oil can boost heart health by preventing atherosclerotic lesions. An antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound known as sesamol, which also harnesses anti-atherogenic properties, is thought to be one reason for the beneficial effects. According to GreenMedInfo, sesamol has been shown to “possess over two dozen beneficial pharmacologically active properties, many of which may contribute to improving cardiovascular health”.
  • Protects Against DNA Damage from Radiation – Sesamol, a compound found in sesame seeds and sesame oil, has been shown in some studies to protect against DNA damaged caused by radiation. Further, sesamol has been shown to extend life in mice treated with radiation, partly by preventing damage to the intestines and the spleen.
  • Prevents Cancer – Not only do sesame seeds contain an anti-cancer compound called phytate, but the magnesium in sesame seeds also harness anti-cancer properties. One study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that the risk of colorectal tumors decreased by 13% and the risk of colorectal cancer decreased by 12% for every 100 mg of magnesium taken in.
  • Boosts Bone Health – In addition to promoting healthy skin, zinc has also been shown to boost bone mineral density and bone health as a whole. One study, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, found a correlation between zinc deficiency and osteoporosis in the hip and spine area. What’s more, sesame seeds are a great source of calcium – a known trace mineral that is essential for bone health and preventing related conditions.
  • Boosting Digestive Health, Relieving Constipation – Sesame seeds are rich in fiber, which is known to pave way for a healthy digestive system and a healthy colon.
  • Provides Relief from Rheumatoid Arthritis – A mineral that is important for anti-inflammatory and antioxidant enzyme systems, copper is known for reducing pain and swelling associated with arthritis. Additionally, this mineral helps provide strength to blood vessels, bones, and joints.
  • Promotes Respiratory Health, Prevents Asthma – Thanks to the magnesium, sesame seeds are able to prevent asthma by and other respiratory disorders by preventing airway spasms.
  • ——————

Citrus fruits

Citrus fruits have long been valued as part of a nutritious and tasty diet. The flavours provided by citrus are among the most preferred in the world, and it is increasingly evident that citrus not only tastes good, but is also good for people. It is well established that citrus and citrus products are a rich source of vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre (non-starch polysaccharides) that are essential for normal growth and development and overall nutritional well-being. However, it is now beginning to be appreciated that these and other biologically active, non-nutrient compounds found in citrus and other plants (phytochemicals) can also help to reduce the risk of many chronic diseases. Where appropriate, dietary guidelines and recommendations that encourage the consumption of citrus fruit and their products can lead to widespread nutritional benefits across the population.


Citrus is most commonly thought of as a good source of vitamin C. However, like most other whole foods, citrus fruits also contain an impressive list of other essential nutrients, including both glycaemic and non-glycaemic carbohydrate (sugars and fibre), potassium, folate, calcium, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, riboflavin, pantothenic acid and a variety of phytochemicals. In addition, citrus contains no fat or sodium and, being a plant food, no cholesterol. The average energy value of fresh citrus is also low (see Table), which can be very important for consumers concerned about putting on excess body weight. For example a medium orange contains 60 to 80 kcal, a grapefruit 90 kcal and a tablespoon (15 ml) of lemon juice only 4 kcal (Whitney and Rolfes, 1999).

Nutritional facts about citrus fruit




Weight (g)




Energy (kcal)




Fibre content (g)




Ascorbic acid (mg)




Folate (mcg)




Potassium (mg)





Connie’s comments: Coconut oil and sesame oil are two oils for women to keep a beautiful skin. My grandma helped relieve my cousin’s tumorous skin with garlic and coconut oil. She uses garlic for animal bites and a 100 more uses. Do not eat grapefruit when on medication as it potentiates (doubles the strength) the meds.

Damage to Blood–brain barrier (BBB) pathways leading to Alzheimer’s disease and Dementia

BBB.JPG Blood–brain barrier (BBB) pathways to neurodegeneration in dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD)

  • A: In the normal capillary, there is an intact BBB composed of tightly joined endothelial cells and supported by mural pericytes, as shown in this simplified schematic. The BBB normally selectively regulates the passage of molecules from blood to brain and vice versa, and restricts entry of blood-derived products and toxins into the brain. There are many transporters and receptors along the BBB that permit molecules to cross the BBB via substrate-specific transport systems, some of which are particularly relevant to AD pathophysiogenesis, as illustrated in the graphics above. For example, the normal BBB has high expression of the glucose transporter (GLUT1),moderate expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1), and minimal expression of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE).

Alzheimer’s Disease

  • B: In the AD capillary, there is a vicious cascade of events that can lead to neurodegeneration, as shown in this schematic and described as follows. 1. Pericytes degenerate and detach. 2. The BBB becomes leaky. 3. Blood-derived molecules like fibrinogen, thrombin, and plasminogen leak from vessels and are directly toxic to neurons and can further induce BBB damage. Erythrocyte extravasation induces accumulation of hemoglobin-derived iron which causes generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress to neurons, and albumin promotes local tissue edema. 4. BBB transporter expression is altered, e.g., LRP1 and GLUT1 expressions are significantly reduced, whereas RAGE expression is increased.

The alterations in LRP1 and RAGE (transportS Aβ from the blood into the brain ) reduce the clearance and increase the uptake of Aβ into the brain, respectively, leading to Aβ accumulation in the brain. Also, normal cerebrovascular functions are disrupted by vascular pathologies including 5. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), 6. Damaged and thickening of the basement membrane, and 7. String vessels.



Patients with hereditary Dutch, Iowa, Arctic, Flemish, Italian, or Piedmont L34V vasculotropic mutations develop CAA followed by rupture of blood vessels and hemorrhagic strokes in midlife. CAA is known to worsen AD pathology and occurs in 80% of AD patients. CAA likely develops as a result of the ineffective transvascular and perivascular clearance of Aβ, as well as poor Aβ clearance by arterial VSMCs. It was recently reported that microvascular rather than arenchymal Aβ deposits are associated with early behavioral deficits in AD transgenic mice. Individuals with CAA carrying APOE4 allele(s) have accelerated vascular pathology that can modulate Aβ accumulation.

Reduced glucose utilization

Cognitively normal individuals with genetic risk for AD or positive AD family history and mild or no cognitive impairment that later develop AD all have reduced glucose utilization in the hippocampus, parietotemporal cortex, and/or posterior cingulate cortex measured by 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-PET, which occurs prior to brain atrophy and neuronal dysfunction. Brain glucose uptake correlateswith the level of GLUT1 on cerebralmicrovessels.

Other contributing factors: Diabetes, hypertension, pollution/nanoparticles


Air pollution has been shown to increase the risk of AD and AD-like brain pathologies. Young residents of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) exposed to air pollution display cognitive impairment, BBB disruption, Aβ42 plaques, and hyperphosphorylated tau accumulation,which are exacerbated in APOE4 carriers. Children from the MCMA have increased serum autoantibodies against neuronal proteins, likely due to compromised brain immunity and BBB breakdown. In mouse experimental studies, aerosolized nickel nanoparticles caused a rapid and drastic increase in Aβ40 and Aβ42. Also, APOE null mice exposed to mixed vehicle exhaust have accelerated BBB breakdown, decreased expression of tight junction proteins (e.g., occludin, claudin-5) and increased generation of reactive oxygen species activity.

Many types of nanomaterials are emerging in medical science and research for their potential as biosensors, biomaterials, tissue engineering, DNA modification, or drug delivery. The sources of nanoparticles that humans are exposed to are numerous and include nanoscaled debris from hip replacements, prostheses, cosmetics, sunscreen, and many others. Unfortunately, nanoparticles have proven to be toxic in a number of host systems. Highly active nanoparticles (e.g., silica coated to be hydrophilic, hydrophobic, or amphiphilic) can be taken up by cellular membranes, including the BBB, and cross the membrane passively or by carrier-mediated endocytosis.

Experimental studies in rodents have shown that silver, copper, or aluminum/aluminum oxide nanoparticles disrupt the BBB, reduce the expression of endothelial tight junctions, decrease CBF, and induce edema, synaptic

dysfunction, and neurodegeneration. Interestingly, silver and copper nanoparticle exposure exacerbated BBB dysfunction when accompanying sleep deprivation or diabetes.

Peripheral inflammation

Peripheral inflammation is being considered a possible risk factor for AD and dementia. Infectious agents including pneumonia, B. burgdorferi, Helicobacter pylori, and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) have been identified in AD post-mortembrain tissue. Interestingly,

HSV-1 infections are foundmore often in APOE4 carriers,which have increased BBB permeability. Additionally, dementia patients have a two-fold increased mortality rate from pneumonia, and pneumonia patients have elevated MMP-9 levels in their serum, which is known to be linked to BBB breakdown.

Poor oral hygiene, oral inflammation, and tooth loss worsen with age and are risk factors for AD. Recently, fungus was identified in post-mortem brain tissue from AD subjects and was found to localize around blood vessels in AD brain tissue. In AD, infectious agents likely enter the brain through a leaky, disrupted BBB and cause more detrimental effects than they would normally if the BBB were


Diet and AD

Recent studies report that diet can mediate the vasculoplastic reserve of the hippocampus. For example, consuming high levels of cocoa flavanols increased capillary density and enhanced dentate gyrus-associated cognitive function in cognitively normal healthy subjects

This suggests an interaction between vasculoplasticity and neuronal plasticity during normal aging and dementia, but how this relationship is affected by lifestyle and vascular risk factors is currently unclear and should be investigated in future studies.

Growing evidence supports the benefits of a Mediterranean diet in protecting against dementia and prolonging one’s cognitive reserve during aging. Age-related cognitive decline was attenuated in individuals consuming a Mediterranean diet, as found in a recent study of the Mediterranean-Dietary Approach to Systolic Hypertension (DASH) diet intervention for neurodegenerative delay (MIND).

In comparing Mediterranean and Western diets, the primary difference is the source and proportion of dietary fats, with olive oil specifically being the main fat consumed in the Mediterranean diet and high levels of saturated fatty acids and simple carbohydrates being consumed in Western diets. Microvascular dysfunction is evident in rodent models fed unhealthy diets, namely, those fed diets of Western culture, high fat, and high cholesterol.

An intact BBB is needed for proper cholesterol metabolism. In CSF, decreased cholesterol levels correlate with decreased Aβ42 and increased CSF APPα and APPβ (products of APP processing) levels, supporting an association between disrupted cholesterol metabolism and increased amyloidogenesis.

Resveratrol is a biologically active plant-derived phytoalexin. Resveratrol has been shown to cross BBB and regulate expression of MMPs, reduce pericyte loss, maintain integrity of BBB, and promote Aβ clearance [224–226]. Treatment with resveratrol completely reversed diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction by reducing capillary leakage, pericyte degeneration, and VEGF protein expression in the murine retina.

An earlier study has shown that resveratrol inhibits RAGE expression in vascular cells,which is implicated in Aβ transport into the brain and accelerated Aβ pathology in a mousemodel.

Furthermore, long-term consumption of resveratrol reduced oxidative stress and prevented behavioral deficits in a rat model with disrupted NVU.

Olive oil is high in essential omega-3 fatty acids, the major component of which is docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and has long been reported to benefit cognition and overall brain health. DHA cannot be synthesized by the body and thus must be consumed, and the primary transporter of DHA from blood-to-brain is the major facilitator superfamily domain containing 2A (MFSD2A) at the BBB.

Individuals with AD have lower CSF DHA lipid levels, and those with mild dementia have lower CSF α-liolenic acid levels. Interestingly, reduced MFSD2A expression at the BBB can lead to a loss of its important functions, including maintenance of BBB integrity and omega-3 fatty acid transport into the brain.

Transgenic APOE4 mice also exhibit reduced uptake of DHA into the brain compared with transgenic APOE2 mice. But, whether this is related to reduced Mfsd2a expression is currently unknown. Additional studies are needed elucidate the underlying mechanisms of MFSD2A and fatty acids in relation to dementia and AD.


Exercise and environmental enrichment

Regular exercise and physical activity, particularly during midlife, are associated with improved cerebrovascular function and reduced rates of dementia and AD. Individuals that exercised regularly for 28 days exhibited reduced plasma homocysteine levels and increased endothelial progenitor cells in peripheral blood, factors that protect against vascular damage and cognitive impairment.

Experimental studies in diabetic rats have shown that treadmill exercise maintains claudin-5 expression at the BBB compared to rats not receiving exercise. Mechanistically, physical activity and cognitive stimulation in the form of enriched environment (e.g., tunnels, balls, ladders, and running wheel) accelerated Aβ enzymatic degradation and enhanced transvascular Aβ clearance, reducing Aβ accumulation in brains of AD transgenic mouse models.

Physical activity promoted Aβ clearance frombrain to blood via upregulation of LRP1 and downregulation of RAGE at the BBB. Mice without access to a running wheel had decreased occludin tight junction levels and disrupted BBB integrity. Although recent attention has been given to exercise, additional studies are needed to more completely understand the mechanism underlying its beneficial effects.


Source: Nelson et al, Neurovascular dysfunction and neurodegeneration in dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, Department of Physiology and Biophysics and the Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA


Anti-arthritis oil and balm for sale, first launch

 anti arthritis coconut oil or balm

Dear Friends, 
See you all Sat and Sunday afternoon at my San Jose house to launch my first product, an anti-arthritis balm/oil which can be used internally or externally. It is priced around $50 per 16 oz container.  Your feedback is important to me. I will announce this at my blog today, . It contains turmeric, ginger, coconut oil, grapeseed oil and peppermit essential oil. My curiosity and exposure at Whole Foods created a spark in this product. I also was encouraged to create one as my mom was seeking a massage balm for her arthritis at age 79. I used the oil for my body as massage healing oil to ward off any disease process that might be growing as a result of aging and menopause.
My mom and I tested the product. The original coconut oil was bought at Whole Foods. I am using the same container. I have not yet asked Esther, my artist daughter, for the art cover design. I also plan to sell the formula to Whole Foods and
You may forward  this email to others. Sorry for the short notice. When creativity strikes, you have to capture the moment right away.

Connie Dello Buono