Your Brain Reveals Who Your Friends Are

Your Brain Reveals Who Your Friends Are

Summary: By looking at how the brain responds to video clips, researchers are able to determine who your friends may be, a new study reveals.

Source: Dartmouth College.

You may perceive the world the way your friends do, according to a Dartmouth study finding that friends have similar neural responses to real-world stimuli and these similarities can be used to predict who your friends are.

The researchers found that you can predict who people are friends with just by looking at how their brains respond to video clips. Friends had the most similar neural activity patterns, followed by friends-of-friends who, in turn, had more similar neural activity than people three degrees removed (friends-of-friends-of-friends).

Published in Nature Communications, the study is the first of its kind to examine the connections between the neural activity of people within a real-world social network, as they responded to real-world stimuli, which in this case was watching the same set of videos.

“Neural responses to dynamic, naturalistic stimuli, like videos, can give us a window into people’s unconstrained, spontaneous thought processes as they unfold. Our results suggest that friends process the world around them in exceptionally similar ways,” says lead author Carolyn Parkinson, who was a postdoctoral fellow in psychological and brain sciences at Dartmouth at the time of the study and is currently an assistant professor of psychology and director of the Computational Social Neuroscience Lab at the University of California, Los Angeles.

The study analyzed the friendships or social ties within a cohort of nearly 280 graduate students. The researchers estimated the social distance between pairs of individuals based on mutually reported social ties. Forty-two of the students were asked to watch a range of videos while their neural activity was recorded in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner. The videos spanned a range of topics and genres, including politics, science, comedy and music videos, for which a range of responses was expected. Each participant watched the same videos in the same order, with the same instructions. The researchers then compared the neural responses pairwise across the set of students to determine if pairs of students who were friends had more similar brain activity than pairs further removed from each other in their social network.

The findings revealed that neural response similarity was strongest among friends, and this pattern appeared to manifest across brain regions involved in emotional responding, directing one’s attention and high-level reasoning. Even when the researchers controlled for variables, including left-handed- or right-handedness, age, gender, ethnicity, and nationality, the similarity in neural activity among friends was still evident. The team also found that fMRI response similarities could be used to predict not only if a pair were friends but also the social distance between the two.

network

“We are a social species and live our lives connected to everybody else. If we want to understand how the human brain works, then we need to understand how brains work in combination– how minds shape each other,” explains senior author Thalia Wheatley, an associate professor of psychological and brain sciences at Dartmouth, and principal investigator of the Dartmouth Social Systems Laboratory.

For the study, the researchers were building on their earlier work, which found that as soon as you see someone you know, your brain immediately tells you how important or influential they are and the position they hold in your social network.

The research team plans to explore if we naturally gravitate toward people who see the world the same way we do, if we become more similar once we share experiences or if both dynamics reinforce each other.

ABOUT THIS NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH ARTICLE

Source: Amy D. Olson – Dartmouth College
Publisher: Organized by NeuroscienceNews.com.
Image Source: NeuroscienceNews.com image is credited to Carolyn Parkinson.
Original Research: Open access research in Nature Communications.
doi:10.1038/s41467-017-02722-7

CITE THIS NEUROSCIENCENEWS.COM ARTICLE
Dartmouth College “Your Brain Reveals Who Your Friends Are.” NeuroscienceNews. NeuroscienceNews, 30 January 2018.
<http://neurosciencenews.com/friends-brain-8402/&gt;.

Abstract

Similar neural responses predict friendship

Human social networks are overwhelmingly homophilous: individuals tend to befriend others who are similar to them in terms of a range of physical attributes (e.g., age, gender). Do similarities among friends reflect deeper similarities in how we perceive, interpret, and respond to the world? To test whether friendship, and more generally, social network proximity, is associated with increased similarity of real-time mental responding, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan subjects’ brains during free viewing of naturalistic movies. Here we show evidence for neural homophily: neural responses when viewing audiovisual movies are exceptionally similar among friends, and that similarity decreases with increasing distance in a real-world social network. These results suggest that we are exceptionally similar to our friends in how we perceive and respond to the world around us, which has implications for interpersonal influence and attraction.

Emotions and Disease

The Balance of Passions

Hippokratous . . . Iatrike open to page 218 and 219. Each page is divided into two columns with the Greek version on the left column and the Latin version on the right column.
Hippocrates,
Hippokratous . . . Iatrike,
Basel, 1543.

This is a Renaissance edition of works by Hippocrates, with parallel text in Greek and Latin.

This story begins as did so many other components of our culture, in Greek and Roman antiquity where medicine first emerged as a secular activity independent of religion. There Hippocrates (ca. 460 B.C. — ca. 370 B.C.) and his followers combined naturalistic craft knowledge with ancient science and philosophy to produce the first systematic explanations of the behavior of the human body in health and illness. Distant ancestors of modern biomedical scientists began to explore the solid and fluid parts of the human organism for keys to unlock the hidden mechanisms of disease. They made the first attempts to understand emotions as mental phenomena which had surprising and complex connections to physiological order and pathological disorder.

Early Western physicians recognized that emotions were of essential significance; however their medical systems were actually weighted more heavily on the body side of the mind-body balance. The dominant theory of Hippocrates and his successors was that of the four “humors”: black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood. When these humors were in balance, health prevailed; when they were out of balance or vitiated in some way, disease took over. The goal of an individual’s personal hygiene was to keep the humors in balance, and the goal of medical therapy was to restore humoral equilibrium by adjusting diet, exercise, and the management of the body’s evacuations (e.g.: the blood, urine, feces, perspiration, etc.). 1 The bedside scene from Walter Ryff’s Spiegel und Regiment and the diagram from Johannes de Ketham’s Fasciculus Medicinae, although both from later periods, clearly illustrate these classical themes.

An English translation of Johannes de Ketham's Fasciculus Medicinae illustration of a urine wheel: a large circle surrounded by 21 thin-necked, urine-filled flasks. In the corners of the urine wheel, four small circles contain descriptions of the four temperaments: sanguineous, choleric, phlegmatic and melancholic.Johannes de Ketham's Fasciculus Medicinae open to show an illustration on bloodletting and urine flasks on the left page and text on the right page. The illustration on the left page shows a urine wheel: a large circle surrounded by 21 thin-necked, urine-filled flasks. In the corners of the urine wheel, four small circles contain descriptions of the four temperaments: sanguineous, choleric, phlegmatic and melancholic.
Johannes de Ketham Johannes de Ketham (fl. 1455-1470),
Fasciculus Medicinae, 
Vienna, 1495

Johannes de Ketham, a professor of medicine in Vienna, published Fasciculus Medicinae, which included illustrations on bloodletting and urine flasks showing the “resemblance of the elements and the bodily constitutions.” This an English translation of Latin text.

 

Emphasizing the humors gave classical medicine what modern philosophers call a “reductionist” bias–the humors were used to explain more complex phenomena like emotional states in much simpler physical terms. For example, when a patient was melancholy, physicians assumed that his or her complicated feelings of sadness and depression resulted from the physical excess of black bile. Likewise, an excess of yellow bile was thought to make a person angry and impulsive. In the Hippocratic treatise The Sacred Disease, the author explains that “those maddened through bile are noisy, evil-doers and restless, always doing something inopportune”2 this explanation assumes that emotions are the more complicated consequences of the simpler and prior humoral causes.

Even in the unmistakably reductionist Hippocratic writings, however, certain emotional states appear as causal elements. In one case, a woman began to exhibit fears, depression, incoherent rambling speech, and the uttering of obscenities after suffering from a “grief with a reason for it”; and another “without speaking a word . . . would fumble, pluck, scratch, pick hairs, weep and then laugh, but . . . not speak,” also “after a grief.” 3 In The Sacred Disease, epilepsy is said in certain circumstances to be “caused by fear of the mysterious.”4

Emotional factors played only a minor role in the subsequent development of classical medical thought because authors after Hippocrates continued to rely primarily on humoral-reductionism and did not actively pursue emotional causal elements. These medical authorities worked hard to clarify and codify the humoral ideas embedded in Hippocrates’s work. They also systematized a therapy based on “opposition,” whereby excess humors were depleted and “cold” medicines such as oil of roses countered “hot” diseases like fevers and vice versa. Some writers in late antiquity also added important anatomical features to their reductionist medical systems.5

The two page spread from Justus Cortnumm's De Morbo Attonito Liber Unus. The left page features the head and shoulders, right pose in oval of Justus Cortnumm. On the right page, Hippocrates (on the right) and Galen are standing beside each other; between them is a bush, where Hippocrates touches the bush it is in flower, whereas Galen's side is nothing but thorns.
Justus Cortnumm (ca. 1624-1675),
De Morbo Attonito Liber Unus,
Leipzig, 1677

For much of the medieval and Renaissance periods, Galen and Hippocrates were regarded as co-equal medical authorities, with Galen even assuming a superior position for certain medical teachers or commentators. In the seventeenth century, however, the more empirically oriented Hippocrates came to be regarded as superior to the more theoretical Galen. This distinction between the two men is depicted here on the title page by Hippocrates touching the rosebush on the side of the flowers and Galen touching the side of the thorns.

 

A physician is taking the pulse of a woman sitting up in bed; she appears to be looking and smiling at a young man standing to the right; another man is standing to the left of the physician.
Galen,
Opera ex Sexta Juntarum Editione,
Venice, 1586

Galen is making a diagnosis of love-sickness.

 

But another dimension to medical thought became increasingly prominent in later antiquity. This was the orientation towards emotions as causes strongly influenced by Galen (A.D. 131-201). Known for his prolific writings and his essential loyalty to humoralism, he was accepted in the medieval and renaissance periods as coequal with or even superior to Hippocrates. Deeply respected for his diagnostic skill, Galen was celebrated for his differential diagnoses, especially for those which distinguished between illnesses traceable to orgnaic causes and those which seemed to mimic them but were actually traceable to emotional causes instead. In one famouse case he treated a young woman who seemed to exhibit the signs of physical illness but who, upon closer examination, revealed no organic pathology. After eliminating any possible humoral explanation, Galen identified the real, emotional cause of her somatic symptoms: a hidden love interest.6 He used the sudden irregularity of her pulse as a crucial diagnostic clue.

 

… I came to the conclusion that she was suffering from a melancholy dependent on black bile, or else trouble about something she was unwilling to confess.

Galen
As quoted in Galen–On Mental Disorders, Stanley W. Jackson

 

Galen likewise contributed an important new interest in the balance not only of the humors but of what he called the “non-naturals,” among which he included the “passions or perturbations of the soul.”7 According to the doctrine of the non-naturals–which was incorporated in medieval medical books alongside the humors–it was important for physicians to help patients keep their emotions in balance, for the sake of their bodies as well as their mental states. The influence of strong emotions on physical health and illness thus became a central tenet of medical belief which grew progressively stronger in the medieval period. As rabbi, philosopher and physician Moses Maimonides expressed the point in the twelfth century, “It is known . . . that passions of the psyche produce changes in the body that are great, evident and manifest to all. On this account . . . the movements of the psyche . . . should be kept in balance . . . and no other regimen should be given precedence.”8

The engraved title page of Moses Maimonides (1135-1204), Tractatus Rabbi Moysi de Regimine Sanitatis ad Soldanum Regem. The title is given as Tracta tus Rabbi Moysi de regimine sanitatis ad soldanum Regem. There is a stamp of the Surgeon General's Office Library in the bottom of the page.
Moses Maimonides (1135-1204),
Tractatus Rabbi Moysi de Regimine Sanitatis ad Soldanum Regem,
Augsburg, 1518

 

The physician should make every effort that all the sick, and all the healthy, should be most cheerful of soul at all times, and that they should be relieved of the passions of the psyche that cause anxiety.

Moses Maimonides (1135-1204)
The Regimen of Health

Two pages from Gregor Reisch (d. 1525), Margarita Philosophica cum Additionibus Novis. The left page is Liber X, tracta II. The right page is an woodcut of a human head with lines connecting the senses of taste, hearing, sight, and smell to areas of the brain.
Gregor Reisch (d. 1525),
Margarita Philosophica cum Additionibus Novis,
Basel, 1517

Gregor Reisch included an often-reproduced woodcut profile of the head in his book Margarita Philosophica. The figure locates various faculties of the soul (cogitation, memory, etc.) in specific regions. Note that Imaginativa (imagination) is located directly over the eyes.

 

Ideas about the “balance of the passions” were popular in the Renaissance and early modern periods. One famous work showing how influential these ideas would become is Robert Burton’s The Anatomy of Melancholy which included the following observations about the possibly disastrous role of unchecked emotions: “the mind most effectually works upon the body, producing by his passions and perturbations miraculous alterations . . . cruel diseases and sometimes death itself.”9Also in this period, speculation about the role of the “imagination” added other elements to the non-physical causes of disease. Some authors suggested that the imagination affected the body directly by its immaterial agency, others that it operated indirectly by first arousing the emotions which, in turn, “are greatly alterative with respect to the body.”10 There was general agreement that emotionally-charged ideas could exert enormous effects, as in the case of the monstrous “frog baby” produced by vivid maternal imagination, reported by Paré.

Pages 660 and 661 of Ambroise Paré's The Workes. Page 660 has two illustrations of monsters. The left image is a monster born with four feet, eyes, mouth and nose like a calf, with a round and red excrescence of flesh on the forehead. It has a piece of flesh like a hood hung from his neck upon his back and has its thighs torn and cut. The right image is a figure of an infant with a face like a frog. On page 661 there is image of a child with his hands and feet standing crooked.
Ambroise Paré (1510?-1590),
The Workes,
London, 1649

Speculation about the influence of the “imagination” was intense during the Renaissance period. It was widely believed that vivid ideas could lead to various bodily consequences, including diseases and monstrous births. Paré, a famous early surgeon, reported on two cases, one of a child born with the body of a calf, and another that occurred in 1517, of a child “born having the face of a frog,” produced by the power of the mother’s imagination. The mother, advised by her neighbor to hold a live frog in her hand as a means to cure her fever, was still holding the frog that evening, when she and her husband conceived a child.

 

The printed pages 48 and 49 of William Falconer's A Dissertation on the Influence of the Passions Upon the Disorders of the Body, London, 1788.
William Falconer (1744-1824),
A Dissertation on the Influence of the Passions Upon the Disorders of the Body,
London, 1788

 

Intellectuals and lay people alike were strongly committed to these ideas in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. While certain philosophical fashions within the medical community changed to reflect the Scientific Revolution going on around it, much medical practice remained traditional and fundamentally unaltered. Consideration of the role of the imagination and of strong emotions in the onset and course of illnesses continued into the nineteenth century. Medical literature included extensive essays and specialized monographs on emotional states and their impact on somatic health and disease.11 One example is William Falconer’s A Dissertation on the Influence of the Passions Upon the Disorders of the Body.

At the zoo, a superstitious husband attempts to lead his pregnant wife and son away from the cages of the Great Apes.The husband is attempting to lead his pregnant wife away from the cage of the great apes at the zoo. He is afraid that by looking at the ape in her condition, she might give birth to a deformed baby. The longstanding belief that the vividly stimulated imagination of pregnant women could lead to “monstrous” births persisted in popular culture well into the nineteenth century.

Honoré Daumier (1808-1879)
Bobonne, Bobonne! tu me ferais un monstre comme ca,
ne le regarde pas tant!

 

In many ways, however, the close of the eighteenth century marked a new era. As part of the Scientific Revolution, anatomical investigation once undertaken in antiquity had revived and became a hotly pursued field of study. Andreas Vesalius in sixteenth century Padua and Thomas Willis in seventeenth century Oxford were just two of the many bold explorers who cut into the body, probed its structure, and displayed their findings in beautifully illustrated works. In the eighteenth century, physicians increasingly turned to anatomy as a foundation for pathology. As a result, disease processes were progressively “localized,” that is, said to reside primarily in the disruptions or “lesions” of the solid parts of the body rather than in the imbalance of humors. Post mortem dissection became an increasingly common medical practice.12

Andreas Vesalius standing, three quarter length; right face; before dissecting table with cadaver. Skull and instruments on another table; crucifix upon wall.Surgical Instruments and apparatus on an operating table.Illustration of dissecting instruments from Andreas Vesalius’s De Humani Corporis Fabrica. The De Fabrica, the first modern work of anatomy, was initially published in 1543. This plate is enlarged from the 1568 Venice edition.

Andreas Vesalius
Edouard Hamman (1819-1888)

What is particularly notable about this scene of Vesalius about to perform an autopsy is his gaze, directed away from the cadaver, and his hand resting on the left arm, almost as if taking a pulse. Like the Chartran portrayal of Laënnec, this nineteenth-century image strongly conveys the anatomical basis of the new medicine.

Page 139 of Andreas Vesalius' De Humani Corporis Fabrica featuring the illustrated woodcut of a full-length frontal view of a standing nude male. His skin is flayed, exposing his insides, and his head is facing the right.Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564),
De Humani Corporis Fabrica,
Venice, 1568

 

Thomas Willis's Cerebri Anatome (On the Anatomy of the Brain), open to show engravings of the human brain on the left page and of the sheep brain on the right page.
Thomas Willis (1621-1675),
The Remaining Medical Works of Thomas Willis,
London, 1679.

An outstanding example of seventeenth-century anatomical achievement was Thomas Willis’s Cerebri Anatome (On the Anatomy of the Brain), first published in 1664. Shown here are Willis’s engravings of the human brain (left page) and of the sheep brain (right page).

 

At the turn of the nineteenth century, diagnostic breakthroughs swiftly succeeded the maturation of gross pathological anatomy. R. T. H. Laënnec invented a primitive stethoscope (he called it a “cylinder”) to help him hear inside his patient’s body and thus imagine what the parts “looked” like because of the particular sounds they elicited. In the process of concentrating their attention on the anatomical abnormalities of the solid parts of the body during an illness and as a result of disease, Laënnec and other physicians of his time gained precision in their diagnoses but began to lose the immediacy and intimacy of verbal contact with their patients.13 Clearly captured in Chartran’s painting of Laënnec performing a physical examination is the growing communication gap between doctor and patient, each seemingly contained in his own separate world. This stands in sharp contrast to the scene typically depicted at the medieval bedside.

A wooden Laënnec-style stethoscope.Bedside scene showing Laennec seated with patient listening to the patient's breathing using his ear. In Laennec's left hand resting on the bed is his stethoscope; several others gathered around.Laënnec,
A L’Hopital Necker, Ausculte Un Phtisique
Théobald Chartran (1849-1907)

Laënnec-style Stethoscope

In 1819, Laënnec first described his powerful new diagnostic invention, the cylinder-like stethoscope. The physician placed one end of the instrument on the patient’s chest and his ear to the other, so he could listen to the sounds of disrupted anatomy within.

Courtesy Historical Collections, The National Museum of Health and Medicine, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, D.C.

Rene Laennec's De l'Auscultation Mediate, ou, Traite du Diagnostic des Maladies des Poumons et du Coeur open to the page with the fold-out plate. The plate is on the right and shows six diagrams of the stethoscope and two parts of the lung.René Théophile Hyacinthe Laënnec (1781-1826)
De l’Auscultation Médiate, ou, Traité du Diagnostic des Maladies des Poumons et du Coeur (On Mediate Auscultation, or, Treatise on the Diagnosis of the Diseases of the Lungs and Heart), Paris, 1819

The stethoscope is illustrated here in a fold-out plate with parts of the lung shown at the right.

 

The further development of microscopic anatomy by Rudolf Virchow and others in the nineteenth century led to greater knowledge of tissues and cells. This development, unfortunately, also fragmented the notion of organismic unity implicit in classical and early modern medical theory.14 Emotions became more and more separated from disease.

Head and shoulders, right profile of Rudolph L. K. Virchow as an elderly man.Rudolf Virchow's Die Cellularpathologie in ihrer Begrundung auf Physiologische und Pathologische Gewebelehre open to pages 234 and 235. On page 234 is an illustration of the microscopic structure of four different types of cells. Page 235 has text relating to the illustration on page 234.Rudolf Virchow,
Die Cellularpathologie in ihrer Begründung auf Physiologische und Pathologische Gewebelehre, Berlin, 1858

In Virchow’s most influential book, Die Cellularpathologie, he described and depicted the precise microscopic structure of cells–including nerve cells–but seemed to leave no place in the body’s operation for the influence of the emotions.

Rudolph Virchow (1821-1902) is regarded as perhaps the greatest medical scientist of the nineteenth century. He was a pioneer in the field of cellular pathology and pursued pathological anatomy at the tissue and cell level.

An illustration of the microscopic structure of four different types of cells of page 234 from Rudolf Virchow's Die Cellularpathologie in ihrer Begrundung auf Physiologische und Pathologische Gewebelehre.

 

By the mid-nineteenth century, however, a place was secured for emotions in connection with disease even as post mortem anatomy and cellular pathology advanced. Already in the eighteenth century William Cullen had noted that patients with certain major disorders–“insanity”, for example–did not always show the expected organic lesions upon post mortem dissection. He reasoned that, instead, such patients may have developed “a considerable and unusual excess in the excitement of the brain” and that this excitement could in turn have derived from “violent emotions or passions of the mind.”15 Cullen and Robert Whytt were two of the many physicians who turned to the nervous system to find a physiological connection between emotions and disease. These physicians hoped to find in nervous system physiology a compromise of sorts between traditional ideas linking emotions and disease and the new desire to extend the reach of localistic pathology. Since the nervous system was enormously complex and its functions were subtle and elusive, it could be the locus of “functional” disorders, which were characterized by disrupted activity but where no inflammation or “appreciable morbid change in the nervous structure” could be found. By the 1840s and 1850s, functional disorders of the nervous system (also called “neuroses”) and the emotional causes that precipitated them had become a major area of clinical study, as is clear in Austin Flint’s popular A Treatise on the Principles and Practice of Medicine.

William Cullen's First Lines of the Practice of Physic open to pages 140 and 141.
William Cullen (1710-1790),
First Lines of the Practice of Physic,
Edinburgh, 1784


…in many instances of insane persons, their brain had been examined after death, without showing that any organic lesions had before subsisted in the brain, or finding that any morbid state of the brain then appeared.

William Cullen
First Lines of the Practice of Physic, 1784

 

Austin Flint's A Treatise on the Principles and Practice of Medicine open to the table of contents pages xii and xiii. The table of contents lists the section three chapters VII through XIII and section four chapters I through VII.
Austin Flint (1812-1886),
A Treatise on the Principles and Practice of Medicine,
Philadelphia, 1868


…the neuroses are purely functional affections…. [They] occur also as symptoms of diseases involving either inflammation or lesions of structure.

Austin Flint
A Treatise on the Principles and Practice of Medicine,1868

Secret to Happiness May Include More Unpleasant Emotions

Secret to Happiness May Include More Unpleasant Emotions

Summary: Researchers report happiness is linked to feeling desired emotions, even when those emotions may be negative.

Source: American Psychological Association.

Research contradicts idea that people should always seek pleasure to be happy.

People may be happier when they feel the emotions they desire, even if those emotions are unpleasant, such as anger or hatred, according to research published by the American Psychological Association.

“Happiness is more than simply feeling pleasure and avoiding pain. Happiness is about having experiences that are meaningful and valuable, including emotions that you think are the right ones to have,” said lead researcher Maya Tamir, PhD, a psychology professor at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. “All emotions can be positive in some contexts and negative in others, regardless of whether they are pleasant or unpleasant.”

The cross-cultural study included 2,324 university students in eight countries: the United States, Brazil, China, Germany, Ghana, Israel, Poland and Singapore. The research, which was published online in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, is the first study to find this relationship between happiness and experiencing desired emotions, even when those emotions are unpleasant, Tamir said.

Participants generally wanted to experience more pleasant emotions and fewer unpleasant emotions than they felt in their lives, but that wasn’t always the case. Interestingly, 11 percent of the participants wanted to feel fewer transcendent emotions, such as love and empathy, than they experienced in daily life, and 10 percent wanted to feel more unpleasant emotions, such as anger or hatred. There was only a small overlap between those groups.

For example, someone who feels no anger when reading about child abuse might think she should be angrier about the plight of abused children, so she wants to feel more anger than she actually does in that moment, Tamir said. A woman who wants to leave an abusive partner but isn’t willing to do so may be happier if she loved him less, Tamir said.

Participants were surveyed about the emotions they desired and the emotions they actually felt in their lives. They also rated their life satisfaction and depressive symptoms. Across cultures in the study, participants who experienced more of the emotions that they desired reported greater life satisfaction and fewer depressive symptoms, regardless of whether those desired emotions were pleasant or unpleasant. Further research is needed, however, to test whether feeling desired emotions truly influences happiness or is merely associated with it, Tamir said.

Image shows person holing up a sad face sign.

The study assessed only one category of unpleasant emotions known as negative self-enhancing emotions, which includes hatred, hostility, anger and contempt. Future research could test other unpleasant emotions, such as fear, guilt, sadness or shame, Tamir said. Pleasant emotions that were examined in the study included empathy, love, trust, passion, contentment and excitement. Prior research has shown that the emotions that people desire are linked to their values and cultural norms, but those links weren’t directly examined in this research.

The study may shed some light on the unrealistic expectations that many people have about their own feelings, Tamir said.

“People want to feel very good all the time in Western cultures, especially in the United States,” Tamir said. “Even if they feel good most of the time, they may still think that they should feel even better, which might make them less happy overall.””

Negative emotions are bad for health, affecting more Americans than Japanese

negBy Tamara Sims, Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Building
420, Jordan Hall, Stanford, CA 94305

How people interpret and respond to negative feelings (e.g., Boiger, Mesquita, Uchida, & Barrett, 2013; Diener & Suh, 2000; Matsumoto, 1993; Mesquita & Leu, 2007). Such culture-specific understandings of the nature and source of emotion can have powerful implications for mental and physical well-being. Indeed, multiple studies have shown considerable divergence across cultures in the degree to which negative affect influences physiological and psychological functioning (e.g., Consedine, Magai, Cohen, & Gillespie, 2002; Diener & Suh, 2000; Mauss & Butler, 2010; Miyamoto et al., 2013;
Soto, Perez, Kim, Lee, & Minnick, 2011).

The theoretical case for expecting cultural variation in the health consequences of negative emotions is particularly strong for the comparison between European
American and East Asian cultural contexts.

The concept of negative feelings in the United States is grounded in Western philosophical assumptions as well as in a set of historically derived and selected ideas and practices, such as the Protestant ethic and the American dream.

In the United States, negative feelings are construed as internal entities that are the individual’s responsibility (Chentsova-Dutton & Tsai, 2010; Kitayama, Mesquita, &
Karasawa, 2006; Uchida, Townsend, Markus, & Bergsieker, 2009). It is believed that people should assume responsibility for their negative affective experiences, so when they feel bad, they may also fear or experience social sanctions (Bastian et al., 2012). As a result, negative feelings can signal a moral failing and are construed as harmful
(e.g., Wierzbicka, 1994).

In sharp contrast, in East Asian contexts, the concept of negative feelings is rooted in Buddhist, Taoist, and Confucian traditions. Negative feelings in these contexts are construed as situationally afforded and grounded in specific relationships (Chentsova-Dutton & Tsai, 2010; Kitayama et al., 2006; Uchida et al., 2009).

Consequently, individuals do not bear the weight of negative affective experiences alone; rather, experiencing negative affect may even foster social ties.

In this context, negative emotions are seen as arising from external sources and thus
as inevitable and transient elements of a natural cycle (e.g., Peng & Nisbett, 1999).

We would predict, then, that among people who experience frequent negative affect, Americans are more likely than Japanese to suffer adverse health consequences.

At this point, the limited amount of empirical evidence is mixed; some evidence supports cross-cultural continuity (e.g., Pressman et al., 2013), whereas other evidence is consistent with cross-cultural variation in the association between negative affect and health (e.g., Miyamoto et al., 2013; Miyamoto & Ryff, 2011).

One reason for these conflicting findings may be the lack of consensus in how emotion and health are measured. Some studies have measured state affect (i.e., how people feel in a given moment or on a given day), and others have measured trait affect (i.e., how people typically feel).

Additionally, the measures of health outcomes used in these studies varied widely in terms of relative subjectivity/objectivity as well as in their clinical relevance. Finally, conclusions based on significance testing increase the possibility of inferring cross-cultural similarity when examining large samples.

Thus, we focus here on comparing effect sizes.
Addressing this issue, we compared the magnitude of the effect of negative affect on health in the United States and Japan using a stable index of negative affectivity and
six clinically relevant, well-known self-report health metrics.
The United States/Japan comparison is a relatively ideal one because both nations are modernized, democratized, industrialized societies with well-developed systems
of health care. Yet these two societies are markedly different in their historically derived ideas about negative affect and in the everyday social practices that lend form
and organization to affective experience (Markus & Kitayama, 1994; Mesquita & Leu, 2007).
To examine this possibility, we compared survey data from two large samples of Japanese (n = 988) and American adults (n = 1,741) participating in the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) and Survey of Midlife Development in  Japan (MIDJA) survey studies. To measure negative affect, participants reported how often (1 = none of the time, 5 = all of the time) they had experienced negative emotions (i.e., how often they had felt nervous, hopeless, lonely, afraid, jittery, irritable, ashamed, upset, angry, and frustrated) over the previous 30 days. We indexed physical health using two relatively objective measures—number of chronic conditions and degree of functional limitations— and we administered a single-item measure of subjective global health. We indexed mental health using two multi-item measures of psychological well-being and self esteem, and we administered a single-item measure of life satisfaction.

We included positive affect and demographic variables as covariates in our analyses (for details, see Methodological Details in the Supplemental Material available
online). Japanese participants reported higher mean
levels of and variance in negative affect (M = 1.80, SD =
0.62) than did Americans (M = 1.57, SD = 0.53), t(1806.31) =
9.52, p < .001, Levene’s F(1, 2727) = 65.53, p < .001.

Overall, we found that for each measure, negative affect significantly predicted poor health in both the United States and Japan. However, a comparison of the magnitude of the effect revealed that negative affect was indeed worse for one’s health in the United States than in Japan (see Fig. 1).

Differences in negative affect–health associations (calculated as critical ratios of the differences) indicated that in the United States, compared with Japan, negative affect more strongly predicted more chronic conditions, z = 6.47; worse physical function, z =
2.45; worse psychological well-being, z = 6.59; and lower self-esteem, z = 5.65.

Across cultures, negative affect similarly predicted poor global health, z = 0.62, and lower
life satisfaction, z = −0.62. Multigroup structural equation modeling confirmed these findings even when we controlled for cultural differences in variances (see Additional
Analyses in the Supplemental Material).
Our findings are consistent with the generalization made by Pressman et al. (2013) that negative emotions matter for health around the globe. However, the magnitudes
of the effects vary considerably between cultures, particularly for objective and multi-item assessments.

The link between negative affect and health may be stronger in U.S. contexts because negative affect is commonly conceptualized as harmful and as the individual’s responsibility, in contrast to East Asian contexts, in which negative affect is construed as natural and rooted in relationships.

Further research is needed to explicitly test cultural construals of negative affect as an explanatory mechanism.
Unfortunately, at this point, no large-scale representative surveys have assessed this type of information.
We found no cultural variation for single-item ratings of life satisfaction and global health, possibly because they are more holistic indices of well-being that reflect
more than individuals’ physical and mental health status.

For instance, people may base global-health ratings not only on existing health problems but also on their health behaviors (Krause & Jay, 1994), and people may judge

life satisfaction according to how well close others are
doing in addition to themselves (e.g., Diener & Suh,
2000). Further, the fact that we found no variation in the
single-item global measures suggests that negative feelings
are not more predictive of negative self-assessments
overall in the United States than in Japan.
This study had the advantage of assessing six physical
and mental health outcomes.

While all measures were self reports, two were relatively objective reports of diagnosed
or observable chronic health conditions (e.g., diabetes) and functional limitations (e.g., ability to carry groceries).
Further, self-reports of physical and mental health have been reliably established as useful predictors of long-term health and mortality outcomes (e.g., Lee, 2000). Consistent
with our findings, results from prior research have shown that negative emotions also predict physiological outcomes

Studies in which negative affect has been induced in participants in the laboratory have revealed that East Asians show less intense reactivity than European Americans
across self-reported experience, expressive behavior, and physiological function (e.g., Mauss & Butler, 2010).
Nevertheless, it is possible that these effects are bidirectional, such that poorer health may lead people to feel worse in cultures that have come to expect good health.
Our study was also limited in that we were unable to compare our findings with those from so-called less developed societies.

Future studies may also reveal, as Pressman et al. (2013) originally speculated, that the link between negative emotions and compromised health may be of particular salience in first-world countries. We suggest this is because emotions tend to be construed as
relatively internal, individualized entities in these contexts (e.g., Uchida et al., 2009). Further, the use of more specific, multi-item measures of physical and mental
health as opposed to single-item measures may be more likely to reveal this difference.
Findings that reveal the significance of how negative affect is construed have important implications for health care among diverse populations. Interventions—chemical
or behavioral—aimed at reducing or relieving negative affect, although essential in some contexts, may not be universally desired or helpful.

The words of a Japanese psychiatrist underscore the cultural distinction observed
here: “Melancholia, sensitivity, fragility—these are not negative things in a Japanese context. It never occurred to us that we should try to remove them, because it never
occurred to us that they were bad” (Tooru Takahashi, as quoted in Schulz, 2004, p. 39).

Click to access 3608.pdf


Hire a companion and caregiver to give more life to your days. Call Motherhealth 408-854-1883 for bay area caregivers with tasks that include assistance in daily living, cooking, medication management, ligth housekeeping, massage and a compassionate companion.

care 1

Breaking the habit of being yourself by Dr Joe Dispenza

Joe Dispenza, D.C., studied biochemistry at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey, and holds a Bachelor of Science degree with an emphasis in neuroscience. He received his Doctor of Chiropractic degree from Life University in Atlanta, Georgia, graduating magna cum laude. Dr. Dispenza’s postgraduate training and continuing education has been in neurology, neuroscience, brain function and chemistry, cellular biology, memory formation, aging and longevity. Joe Dispenza was featured in the award winning film, “What The Bleep Do We Know?”This lecture provides basic yet powerful information on how to co-create ones day and how to use focused concentration, repetition, and visualization (mental rehearsing) to rewire the brain. These are skills we can all harness.

———-

Comments:

I call it the circle of life; one part creates the next and so on! Thought creates emotion, emotion creates feelings, feelings create state of mind, state of mind create experience or doings and doings or experiences create thought and the circle continues.

Porter’s Testimonial, Healing

Porter ended up in a wheelchair after a car accident years ago and was told he would be a quadriplegic and never be able to walk again (among other things).

Porter is determined that he will walk again, and is supported by his own mental attitude, his family, friends and energy healer Jill Runnion. Already Porter now has the use of the upper part of his body and arms, so he is presently a paraplegic (not quadriplegic). Through a combination of tremendous will, openness to exploring alternative techniques and his dedication to understanding the brain, neuroscience and how he can heal his body, Porter shared this video of him standing for the first time, in August 2010. Porter is a student of Dr. Joe Dispenza, and has completed the Level 1 and Level 2 workshops ‘ Breaking the Habit of Being Yourself and has been actively applying the knowledge and techniques he has learned in his life, and is seeing tremendous results.

Raising Inspired Children by Dr Joe Dispenza

Neuroscientist Dr Joe Dispenza, and father of three, marries science with spirituality (universal intelligence) in this presentation on Raising Inspired Children. “I want my kids to understand that the way they think, and the way they feel influences every single atom in their life. I want them to know that their thoughts create their life,” he says.

Dr Joe discusses brainwave patterns, the power of story telling, impact of technology, the art of manifestation and how to teach your child how to make self-loving decisions in his or her life.

Part 1: Dr Joe talks about the different brain development stages (0-6 subconscious, 7-12 imagination, 13 onwards = outer world reality) and how to leverage these states for best life development. He shares why first thing in the morning and last thing in the evening are powerful parenting periods; how to install neurological hardware in your kids brains to best deal with challenges before they happen; why story telling is a parents best friend.

Part 2: Dr Joe talks about the impact of technology on your children’s brains; why he made a deal with each of his children to have at least one passion that involves nature; how he taught his children to make life decisions that are self loving and self serving.

http://www.soulsessions.org