7% – 26% of retired Americans over 65 have Dementia or cognitive impairment

Assessment of cognition using surveys and neuropsychological assessment: the Health and Retirement Study and the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study.


This study examines the similarity of cognitive assessments using 1 interview in a large population study, the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), and a subsample in which a detailed neuropsychiatric assessment has been performed (Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study [ADAMS]).


Respondents are diagnosed in ADAMS as demented, cognitively impaired without dementia (CIND), or as having normal cognitive function. Multinomial logistic analysis is used to predict diagnosis using a variety of cognitive and noncognitive measures from the HRS and additional measures and information from ADAMS.


The cognitive tests in HRS predict the ADAMS diagnosis in 74% of the sample able to complete the HRS survey on their own. Proxy respondents answer for a large proportion of HRS respondents who are diagnosed as demented in ADAMS. Classification of proxy respondents with some cognitive impairment can be predicted in 86% of the sample. Adding a small number of additional tests from ADAMS can increase each of these percentages to 84% and 93%, respectively.


Cognitive assessment appropriate for diagnosis of dementia and CIND in large population surveys could be improved with more targeted information from informants and additional cognitive tests targeting other areas of brain function.


Call and write to your state elected govt officials to participate in democracy

Support the following causes/organization and write/call your elected local officials to participate in democracy:

  • Planned parenthood
  • New York Times
  • Washington Posts
  • Others listed in the video above by John Oliver of Last Week Tonight show.



What matters most to Americans by Bernie Sanders

Last night, it took nearly two hours for the Republican debate to even briefly touch on an important issue: raising the minimum wage in this country from $7.25 an hour. The American people overwhelmingly want to raise the minimum wage, but not a single candidate embraced the idea with the same enthusiasm.

The truth is, once again, if you are one of the wealthiest people in this country, you had eleven candidates on the stage talking about your needs for almost three and a half hours. The rich are getting richer and everyone else is getting poorer, yet for what seemed like an eternity, all they could talk about was not letting women control their own bodies and defunding Planned Parenthood. If you are a veteran or military family member, there was a lot of talk about more money for war and confrontation, but no conversation about how the cost of war continues long after the last service member has returned home from overseas.

I think that’s one of the reasons our campaign is doing so well. We are willing to talk about the issues that matter in the lives of all Americans, and not just a handful of special interests and wealthy campaign contributors.

And all throughout last night’s debate, I kept thinking about some of the people I’ve met and stories I’ve received since our campaign began. Like the young mother from California who wrote me a few weeks ago saying:

“I’m 25 years old and about to have my first daughter. I want her to be able to go to college without going into insane amounts of debt. I want her to be able to get the healthcare she needs to stay happy and healthy.”
Or the printing company worker in upstate New York who wrote to me saying:

“I am paid $10.00 an hour for the past 2 years in a customer service role. I have 2 sons and cannot afford the daycare bill for them by myself. I’ve been forced to move home with my parents as my $650 paychecks after tax are not enough to live on with paying $500 for daycare just to go to work.”
Today, we live in the richest country in the history of the world, but that reality means little when people who work 40 hours a week are living in poverty, and hundreds of thousands of young people are forced to give up their dream of going to college because it is too expensive.

The good news is, this is a nation we can rebuild together. And I am asking you to join me in this campaign to build a future for all of us, and not just a few on the top.

Make a $10 contribution to our campaign if you’re ready for a political revolution that creates a country in which children aren’t living in poverty, kids can go to college, and seniors have health care.

The truth is, I had to give up on the debate after two and a half hours. This country and our planet face enormous problems, and the Republican candidates on that stage last night barely touched upon them.

There was no discussion about racial justice, income inequality, or making college more affordable. Nothing about child poverty, parental leave, or ensuring that every American can retire with dignity. And with virtually every campaign backed by an enormous Super PAC (except Trump who is his own Super PAC), you can be sure there was no discussion of the grotesque amount of spending corrupting our political process.

And when the candidates did touch on actual issues, they were dead wrong on virtually every position they took.

In less than a month, we’ll have our chance at the first Democratic presidential debate. But I’ll need your support to keep growing our political revolution between now and then.

In solidarity,

Bernie Sanders

States with highest American Well-being, economy,jobs, a review 2014

US Job Growth

In 2007, leading up to the Great Recession, 79.9 percent of people ages 25 to 54 in the United States had a job. In the 12 months ending June 2014, five years after the recession ended, only 76.2 percent of people in that age group were working.

The latest rates show a slight improvement from fiscal 2013, when 75.9 percent of people in their prime working years had a job nationally. At that time, employment rates were below prerecession levels in 35 states.

Still, at 3.7 percentage points lower than before the recession, the employment to population ratiofor prime-age workers shows that the U.S. labor market remains weak. This finding has significant budgetary consequences for states:

  • Without paychecks, people pay less income tax and tend to buy less, reducing sales and business income tax revenue.
  • Unemployed people frequently need more services, such as Medicaid and other safety-net programs, increasing costs at a time when state governments may have less tax revenue.

A state-by-state comparison of calendar year 2007 with fiscal 2014 shows:

  • No state reported employment rate gains for 25- to 54-year-olds.
  • 29 states had statistically significant decreases.
  • The largest decline in the employment rate was in New Mexico, where 69.9 percent of prime-age workers had jobs in fiscal 2014 — 9.2 percentage points lower than in 2007.
  • Among the least affected were Vermont and Nebraska, which recorded the smallest observed changes in their current employment rates of 83.3 and 85.2 percent, respectively.

Although unemployment figures receive more media attention, the employment rate is a preferred index for many economists because it provides a sharper picture of changes in the labor market. The unemployment rate, for example, fails to count workers who stopped looking for a job. By focusing on 25- to 54-year-olds, trends are less distorted by demographic effects such as older and younger workers’ choices regarding retirement or full-time education.

A statistically significant decrease indicates a high level of confidence that there was a true change in the employment rate. Changes that are not statistically significant offer less certainty and could be the result of variations in sampling and other methods used to produce employment estimates. Without additional testing for statistical significance, caution should be exercised when comparing change in one state’s employment rate to change in another state’s rate.

Analysis by Jeff Chapman and Julie Srey


employment rate

Change in Spending

fed aidTax Revenue Volatility

tax revenue volatility

 reserve funds retirement costs tax revenue change in employment rate

American Well-BeingUSA state of american well being

New state rankings from the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index® show that, over the seven years that we have been measuring and analyzing well-being, a number of U.S. states have made repeat appearances in the top ten list. Hawaii, which is ranked second this year, and Colorado, which is ranked sixth this year, have made consistent appearances in the top ten list all seven years. Marking its fourth appearance since 2008 on the top ten list, Alaska secured the number one spot for the very first time.

Familiar states also appear among the lowest well-being states. For the sixth consecutive year, West Virginia and Kentucky have the lowest well-being in the United States, ranking 50th and 49th, respectively. Other states that have appeared in the bottom ten all seven years are Arkansas, Ohio and Mississippi.

2014_State_Rankings_CoverOur latest report, “The State of American Well-Being: 2014 State Well-Being Rankings” examines the comparative well-being of the 50 states. You can read more about the rankings here and download a copy here.

The Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index uses a holistic definition of well-being and self-reported data from individuals across the globe to create a unique view of societies’ progress on the elements that matter most to well-being: purpose, social, financial, community and physical. It is the most proven, mature and comprehensive measure of well-being in populations. Previous Gallup and Healthways research shows that high well-being closely relates to key health outcomes such as lower rates of healthcare utilization, workplace absenteeism and workplace performancechange in obesity status and new onset disease burden.

Connie Dello Buono

Prevent vascular disease, manage inflammation, get GYV health caps to boost ATP cells performance and speedy repair of your body, email connie to get the caps and join in spreading the benefits with extra income for you at motherhealth@gmail.com and text 408-854-1883

7 ways Americans pay taxes by Alexander E.M. Hess

1. Income taxes

Income taxes can be charged at the federal, state and local levels. At the federal level, the amount paid depends on a number of factors, including income and marital status. Lundeen noted the U.S. has a progressive tax system, consisting of seven tax brackets. He added, “for each additional dollar in a new bracket, you pay that bracket’s tax rate.” There are also a number of credits. For one, the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) gives a tax credit to low and moderate earners.

State income tax structures vary considerably. Some states, such as Florida, do not levy an income tax at all. A few states use a single income tax rate, while many states apply different tax rates depending on income.

2. Sales taxes

Sales taxes are taxes on goods and services purchased. These are usually calculated as a percentage of the price paid. Sales taxes vary by state, and even by municipality. In some states, there are no sales taxes at either the state or local level. Other states and local authorities can charge a hefty amount. In Tennessee, for example, consumers can pay as much as 9.44% in sales taxes when combining state and local taxes, according to the Tax Foundation. In 12 states, sales taxes are higher than 8%. Sales taxes are often considered to be regressive, meaning lower-income individuals and households spend a greater proportion of their earnings to pay the tax, compared to higher income residents.

3. Excise taxes

Excise taxes are similar to broad sales taxes, except they are charged on specific goods. States typically tax certain purchases, including gas, cigarettes, beer and liquor. Excise taxes are frequently levied on so-called “sin products,” and often are intended not only to help raise money, but also to deter unhealthy behaviors. The federal government also collects such taxes, including 18.4 cents per gallon on gasoline and 24.4 cents per gallon on diesel fuel, as well as a 10% charge for tanning services. Excise taxes are often combined with sales taxes on a single purchase. According to Lundeen, in many cases a sales tax is paid on top of an excise tax.

4. Payroll taxes

Both employees and employers have to pay the Social Security tax, one of two payroll taxes. For the Social Security tax, employees pay 6.2% of their wages, and employers match that for a total contribution of 12.4%. In 2013, the maximum earnings subject to the tax were $117,000. In 2011 and 2012, the amount employees had to contribute briefly declined to 4.2% of wages, as part of a payroll tax holiday designed to encourage people to spend more and boost the U.S. economy.

A similar tax also exists for Medicare. Both employees and employers are required to contribute 1.45% of wages, or 2.9% in total, to fund the program. Unlike Social Security, there is no maximum taxable wage. In fact, since last year, workers who earned more than $200,000 had to contribute an extra 0.9% of their wages to the program.

5. Property taxes

Property taxes are usually imposed to fund local services. According to the Tax Foundation’s Lundeen, these taxes are based on the property’s market value, and are most often levied on real estate, but can also apply to other property, such as cars. In many instances, these taxes are deductible. However, according to the IRS, property taxes on real estate are only deductible if they are used to promote the “general public welfare,” but not if they are used “for local benefits and improvements that increase the value of the property.” Many homeowners also qualify for a mortgage interest deduction.

6. Estate taxes

The IRS defines an estate tax as “a tax on your right to transfer property at your death.” The estate tax is controversial, as it is seen by some as a penalty for dying. Cash, securities, insurance, real estate, and business interests are among the items considered part of an estate. However, for individuals, only estates exceeding $5.34 million are taxed by the federal government. Most Americans, therefore, are exempt from paying the federal estate tax. The highest estate tax rate charged at the federal level is 40%.

Estate taxes are also often levied at the state level. While states frequently use lower rates, they also often have lower exemptions than the federal government’s $5.34 million cutoff. Some states have an inheritance tax, where the rate you pay depends on your relation to the deceased.

7. Gift taxes

The gift tax is similar to the estate tax, in that it is a tax on transferring wealth. One important difference is that gift taxes involve two living people, Lundeen added. The federal government also has a far lower exemption level for the gift tax than it does for the estate tax. All gifts over $14,000 are taxable, with the tax usually being paid by the donor. If the donor does not pay, however, the recipient must foot the bill. The highest gift tax rate is 40% of the taxable gift amount. This tax applies not only to cash, but also to gifts like company shares or cars. Last year, Minnesota became the second state to implement its own gift tax, following Connecticut.

Correction: An earlier version of this article stated that recipients paid taxes on gifts. In fact, while the recipient is legally obligated to pay the tax if the donor not, the tax is generally paid by the donor.
Without a pension? Move to smaller nest, investment income and savings

Make income investments. Non-pensioners and corporate pension holders with household incomes of $100,000 or more have an average of $438,000 in investable assets, versus $313,000 for those with government pensions. Putting those assets to work in income-producing investments, such as annuities and bonds, may make sense.

Move to a smaller nest. The average non-pensioner has considerably more home equity–$168,000—than the average pensioner. To tap into that equity, those without pensions should plan on downsizing.

Save during the good times. During their working years, 30% of non-pensioners and 24% of people with private pensions have incomes that vary from month to month. In contrast, only 13% of government workers experience variable incomes. Those with variable incomes should bank the excess they receive in flush months, says Varas. Among retirees who manage to save ten times their income by the time they retire – a threshold associated with a financially secure retirement about 64% employed such a strategy.  Save at 13.5% return, tax free, safe and secured with access to funds during health threats, contact Connie Dello Buono CA Life Lic 0G60621, 408-854-1883 ; motherhealth@gmail.com , 1708 Hallmark Lane San Jose CA 95124


A $9,000 lost by each American from the 2008 recession, by Rick Newman

The U.S. economy might finally bounce back for good in 2014, springboarding the nation out of five years of stagnation. So if you feel like we’re still in a recession, are you imagining things?

Not at all. In fact, some economists think we’re in a kind of faux recovery that masks deep harm still being done to the economic prospects of millions of Americans. Brad DeLong, an economist at the University of California, Berkeley, and a government policymaker during the Clinton administration, wrote recently that, “unless something returns the U.S. to its pre-2008 growth trajectory, future economic historians will not regard the Great Depression as the worst business-cycle disaster of the industrial age. It is we who are living in their worst case.”

Worse than the Depression? By most measures, the economy has been weak since 2008, but not nearly as ruinous as in the 1930s. But DeLong has crunched some numbers in a way that helps explain why many people still feel they’re falling behind, even with an economy that has supposedly been growing every year since 2010.

GDP began to decline in 2008, and it wasn’t until 2010 that it reclaimed the 2008 peak. Adjusted for inflation, GDP peaked in 2007 and didn’t reach that level again until 2011. DeLong goes one step further, adjusting GDP for both inflation and population growth, to capture the state of the economy most people actually feel. By that measure, real (inflation-adjusted) GDP growth per capita won’t reach the 2007 peak until sometime in 2014.

A lower output

The growth in real economic output per person has averaged about 2% per year for the past century. So if growth has been essentially zero for the past seven years, says DeLong, output is 14% lower than it would have been had the economy been growing at normal rates.

Such statements tend to leave ordinary people wondering, “So what?” But DeLong has addressed the so-what question. That output gap, he says, amounts to about $9,000 per person each year in terms of money not spent on goods and services that could have made people’s lives better. That’s roughly equal to a year’s worth of mortgage payments on a $200,000 home. For a family of four, the lost output adds up to about $36,000 per year — the equivalent of a fully loaded Ford Fusion sedan. And the per capita output gap is likely to get even bigger if growth continues on the current trendline.

That doesn’t mean everybody would have automatically become wealthier if not for the 2008 financial meltdown and corresponding recession. Median incomes had been stagnant for nearly a decade by the time the recession hit, on account of factors such as globalization and the digital revolution. The divide between haves and have-nots had been widening, too, with highly skilled technocrats generally prospering and lower-skilled workers in fading industries falling behind, perhaps never to catch up.

Even if that $9,000 in per capita output hadn’t disappeared, it wouldn’t have been divided evenly among all Americans. The wealthy probably would have captured more of it, the poor less. And it’s always tricky accounting for what didn’t happen, since it’s impossible to know what else might have occurred to make things better or worse.

But DeLong’s calculations help explain the sense of backsliding many Americans seem to feel. In 2007, during the prior peak for real GDP, the Conference Board’s consumer-confidence index was around 91. Today, with the total level of real GDP higher, it’s at 78. Back then, 27% of poll respondents told Gallup they were satisfied with the way things are going in the United States; in the latest poll, only 20% felt this way.

Still, it could be worse. A recent study by two prominent Harvard economists, Ken Rogoff and Carmen Reinhart, found financial crises such as the one that erupted in 2008 usually produce worse downturns than what we’ve experienced. Rogoff and Reinhart are controversial because of some mathematical errors in a previous study of debt-ridden nations, but they are still considered premier chroniclers of finanicial panics. And on average, they find, such panics cut per-capita real GDP by 9%, requiring 6.7 years for the economy to recover. The latest crisis, by their account, caused only a 5% decline in GDP, followed by a six-year recovery.

So take heart: Had the 2008 crisis been a more like a “normal” one, your family might have lost a Mercedes rather than a Ford.


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