Boron in Almonds and avocados for your bones

boron.JPGBoron is a trace mineral you probably don’t think of when it comes to bone health, and you’re not alone there. We’ve covered Vitamin D, calcium, and even Vitamin K. Many people even remember that magnesium is important for bone health, and most everyone knows we need protein for strong bones. But … what about other trace minerals we need to stay healthy? Boron is one of the most important trace minerals among them all, and the good news is, it’s found in many plant-based foods.

But first, what does boron do?

The Benefits of Boron for Your Bones

Boron helps keep your bones healthy and strong, and it also fuels cognitive function and prevents against bone disease. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are two common bone disorders that many women deal with due to hormonal changes during life, along with nutritional deficiencies that can happen for a variety of reasons. Boron helps preserve bone density, which is important since frail, weak bones lead to most bone disorders and bone loss. Fractures can also occur due to weak bones, which makes getting enough bone-boosting vitamins and minerals into our diets important.

If you’ve been focusing on calcium and protein-rich foods, and maybe even taking Vitamin D (get some sunshine and exercise ) supplements and magnesium, then also consider adding some boron-rich foods to your meals, just to be safe. But first, be aware that a little of this mineral will go a long way.

How Much Do You Need?

The good news is, you don’t need very much boron to for healthy bones. The recommended intake is between 15-20 milligrams for adults over 18 age, and 11-16 grams for those younger. To give you an idea of how rich plant-based foods are in this mineral, just one banana and one serving of almonds both boast 2.5 milligrams each.

Swimming, racquet sports and aerobics are associated with the best odds of staving off death

SWIM.JPGLONDON (Reuters) – Swimming, racquet sports and aerobics are associated with the best odds of staving off death, and in particular of reducing the risk of dying from heart disease or stroke, scientists said on Tuesday.

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In a study of various types of exercise and their risk levels, the researchers found that participation in specific sports showed significant benefits for public health, and urged doctors and policymakers to encourage people to take them up.

While the research, published in the British Journal and Sports Medicine, showed no added advantage for people who favor running and football or rugby, independent experts said this was purely due to the design of the study.

“This study must not be misinterpreted as showing that running and football do not protect against heart disease,” said Tim Chico, a consultant cardiologist at professor at Britain’s Sheffield University who was asked to comment on the findings.

The study analysed data from 11 annual health surveys for England and Scotland carried out between 1994 and 2008, covering 80,306 adults with an average age of 52.

Participants were asked about what type and how much exercise they had done in the preceding four weeks, and whether it had been enough to make them breathless and sweaty.

Exercise included heavy domestic chores and gardening; walking; cycling;swimming; aerobics, gymnastics or dance; running; football or rugby; and badminton, tennis or squash.

The survival of each participant was tracked for an average of nine years, during which time 8,790 of them died from all causes and 1,909 from heart disease or stroke.

Overall, compared with respondents who had not done a given sport, risk of death during the follow up period from any cause was 47 percent lower among those who played racquet sports, 28 percent lower among swimmers, 27 percent lower among dance aerobics fans and 15 percent lower among cyclists.

In death from heart disease and stroke, the study found racquet sports players had a 56 percent lower risk, with 41 percent for swimming and 36 percent for aerobics, compared with those who did not participate in these sports.

Chico said the study did find that both runners and footballers had a lower rate of death from heart disease. “Although this was not ‘statistically significant’, many other studies have found that runners live longer and suffer less heart disease,” he said.

“I will continue to tell my patients that regular physical activity (including running) is more effective in reducing their risk of heart disease than any drug I can prescribe.”

 

Anabolic and catabolic process, hormones and exercise

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The body faces a catabolic state during normal metabolic functions. This idea, opposed to an anabolic state, actually defines the breakdown of foods and nutrients so that they will later have the ability to build up and add to the muscle or tissue growth process.

Exercise

Catabolic exercises are largely aerobic, meaning they consume oxygen, and help burn calories and fat. The use of oxygen is a key factor in catabolism, as oxygen is a reducing agent in many chemical processes. Typical catabolic/aerobic exercises are jogging, cycling, swimming, dancing or any physical activity done for at least 20 minutes at moderate intensity. Time is a major factor in getting results because after about 15-20 minutes, the body switches from using glucose and glycogen to using fat to sustain the energy requirements of the body. For that catabolic process, oxygen is required. By combining aerobic and anaerobic exercises on a consistent basis, a person can use anabolic and catabolic processes to reach or maintain an ideal body weight as well as improve and sustain overall health.

Anabolic processes

Anabolic processes use simple molecules within the organism to create more complex and specialized compounds. This synthesis, the creation of a product from a series of components, is why anabolism is also called “biosynthesis.” The process uses energy to create its end products, which the organism can use to sustain itself, grow, heal, reproduce or adjust to changes in its environment. Growing in height and muscle mass are two basic anabolic processes. At the cellular level, anabolic processes can use small molecules called monomers to build polymers, resulting in often highly complex molecules. For example, amino acids (monomers) can be synthesized into proteins (polymers), much like a builder can use bricks to create a large variety of buildings.

Catabolic processes

Catabolic processes break down complex compounds and molecules to release energy. This creates the metabolic cycle, where anabolism then creates other molecules that catabolism breaks down, many of which remain in the organism to be used again.

The principal catabolic process is digestion, where nutrient substances are ingested and broken down into simpler components for the body to use. In cells, catabolic processes break down polysaccharides such as starch, glycogen, and cellulose into monosaccharides (glucose, ribose and fructose, for example) for energy. Proteins are broken down into amino acids, for use in anabolic synthesis of new compounds or for recycling. And nucleic acids, found in RNA and DNA, are catabolized into nucleotides as part of the body’s energy needs or for the purpose of healing.

The Catabolic Idea

By defining the catabolic state within the human body, avid fitness enthusiasts have the ability to achieve their goals more easily. For example, by knowing that muscles actually endure a break down phase because of hormones released during each workout, you have the ability to counteract this phenomenon by consuming high-quality nutrient sources before, during or after your exercise sessions.

In the most basic written form, the catabolic process involves anything and everything that naturally occurs or induces the breakdown of larger molecules into several smaller building blocks. These separate parts eventually combine in a process known as anabolism, which greatly benefits muscle tissue growth.

Both catabolism and anabolism work together naturally in the human body in order to maintain a healthy energy level and durable, functional muscle tissue. However, before any muscle gains the ability to benefit from these two major processes, simple scientific factors have to take their proper course.

The Catabolic Process

When food enters the body, from the very first moment, larger sized molecules naturally become smaller. The idea of digestion actually implies catabolism. Once food particles break down into smaller nutrients, these chemical strains that once composed the larger nutrient molecules release energy through an oxidation process.

The catabolic process releases energy that works to help maintain proper muscle activity. The oxidation process that occurs during catabolism helps synthesize the necessary chemical building blocks that adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Multiple ATP molecules give cells the power to transfer more energy produced during the catabolic process to the anabolic process.

In basic terms, catabolism acts as the sole energy provider for the proper preservation and growth in nearly all cells.

Importance of Catabolism

Aside from helping fuel the human body with energy that’s necessary to grow and function, catabolism sometimes acts as a negative process that leads to adverse health effects. This does not occur often, but when the body has an extremely high rate of catabolism, as opposed to anabolism, muscle tissue and essential fat deposits found within the body become depleted.

For example, during rest, the body tends to recover and remain in an anabolic state. When the body does not properly rest for long periods of time, as in prolonged vigorous exercise, muscle tissue will continue to break down. Without proper nutritional intake, the natural process of tissue growth and repair will not take place.

Catabolism is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy, or used in other anabolic reactions.[1] Catabolism breaks down large molecules (such as polysaccharides, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins) into smaller units (such as monosaccharides, fatty acids, nucleotides, and amino acids, respectively).

Cells use the monomers released from breaking down polymers to either construct new polymer molecules, or degrade the monomers further to simple waste products, releasing energy. Cellular wastes include lactic acid, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and urea. The creation of these wastes is usually an oxidation process involving a release of chemical free energy, some of which is lost as heat, but the rest of which is used to drive the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This molecule acts as a way for the cell to transfer the energy released by catabolism to the energy-requiring reactions that make up anabolism. (Catabolism is seen as destructive metabolism and anabolism as constructive metabolism). Catabolism therefore provides the chemical energy necessary for the maintenance and growth of cells. Examples of catabolic processes include glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, the breakdown of muscle protein in order to use amino acids as substrates for gluconeogenesis, the breakdown of fat in adipose tissue to fatty acids, and oxidative deamination of neurotransmitters by monoamine oxidase.

Hormones

There are many signals that control catabolism. Most of the known signals are hormones and the molecules involved in metabolism itself. Endocrinologists have traditionally classified many of the hormones as anabolic or catabolic, depending on which part of metabolism they stimulate. The so-called classic catabolic hormones known since the early 20th century are cortisol, glucagon, and adrenaline (and other catecholamines).

In recent decades, many more hormones with at least some catabolic effects have been discovered, including cytokines, orexin (also known as hypocretin), and melatonin.

Many of these catabolic hormones express an anti-catabolic effect in muscle tissue. One study found that the administration of epinephrine (adrenaline) had an anti-proteolytic effect, and in fact suppressed catabolism rather than promoted it.[2] Another study found that catecholamines in general (the main ones being, epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine), greatly decreased the rate of muscle catabolism.

Catabolic hormones include:

  • Adrenaline: Also called “epinephrine,” adrenaline is produced by the adrenal glands. It is the key component of the “fight or flight” response that accelerates heart rate, opens up bronchioles in the lungs for better oxygen absorption and floods the body with glucose for fast energy.
  • Cortisol: Also produced in the adrenal glands, cortisol is known as the “stress hormone.” It is released during times of anxiety, nervousness or when the organism feels prolonged discomfort. It increases blood pressure, blood sugar levels and suppresses the body’s immune processes.
  • Glucagon: Produced by the alpha cells in the pancreas, glucagon stimulates the breakdown of glycogen into glucose. Glycogen is stored in the liver and when the body needs more energy (exercise, fighting, high level of stress), glucagon stimulates the liver to catabolize glycogen, which enters the blood as glucose.
  • Cytokines: This hormone is a small protein that regulates communication and interactions between cells. Cytokines are constantly being produced and broken down in the body, where their amino acids are either reused or recycled for other processes. Two examples of cytokines are interleukin and lymphokines, most often released during the body’s immune response to invasion (bacteria, virus, fungus, tumor) or injury.

Foods

Foods with very high water content, such as celery, also have this tiny catabolic effect. But the nutritional value of water and celery are not high enough to properly sustain an organism, so relying solely on these foods to lose weight can lead to serious health complications

What is your molecular age? P16 protein can ID your molecular age

Aging biomarket test –  coming soon

Researchers report the development of a new blood test that they say may show your “molecular age,” as opposed to your chronological age.

That test measures levels of a protein called p16. A new study shows that p16 levels rise as people age, that smokers have higher levels of p16 than nonsmokers, and that people who exercise have lower levels of p16.

The test isn’t available to the public yet. But if it was, would you want to know your “molecular age”?

Let’s say you took the test and found out your molecular age was greater than your chronological age, suggesting that your aging process is on the fast track. Or maybe you’d find out that the opposite is true, that your clock isn’t ticking quite as fast as you thought.

What would you do with that information? Would it spur you to make lifestyle changes to try to stave off aging, or would you be looking for reassurance that your healthy habits are paying off?

Role in senescence

Concentrations of p16INK4a increase dramatically as tissue ages. p16INK4a, along with senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, is regarded to be a biomarker of cellular senescence.[32] Therefore, p16INK4a could potentially be used as a blood test that measures how fast the body’s tissues are aging at a molecular level.[33]

It has been used as a target to delay some aging changes in mice. P16 along with SABG can be a biomarker of cellular senescence.

Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-β-gal or SABG) is a hypothetical hydrolase enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of β-galactosidesinto monosaccharides only in senescent cells. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, along with p16Ink4A, is regarded to be a biomarker of cellular senescence.[1]

Its existence was proposed in 1995 by Dimri et al.[2] following the observation that when beta-galactosidase assays were carried out at pH 6.0, only cells in senescence state develop staining. They proposed a cytochemical assay based on production of a blue-dyed precipitate that results from the cleavage of the chromogenic substrate X-Gal. Since then, even more specific quantitative assays were developed for its detection at pH 6.0.[3][4][5]

Today this phenomenon is explained by the overexpression and accumulation of the endogenous lysosomal beta-galactosidase specifically in senescent cells.[6] Its expression is not required for senescence. However, it remains as the most widely used biomarker for senescent and aging cells, because it is easy to detect and reliable both in situ and in vitro.

P16 Role in cancer

Mutations resulting in deletion or reduction of function of the CDKN2A gene are associated with increased risk of a wide range of cancers and alterations of the gene are frequently seen in cancer cell lines.[13][14] Examples include:

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is often associated with mutations in the CDKN2A gene.[15][16][17]

Carriers of germline mutations in CDKN2A have besides their high risks of melanoma also increased risks of pancreatic, lung, laryngeal and oropharyngeal cancers and tobacco smoking exacerbates carriers’ susceptibility for such non-melanoma cancers.[18]

Homozygous deletion of p16 are frequently found in esophageal cancer and gastric cancer cell lines.[19]

Germline mutations in CDKN2A are associated with an increased susceptibility to develop skin cancer.[20]

Hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes has been implicated in various cancers. In 2013, a meta-analysis of 39 articles using analysis cancer tissues and 7 articles using blood samples, revealed an increased frequency of DNA methylation of p16 gene in esophageal cancer. As the degree of tumor differentiation increased, so did the frequency of DNA methylation.

Tissue samples of primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) display hypermethylation in the promoter regions of p16. Cancer cells show a significant increase in the accumulation of methylation in CpG islands in the promoter region of p16. This epigenetic change leads to the loss of tumor suppressor gene function through two possible mechanisms. Methylation can physically inhibit the transcription of the gene or methylation can lead to the recruitment of transcription factors that repress transcription. Both mechanisms lead to the same end result—downregulation of gene expression that leads to decreased levels of the p16 protein. It has been suggested that this process is responsible for the development of various forms of cancer serving as an alternative process to gene deletion or mutation.[21][22][23][24][25][26]

Clinical use

Use as a biomarker

Furthermore, p16 is now being explored as a prognostic biomarker for a number of cancers. For patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, using immunohistochemistry to detect the presence of the p16 biomarker has been shown to be the strongest indicator of disease course. Presence of the biomarker is associated with a more favorable prognosis as measured by cancer-specific survival (CSS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), locoregional control (LRC), as well as other measurements. The appearance of hyper methylation of p16 is also being evaluated as a potential prognostic biomarker for prostate cancer.[27][28][29]

p16 FISH

p16 deletion detected by FISH in surface epithelial mesothelial proliferations is predictive of underlying invasive mesothelioma.[30]

p16 immunochemistry

Gynecologic cancers

p16 is a widely used immunohistochemical marker in gynecologic pathology. Strong and diffuse cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of p16 in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the female genital tract is strongly associated with high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and neoplasms of cervical origin. The majority of SCCs of uterine cervix express p16. However, p16 can be expressed in other neoplasms and in several normal human tissues.[31]

Urinary bladder SCCs

More than a third of urinary bladder SCCs express p16. SCCs of urinary bladder express p16 independent of gender. p16 immunohistochemical expression alone cannot be used to discriminate between SCCs arising from uterine cervix versus urinary bladder.[31]

Email motherhealth@gmail.com if you want more info on testing your molecular age next year as we will add this service at avatarcare.net  soon.


P16 (gene) has been shown to interact with:

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Exercise your brain with cross-fit training

It’s been three months with a crossfit training coach at NC Fit when my coach asked me why I attend my 30min group training every day. I told my coach Brandon, that I wanted to increase 10 yrs in my life. I want to help raise my future grandchildren and be able to experience life everyday and share it with others.

http://nc.fit/memberships

Mention my name (Connie Dello Buono) when joining this cross fit gym in the bay area. My team asked what I eat for breakfast and I said one pouched egg and Roibois tea. I also use VEGA protein powder and Garden of Life after working out. My mom cooks fish and veggie for me and my friend shares his garden produce with me.

I want to be a good example for my children and hopefully I will not spend any fortune when it is time for me to be taken cared for during old age.

I worked two jobs, sending my children to college and some nieces in the Philippines to college. I have a fitness and financial goals.

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150 min of moderate-intensity exercise per week

500 metabolic equivalents per week (MET/week)  or 150 min of moderate-intensity exercise per week reduces the occurrence of major cancers by 20%.

METs and MET-minutes

A well-known physiologic effect of physical activity is that it expends energy. A metabolic equivalent, or MET, is a unit useful for describing the energy expenditure of a specific activity. A MET is the ratio of the rate of energy expended during an activity to the rate of energy expended at rest. For example, 1 MET is the rate of energy expenditure while at rest. A 4 MET activity expends 4 times the energy used by the body at rest. If a person does a 4 MET activity for 30 minutes, he or she has done 4 x 30 = 120 MET-minutes (or 2.0 MET-hours) of physical activity. A person could also achieve 120 MET-minutes by doing an 8 MET activity for 15 minutes.

MET-Minutes and Health Benefits

A key finding of the Advisory Committee Report is that the health benefits of physical activity depend mainly on total weekly energy expenditure due to physical activity. In scientific terms, this range is 500 to 1,000 MET-minutes per week. A range is necessary because the amount of physical activity necessary to produce health benefits cannot yet be identified with a high degree of precision; this amount varies somewhat by the health benefit. For example, activity of 500 MET-minutes a week results in a substantial reduction in the risk of premature death, but activity of more than 500 MET-minutes a week is necessary to achieve a substantial reduction in the risk of breast cancer.

Dose Response

The Advisory Committee concluded that a dose-response relationship exists between physical activity and health benefits. A range of 500 to 1,000 MET-minutes of activity per week provides substantial benefit, and amounts of activity above this range have even more benefit. Amounts of activity below this range also have some benefit. The dose-response relationship continues even within the range of 500 to 1,000 MET-minutes, in that the health benefits of 1,000 MET-minutes per week are greater than those of 500 MET-minutes per week.

Two Methods of Assessing Aerobic Intensity

The intensity of aerobic physical activity can be defined in absolute or relative terms.

Absolute Intensity

The Advisory Committee concluded that absolute moderate-intensity or vigorous-intensity physical activity is necessary for substantial health benefits, and it defined absolute aerobic intensity in terms of METs:

  • Light-intensity activities are defined as 1.1 MET to 2.9 METs.
  • Moderate-intensity activities are defined as 3.0 to 5.9 METs. Walking at 3.0 miles per hour requires 3.3 METs of energy expenditure and is therefore considered a moderate-intensity activity.
  • Vigorous-intensity activities are defined as 6.0 METs or more. Running at 10 minutes per mile (6.0 mph) is a 10 MET activity and is therefore classified as vigorous intensity.

Relative Intensity

Intensity can also be defined relative to fitness, with the intensity expressed in terms of a percent of a person’s (1) maximal heart rate, (2) heart rate reserve, or (3) aerobic capacity reserve. The Advisory Committee regarded relative moderate intensity as 40 to 59 percent of aerobic capacity reserve (where 0 percent of reserve is resting and 100 percent of reserve is maximal effort). Relatively vigorous-intensity activity is 60 to 84 percent of reserve.

To better communicate the concept of relative intensity (or relative level of effort), the Guidelines adopted a simpler definition:

  • Relatively moderate-intensity activity is a level of effort of 5 or 6 on a scale of 0 to 10, where 0 is the level of effort of sitting, and 10 is maximal effort.
  • Relatively vigorous-intensity activity is a 7 or 8 on this scale. This simplification was endorsed by the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association in their recent guidelines for older adults.1 This approach does create a minor difference from the Advisory Committee Report definitions, however. A 5 or 6 on a 0 to 10 scale is essentially 45 percent to 64 percent of aerobic capacity reserve for moderate intensity. Similarly, a 7 or 8 on a 0 to 10 scale means 65 percent to 84 percent of reserve is the range for relatively vigorous-intensity activity.

Filipinos, the happiest people in the world

How would you know that you are in a Filipino party?

  • You’re an hour late and there’s still nobody there!
  • There’s enough food to feed the entire batallion or infantry.
  • You can not even get through the door because there’s a pile of 50 shoes blocking the way.
  • When you enter the house you see a piano, a huge fork and spoon on the wall, a framed picture of the Last Supper, a huge Santo Nino, and a barrel man (carved in Baguio).
  • You hear guests singing “Peelings” or “My Way” on karaoke.
  • You are greeted and hug by a Tita Baby and/or a Tito Boy.

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  • There’s a goat or kambing ‘papait’ being warmed up and the men are already in their watering hole starting the ‘kilawen’ and ‘sisig’ pulutan with their favorite Blue Label or Hennesy XO drinks. Very cold San Mig Light or white wine is also served for those suffering from gout.
  • There’s a crazy fat woman with a camera going around the room snapping away and yelling, “Uy peeeek-chuuur for sobenir!”
  • You enter a family party and you “Mano” to half the old crowd and when you leave you have to say goodbye to EVERYONE that’s related to you as a sign of respect.
  • You end up saying hello and goodbye for a total of 30-40 minutes.
  • You will also hear an old male’s out-of-tune voice on the karaoke trying hard to imitate Frank Sinatra or Elvis Presley’s voice.
  • Uncles and Aunties are now doing the line dance – ‘Electric Slide’, ‘todo- todo’, etc., and do other ballroom dancing feats as if they are still in their teenage years.
  • Among the younger guests, there’s at least one or more with the name: JP, JJ, JT,TJ, DJ, AJ, RJ, LJ, Lingling, Ningning, Bingbing,Tingting, Dingding, Wengweng, Bongbong, Dongdong, etc.
  • All the old aunties and guests are already wrapping up food to take home while more guests are still coming.
  • You have the Pacquiao fight on the illegal cable boxes on the 70″ LCD in the movie room, the 10 yr-old 50″ CRT in the living room, the 15 yr-old 30″ tube in the breakfast nook, the 20 yr-old 15″ tube in the kitchen, the 30 yr-old 13″ tube in the garage and the little portable by the BBQ grill or gazebo because TVs are NEVER retired in a Filipino household, they merely get demoted or moved to whichever room doesn’t have a TV yet(hahaha), then it ends up in the balikbayan box to be sent to a relative back home, and it ends up being the main TV at the house living room again.
  • The aunties and other female guests are showing off their “designer” Louis Vuitton and Coach bags that they secretly bought at Divisoria, Tiangge or in a local swap-meet.
  • Someone is always in the kitchen constantly cleaning up, and you’re not sure if she’s the hired part-time maid or a relative, but you greet and kiss her on the cheek anyway.
  • Relatives/friends will ask you where you work and if it’s a retail job or if you work at an amusement park, they’ll ask if you can get them a discount or special coupon.

  • The lumpia is gone in 5 minutes and they are frying up another batch while the large Litson didn’t last 15 minutes and it looks like it was swarmed by hungry piranhas, even the apple in the pig’s mouth is missing.
  • What starts as a religious gathering turns into an illegal gambling set up by the end of the night!
  • Elder men are in the garage playing posoy-dos, or poker or 31, the women are in the kitchen gossiping, or are playing mahjong, the other people are in the entertainment room singing and dancing the night away, and the kids are outside playing.

ARE YOU NOT PROUD OF BEING A FILIPINO?

WE ARE THE MOST HAPPIEST PEOPLE IN THE WORLD!