Top aging and health hacks March 2018

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Eggplant and apple cider vinegar for skin cancer
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Signs of the preactive/ active phase of dying and medications for terminally ill
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Home page / Archives
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DMSO, hydrogen peroxide and Vit C fight cancer cells
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Non pasteurized beers have more health benefits
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Philippines Coconut Wine -Tuba
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Nitric Oxide Dump Exercise with nose breathing to lower blood pressure and thin blood
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MEDICATIONS TO AVOID that worse PD (Parkinson’s disease)
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Can Gout be cured permanently?
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Increase the body’s oxygen carrying capacity with exercise, EPO and whole foods
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Foods to eat and avoid when you have Gout and leg pains
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Fatigue and Red (bloodshot) eyes from WebMD
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Apple cider vinegar kills parasites, cleansing to the liver and prevents stroke
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Avoid chronic bronchitis with green apple, onions, garlic, vinegar and rest
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Can balsamic vinegar help with gout?
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Eat protein-rich food when drinking alcohol to protect your stomach
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Detox your lungs from air pollution and metal toxins and for early lung cancer
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What’s a good analogy to explain the immune system?
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Anabolic and catabolic process, hormones and exercise
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Iodine prevents cancer growth; up avocado and reduce caffeine intake to prevent Thyroid cancer
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Fight VIRUS with Enzymes from pineapple and papaya, baking soda, alkaline food, calcium and magnesium from whole foods
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Growth hormone DHEA increases libido/anti-aging
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How important is the thymus gland in keeping your body free from diseases?
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Gastroparesis, Betain HCL, diabetes and stomach health
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Fasting, sun bathing ,Vit C, Lysine, turmeric, green tea, carrots and raw food diet to reduce tumor size
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When will Souvenaid become available in Canada and US to treat Alzheimer’s Disease?
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Toxicology test for pregnant women
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Lung cancer in the Philippines
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Massage oil of fresh ginger and coconut oil relieves joint pain
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Nitric Oxide for strong blood vessels’ cells , up with exercise, melons, cucumber, Vit C, E, amino acid – L-arginine, L-citrulline
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Top aging and health hacks 2-28-2018
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Paul Ryan and Mitch McConnell implicated in Russia-Trump
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How does a CBC test for a leukemia patient usually look like?
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Anti-aging Vitamin B3, Niacin
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16 Tips On How To Treat HPV Naturally And Effectively At Home
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Browning or caramelized sugar is a carcinogen
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Mullein herb for lung and breast health – COPD signs, symptoms and diagnosis
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Does drinking warm water reduce cholesterol?
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Philippines president Dutarte asked each town to prepare a list of drug users and pushers
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Hiatal Hernia, Pancreatitis, Pancreatic Cancer and the Western Diet
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24-hr lip stain for powerful lips
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Vagus nerve stimulation thru breathing, laughs and yoga
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Association of Coffee Consumption With Total and Cause-Specific Mortality Among Nonwhite Populations
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Top aging and health hacks 3-2-2018
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Digestive enzymes help in healing fractures, preventing kidney stones and heart disease and more
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Blindness and Amnesia cure using Optogenetics
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Parkinson and Exercises
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Anti-aging and Parkinson/Alzheimer’s prevention: Enzymes and apple cider vinegar
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Gout, Dementia, Chelation Therapy
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Restore your vision naturally y Dr. Mercola
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Boron fights radiation by Dr Mercola
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Slimy veggies, saluyot and okra fight cancer
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Potassium rich foods in the afternoon and sodium rich foods in the morning for sleep
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Eating Fish May Reduce Multiple Sclerosis Risk
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Ask Connie at Quora
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Philippine lawyers sue Sanofi over dengue vaccine
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Top aging and health hacks to prevent chronic disease 2-23-2018
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Salt and protein to sleep and blame ‘Food Coma’ on the brain
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Neck pain and MTHFR gene , folate , methionine
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Metabolic pathway provides cues for cancer, aging and health care
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What will happen if a person accidentally drinks kerosene/petrol/diesel?
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Mineral Nutrients Balance
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Parasites and their effects on your immune system
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Spices that boost testosterone
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Connection between light sensitive nerve cells in eyes and brain that regulate mood
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In Pursuit of Pleasure, the Brain Learns to Hit the Repeat Button
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Cooked your greens rich in oxalates to prevent kidney stones
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Conor James Lamb –  Pennsylvania’s 18th congressional district
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Eggplant and apple cider vinegar for skin cancer
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About Connie
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Coconut oil, ground ginger, ground cayenne pepper, ground turmeric, grapeseed oil as anti-arthritis balm for pain relief
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Anti-aging steroids, pregnenolone, progesterone and DHEA
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Inflammation to colitis to Alzheimer’s disease
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In Sympathetic Nervous System Why the digestion of food is slow? Where as in fight or flight we need more energy.?
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Connie answered 1261 questions at Quora.com
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Dr Mercola’s book – Fat for Fuel
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Weird Facts about Tall and Short People by Lisa Collier Cool
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Roman Coriander, Fennel flower or Black Cumin Seed Oil as an anti-tumor, anti-gastritis and anti-convulsant oil
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Lung cancer and heavy metal toxins
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Cash flow analysis worksheet template
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Potassium rich foods in the afternoon and sodium rich foods in the morning for sleep
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Cooked your greens rich in oxalates to prevent kidney stones
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IRS-1 protein in blood, indicative of Alzheimer
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Top aging and health hacks 3-6-2018
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MSM powder benefits – Alzheimer is a sulfur deficiency
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How the Naked Mole Rat Escapes Inflammatory Pain
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Dark purple berries or Black currant juice and eggs for upping up sex drive
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Caregivers and caregiving agencies helping seniors, be added in our list
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Philippine lawyers sue Sanofi over dengue vaccine
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Acetylcholine/Choline Deficiency in Chronic Illness – eat soft boiled eggs
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Your complete DNA sequence will help shape the future of medicine
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Domino Effect: Individual Damaged Neuron Types Cause Neurodegenerative Diseases
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Mineral Nutrients Balance
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Resveratrol and calorie restriction activates SIRT1 , anti-aging gene
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Cardio-based body weight exercises
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Ultrasound kills bacteria , frequency and music killing cancer cells
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Leaky gut, leaky brain, eat your garlic and pickles by C Guthrie
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San Diego , CA vs Boulder, Colorado – 2017 health outcomes
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Immune system could help treat inflammation
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Less melanin in white people leads to less folate for blood production
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Tanglad or lemongrass to help lower blood pressure
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Health Innovation and start-ups
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Caregiver skills and pay
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What are the benefits of eating chicken soup during pregnancy?
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20 Best Islands in The Philippines for Beach Getaways
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How the Brain Makes Predictions
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About Connie
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Alzheimer’s Risk Factors By Dr Daniel Amen
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Shark oil for your skin, wound healing and overall health
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Surviving prostate cancer by Dr Mercola
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Alzheimer’s, pork and food statistics
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Potassium rich foods in the afternoon and sodium rich foods in the morning for sleep
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Dr Mercola: Drink beet juice an hour before exercise
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California’s great economy needs 1M more housing, 1M skilled jobs and water
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Anti-stress compound reduces obesity and diabetes risk
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Breast milk, saw palmetto, bitter melon and virgin coconut oil for fat digestion
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Copper is essential for burning fat
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Carcinogenic TBHQ in ramen noodles
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Menu for the healthy plus kitchen tips
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TP53 gene affects tumor suppression
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What is Precision, predictive and Personalize Medicine vs patient-centered care
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Cayenne pepper fights cancer
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Ask Connie at Quora
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Increase the body’s oxygen carrying capacity with exercise, EPO and whole foods
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Hawaii vs San Mateo health outcomes
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Stressed mothers and their children with binge eating habits later
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Modular homes at $100k 200 sq ft vs $50k 1000 sq ft
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Whole foods prevent inflammation
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Genetic Marker for Stroke and Cardiovascular Disease – Folate and Vit B12 pathways
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Critical Appraisal of Health Economic Evaluation Studies
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Guava and water apple to fight diabetes
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Potassium and the brain
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Vitamin B and Pineapple for nerve damage by Dr E. Kane
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Root Canal and Implants by Dr Mercola
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Personalized Diet ebook
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Curcumin: anti-parasitic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, gastrointestinal effects, inhibits carcinogenesis and cancer growth
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20 Minutes of Exercise May Suppress Inflammation
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Alerts you of your expenses, a personal concierge, travel club and more
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Restless Legs Syndrome in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease
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How the US Health Care System is financed
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My artist daughter inspired to work
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Top aging and health hacks 3-7-2018
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Hawaii vs San Mateo health outcomes
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Potassium for weight loss
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Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale, a test of sociopathy
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1980 is the lowest in US health care spending, 2000 is the highest
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Esther’s painting of Taal volcano, Philippines
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Drug Interaction Probability Scale – DIPS
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Robert Mueller III stood up against corruption
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Shingles Natural Treatments
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Inability of the muscle to transport sugar into the muscle cell is what leads to higher blood sugar levels
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Healing your body with Nutritional Food plan by Dr Mercola
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Fidgeting – boosting attention levels and weight management to stress relief,
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30% cheaper to live in Toronto Canada than in New York
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My artist daughter inspired to work
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Sleep, obesity, Type 2 diabetes and metabolic disorders
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Where can I buy an Apple watch in Bangkok with many bands to choose from?
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Disease prediction with HELO wearable, own a piece of the market
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Fresh raw marijuana nutrition facts
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Boron in Almonds and avocados for your bones
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Polyphenols protect the brain from Parkinson and aging
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Naturally produced opioids may be better at reducing anxiety and fear
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Pineapple, celery, carrots and Arthritis
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Philippines Coconut Wine -Tuba
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Most air polluted cities in California
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Foods that delay the rate of brain atrophy in patients with Alzheimer’s disease
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San Mateo vs Santa Cruz, CA health outcome
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Shape of microbes matter in phagocytosis
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California’s great economy needs 1M more housing, 1M skilled jobs and water
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Mueller and Trump: Born to wealth, raised to lead. Then, sharply different choices.
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Tryptophan – Niacin – NAD = Anti-aging
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Good fats, SCFA – short chain fatty acids
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Your own health food store with free Bahamas trip – Valentine sales
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Revolutionizing Medical Imaging through Artificial Intelligence
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Top aging and health posts during the last 90 days
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We service bay area for in home care
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miRNA inherited disease, DNA repair, cancer, alcoholism, obesity,heart disease
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More nitrate-reducing bacteria in saliva causes Migraine
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Stopping Exercise Decreases Brain Blood Flow
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Fungus , raw carrots and prostate cancer
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Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale, a test of sociopathy
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Infected water from animal manure, prion disease and Parkinson
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MEDICATIONS TO AVOID that worse PD (Parkinson’s disease)
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Can percumin prevent Parkinson’s disease?
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Galangal in Thai curry fights cancer cells
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Antisocial personality disorder in 70% of prison inmates
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If You Get the Chills From Music, you have ability to feel intense emotions
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If our brain becomes desensitised to serotonin flooding (MAOA gene fault), why doesn’t it become desensitised to dopamine flooding in sch…
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Racial disparities in concentrated poverty in major US cities 2009-13
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Lactic acid bacteria in the diet can prevent a type of depression
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San Mateo top health outcome and Fresno , 52nd bottom health outcome
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Save $5000 per year by taking care of your heart and liver
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San Diego , CA vs Boulder, Colorado – 2017 health outcomes
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Stop female genital mutilation
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Dr. Nathan Newman on stem cells and the innovation behind Jeunesse
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Fruits and leaves of Figs as anti-cancer
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Roth IRA and Index Universal Life Policy, both tax free retirement plans
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Link between liver disease and heart problems
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How to increase estrogen from WikiHow
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Detect diseases from sweat
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Disease condition and odor symptom
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How to fight toxic build up in the brain
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Merced vs Sacramento CA health outcome
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Fat or lipid absorption
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Start dating, stop swiping and texting
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How cartoons portrayed the Women’s March and Trump’s historic weekend
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Cannabis and Addicting drugs cause genotoxicity/cancer
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Dr Mercola on Knee Osteoarthritis
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Cancer healed with enzyme therapy – many stories
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Inclined Bed Therapy
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Sovaldi , for Hepatitis C, is $483 in India and $84,000 in the USA
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Should Donald Trump be IMPEACHED? Jared Kushner must resign
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Clinical practice guideline for the management of patients with Parkinson’s disease
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The loss of SETD8 triggers cellular senescence
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Start dating, stop swiping and texting
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Brain, salt, sugar, sleep and thirst
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NIMH: Men and mental health
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Skin cancer stories
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Social media statistics
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Damage to Blood–brain barrier (BBB) pathways leading to Alzheimer’s disease and Dementia
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State individual income taxes
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Folate – Vit B9 deficiency or MTHFR gene mutation
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Nervous system puts the brakes on inflammation
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MIND Diet
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Can blunt force trauma cause brain cancer?
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Links – Senior Care in the USA
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Liver cleanse to help your vision and memory
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Steamed pork bun – my breakfast in Taiwan
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Ciliopathies lie behind many human diseases
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Is there a link between ecstasy/MDMA and Parkinson’s Disease?
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Slow the aging process by lengthening your telomeres
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Why New Antidepressant Brintellix May Be a Killer
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How do we spend on health care
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Learn a new dance, movement , language to grow new brain cells
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In 2001, the US ranks very low (37th) in overall health system performance
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Toxic nerve gas Sarin
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What are the natural ways to cure lipomas?
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Prolong stress and its impact to the neuroimmune system
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Exome DNA sequencing test versus whole genome DNA test
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Alzheimer is a normal aging process that can be slowed down
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ALOE FEROX plant extract (a laxative agent in South Africa) increased intestinal secretion and motility in constipated rats
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Sacramento vs Oregon in health outcome
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Immune Cells May Heal Bleeding Brain After Strokes
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Bedroom Light Exposure at Night and the Incidence of Depressive Symptoms
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Exercise Pill Boosts Endurance, Promotes Burning of Fat
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Successful ageing
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When to see a dermatologist or doctor
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Top Bay area doctors in 2017
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Anti-aging supplements: Vitamins B, C and D, folic acid, green tea extract, cod liver oil
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Short/medium/long chain fatty acids for colon and brain health – Coconut oil , butter and salmon
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Can high SGPT and SGOT lead to heart disease?
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Energy Drinks Can Take Teeth On An Irreversible Acid Trip by Eliza Barclay
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A balance of dopamine and serotonin for your brain function
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Glycogen Metabolism and Energy Metabolism of the Brain
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Hunched posture in Dementia and Parkinsons
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Top 6400 topics at this site in 2017
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Leg cramps, heart muscles, magnesium and CQ10
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Vagus Nerve Stimulation May Reduce Rheumatoid Arthritis Symptoms
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Physical inactivity in obese mice linked to altered dopamine receptors
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Association of Coffee Consumption With Total and Cause-Specific Mortality Among Nonwhite Populations
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MindMaze receives FDA clearance to bring VR rehab platform to the US
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Yohimbine and sleep apnea
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How the Shape and Size of Your Face Relates to Your Sex Drive
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Clock genes and stress hormones regulate metabolic changes – internal clocks
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anxiety-disorder-risk-scale
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Prime working age population data for US counties
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Prime working age population data for US counties
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How Our Brains Are Biologically Tuned to Be Influenced by Confident People
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Top monthly posts 2017
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Blood Vessels Age Well
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Running Triggers Production of a Molecule That Repairs the Brain
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Racism doesn’t exist all by itself, it has support
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Can pomegranate juice help with gout? If so, how?
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Stroke and care after
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Chest pain, flu and fever
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Our ability to distinguish between what is real and what is perceived
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Samsung and WellDoc partner to offer direct-to-consumer version of diabetes management app
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Over 40 , stressed and heavy bleeding , excess estrogen hormone
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SEX DIFFERENCES IN BRAIN ACTIVITY ALTER PAIN THERAPIES
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TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY CAUSES INTESTINAL DAMAGE
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Top aging and health hacks in the past 30 days
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Links – Senior Care in the USA
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Top aging and health hacks 3-1-2018
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CAM, holistic ways on cancer, depression, heart health, women and men
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What type of food increases serotonin levels in your brain?
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Sleep , weight gain , depression , stress and gut microbes
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Those with Alzheimer’s disease gene face sharper weight loss after age 70
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Abnormal eating times disrupt the skin’s circadian cycle and weight gain – brain
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Extra fat can impair the body’s ability to send signals to the brain to stop stress responses
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How the Naked Mole Rat Escapes Inflammatory Pain
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Can Adderall damage to dopamine receptors be repaired?
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How quickly do different cells in the body replace themselves?
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Deficiency symptoms
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National Eating Disorders Awareness Week
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Potassium for weight loss
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Less melanin in white people leads to less folate for blood production
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Playing in the Dirt As A Kid Makes Later Life Chronic Disease Less Likely
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Brain, salt, sugar, sleep and thirst
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Apple cider vinegar for knee swelling and more uses by Dr Mercola
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Healthy diet – healthiest sleep patterns and high cysteine foods less irritability
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DISCOVERY SHEDS NEW LIGHT ON MARIJUANA’S ANXIETY RELIEF EFFECTS
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Metal dusts and lung cancer
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Cayenne pepper fights cancer
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Connie answered 1261 questions at Quora.com
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Mother pigs with infection during pregnancy have a higher risk of their piglets being antisocial
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Torn ligaments, injuries in bones and tissues
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Stroke Recovery Improved by Sensory Deprivation
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Noise Sensitivity Traced to Changes in Brain Function
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Vitamin A deficient lung – COPD – hospice in home senior care
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Do many people choose not to have children because of their genetic disorders?
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Do many people choose not to have children because of their genetic disorders?
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Reducing Failures or Defects in Medical Device a Corrective and Preventive Action Plan
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Acetylcholine/Choline Deficiency in Chronic Illness – eat soft boiled eggs
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How long does dexedrine stay in your system?
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New York Times 2-23-2018
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Telomeres, telomerase,cancer,aging and exercise
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Pneumonia, Liposomal Vit C, immune system
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Brain Cancer And Leukemia: New Molecular Mechanisms Decoded, metabolic enzymes
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Misdiagnosed thyroid cancers by Dr Mercola
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I have mesial temporal sclerosis, a shrunken left hippocampus, temporal lobe epilepsy, and ADHD. Can I gain control of my life?
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Sun damaged skin – zinc oxide cream from Connie
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Cancer signs by Dr Mercola
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Dr Mercola’s Diverticulitis diet
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Lung disease and Lung Cancer, natural supplements and alternative ways to have healthy pulmonary function
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Stomach ulcers root causes
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Sara Sanders endangers our democracy
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I salute my aunt , Senator Miriam Defensor-Santiago of the Philippines
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Diet for cluster headaches
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Sun damaged skin – zinc oxide cream from Connie
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Antisocial personality disorder in 70% of prison inmates
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Truth and corruption in WH
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Alzheimer’s Risk Factors By Dr Daniel Amen
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Anti-inflammatory herbs: panax notoginseng and others
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Ivanka cannot hide from her father’s crimes
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Building a Bigger Action Hero by Logan Hill
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Effect of egg white fermentation with lactobacilli on IgE binding ability of egg white proteins; reducing egg allergy by fermentation
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Growth hormone rich foods
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How do you get rid of OCD?
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CA-125 blood test, ovarian cancer biomarker
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My grandma Claudia, healing ways I learned
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Taste Of Beer Triggers Release Of Dopamine, happy neurotransmitter ; Cocaine bullies dopamine; MAO affects dopamine levels
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Anti-aging Vitamin B3, Niacin
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Rheumatoid Arthritis and drugs by Dr Mercola
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Psychological Wounds of Conflict: The Impact of War to children, young adults and soldiers
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Understanding Glaucoma: Epidemiology and Pathophysiology
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Brain detox, eyes,
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$2.58B Digital Health Funding
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$500 bonus for Uber driving and California Laws
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Digestive enzymes help in healing fractures, preventing kidney stones and heart disease and more
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Have a land in the bay area for $30-50k modular home
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Warfarin, NSAID, Magnesium, Atrial Fibrillation, Dementia
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4 longevity genes: Myc, Oct 3/4 , Sox 2 and Klf4
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Sign the petition: Elect the president by national popular vote
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I love popmoney.com to receive and send money via email or smart phone
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Inhaled fungus from a bagpipe
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The diabetes pandemic suggests unmet needs for ‘CKD with diabetes
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$500 bonus for Uber driving and now accepting tips in the app
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Gut Busting: How Gaseous Substances in the Body Affect Psyche and Behavior
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Can methamphetamine bring on the menstrual cycle?
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Dry mouth and bad breath by Dr Mercola
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Zinc, copper and magnesium to fight diabetes and neurodegeneration
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Fenugreek, for diabetes/lactating moms/to boost testosterone
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About fingerprinting, IHSS and worker’s comp in California for home care
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Thyme herb for toe fungus (guava and comfrey leaves and others)
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Lectins in lentils and other plants
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That time Trump watched a man bleed to death and did nothing but run away
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Cancer from toxins, inhaled, small metal dusts, lack of sleep and our brain
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Alzheimer’s disease prevention with Vit D, Vit C and low histamine foods or raw/whole foods
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Top health and aging hacks 2-27-2018
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Non medical home care with wearable for smart home monitoring
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Uncaria Tomentosa (“Cat’s Claw”); Anti Malaria
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5x more antioxidants in Okinawan diet of sweet potatoes and low calorie diet
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Virus , Vitamin A, B , D and C and why some people die from the Flu
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Our brain uses prior knowledge – link between Hallucinations and Dopamine
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Take care of your Thyroid gland, 240% increase in Thyroid cancer among women
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Foul smell of poops indicative of metabolic disorders or virus
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Study links gut-homing protein levels with HIV infection risk, disease progression
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Drug-Induced Urinary Incontinence
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Aging, Immune system, Thymosin hormones, and Vitamin D supplementation
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Chicken Adobo from the Philippines
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Starve cancer cells with low cal ketogenic diet
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Novel Type of Cell Death in Huntington’s Disease May Lead to Effective New Therapies
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Healing power of Thai Curry
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FOXO3, a gene linked to intelligence and involved in insulin signalling that might trigger apoptosis
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Companies uniting to change health care through Health Transformation Alliance
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Google cloud seminar Feb 13 Santa Clara Convention Center
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Apple cider vinegar kills parasites, cleansing to the liver and prevents stroke
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Unfit to serve T-shirts
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Women are more affected by alcohol than men
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Spearmint herbal tea has significant anti-androgen effects in polycystic ovarian syndrome
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I’m 36 years old, and my SGPT level is 131. Is this serious? How can I reduce my SGPT level in a week?
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FOXO3, a gene linked to intelligence and involved in insulin signalling that might trigger apoptosis
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Emergency Childbirth: When Baby Arrives Before the Midwife or Doctor
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Skin care: red algae, Vitamin E, macadamia oil, Vitamin B complex, Vitamin C, fruit enzymes
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Misdiagnosed thyroid cancers by Dr Mercola
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10 lots in Tagaytay Philippines for auction
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Own Worldgn stock, earn more and get your fitness tracker to monitor health
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Senior care and wearables
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Gene therapy cured Type 1 Diabetes of a dog
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New FDA commissioner lays out bold new plan for mobile app regulation
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Aging, Telomeres, Vit C, E and Betacarotene
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Washington Post 8-17-2017
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Viral infection affects the vascular system and the brain
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Immune system, bone marrow, anti-cancer, shark oil
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Steamed pork bun – my breakfast in Taiwan
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Dementia = Low blood pressure + low potassium + diabetes + sleep cycle
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How the brain helps us to learn and make decisions, attention and learning
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Reasons for not having a health insurance
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Epigenetics in Adipose Tissue, Obesity, Weight Loss, and Diabetes
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Draining the swamp in the WH
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Poor oral health tied to HPV virus by Catherine Saint Louis
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Early warning signs for kidney and heart disease

Signs and symptoms of chronic kidney disease develop over time if kidney damage progresses slowly. Signs and symptoms of kidney disease may include:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Sleep problems
  • Changes in how much you urinate
  • Decreased mental sharpness
  • Muscle twitches and cramps
  • Swelling of feet and ankles
  • Persistent itching
  • Chest pain, if fluid builds up around the lining of the heart
  • Shortness of breath, if fluid builds up in the lungs
  • High blood pressure (hypertension) that’s difficult to control

Signs and symptoms of kidney disease are often nonspecific, meaning they can also be caused by other illnesses. Because your kidneys are highly adaptable and able to compensate for lost function, signs and symptoms may not appear until irreversible damage has occurred.

Disrupted Internal Clocks Play Role in Liver Disease

It’s About Time: Disrupted Internal Clocks Play Role in Disease

Study uncovers circadian disruption as risk factor in alcoholic liver disease.

Thirty percent of severe alcoholics develop liver disease, but scientists have not been able to explain why only a subset is at risk. A research team from Northwestern University and Rush University Medical Center now has a possible explanation: disrupted sleep and circadian rhythms can push those vulnerable over the edge to disease.

The team studied mice that essentially were experiencing what shift workers or people with jet lag suffer: their internal clocks were out of sync with the natural light-dark cycle.

Another group of mice had circadian disruption due to a faulty gene. Both groups were fed a diet without alcohol and next with alcohol, and the team then examined the physiological effects.

The researchers found the combination of circadian rhythm disruption and alcohol is a destructive double hit that can lead to alcoholic liver disease.

The study was published last month by the journal PLOS ONE.

“Circadian disruption appears to be a previously unrecognized risk factor underlying the susceptibility to or development of alcoholic liver disease,” said Fred W. Turek, the Charles E. and Emma H. Morrison Professor of Biology at Northwestern’s Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences and one of the senior authors of the paper.

“What we and many other investigators are doing is bringing time to medicine for the diagnosis and treatment of disease,” Turek said. “We call it circadian medicine, and it will be transformative. Medicine will change a great deal, similar to the way physics changed when Einstein brought time to physics.”

The image shows the different stages of liver damage.

A number of years ago, Ali Keshavarzian, M.D., a gastroenterologist at Rush University Medical Center who has worked with and studied patients with gastrointestinal and liver diseases, had a hunch disrupted circadian rhythms could be a contributing factor to the disease.

Keshavarzian had noticed that some patients with inflammatory bowel disease (inflammation in the intestine and/or colon) had flare-ups of symptoms when working nights, but they could control the disease when working the day shift. He sought out Turek, director of Northwestern’s Center for Sleep and Circadian Biology, to help investigate the relationship between circadian rhythms and the disease.

The two investigators and their groups first studied the effect of circadian rhythm disruption in an animal model of colitis and noted that disruption of sleep and circadian rhythms (caused by modeling shift work and chronic jet lag in the animals) caused more severe colitis in mice.

Keshavarzian has been studying the effect of “gut leakiness” (the intestinal lining becomes weak and causes dangerous endotoxins to get into the blood stream) to bacterial products in gastrointestinal diseases for two decades. Because the mouse model of colitis is associated with leaky gut, he proposed that disruption of circadian rhythms from shift work could make the intestine more susceptible to leakiness. He wanted to test its effect in an animal model of alcoholic liver disease — where a subset of alcoholics develop gut leakiness and liver disease — in order to find out whether shift work is the susceptibility factor that promotes liver injury.

“Non-pathogen-mediated chronic inflammation is a major cause of many chronic diseases common in Western societies and developing countries that have adopted a Western lifestyle,” said Keshavarzian, one of the senior authors of the paper. He is director of the Division of Digestive Diseases and the Josephine M. Dyrenforth Chair of Gastroenterology.

Crohn’s and ulcerative colitis, Parkinson’s disease, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, autoimmune disease and cardiovascular disease are examples of these diseases, to name just a few.

“Recent studies have shown that intestinal bacteria are the primary trigger for this inflammation, and gut leakiness is one of the major causes,” Keshavarzian said. “The factor leading to gut leakiness is not known, however. Our study suggests that disruption of circadian rhythms and sleep, which is part of life in industrial societies, can promote it and explain the susceptibility.”

In the study, the Northwestern and Rush researchers used two independent approaches, studying both genetic and environmental animal models. The circadian rhythms of one group of mice were disrupted genetically: Each animal had a mutant CLOCK gene, which regulates circadian rhythms. The second group’s circadian rhythms were disrupted environmentally: The animals’ light-dark cycle was changed periodically, leading to a state similar to chronic jet lag.

Mice in both groups, prior to ingesting alcohol, showed an increase in gut leakiness.

Next, both groups of mice were fed alcohol. After only one week, animals in both groups showed a significant additional increase in gut leakiness, compared to control mice on an alcohol-free diet. At the end of the three-month study, mice in both groups were in the early stages of alcoholic liver disease.

“We have clearly shown that circadian rhythm disruption can trigger gut leakiness, which drives the more severe pathology in the liver,” said Keith Summa, a co-first author of the study and an M.D./Ph.D. candidate working in Turek’s lab.

“For humans, circadian rhythm disruption typically is environmental, not genetic, so individuals have some control over the behaviors that cause trouble, be it a poor sleep schedule, shift work or exposure to light at night,” he said.

Sleep and circadian rhythms are an integral part of biology and should be part of the discussion between medical doctors and their patients, the researchers believe.

“We want to personalize medicine from a time perspective,” Turek said. “Our bodies are organized temporally on a 24-hour basis, and this needs to be brought into the equation for understanding health and disease.”

Notes about this circadian rhythm and health research

The paper, titled “Disruption of the Circadian Clock in Mice Increases Intestinal Permeability and Promotes Alcohol-Induced Pathology and Inflammation,” is available online.

In addition to Turek, Keshavarzian and Summa, other authors of the paper are co-first author Robin M. Voigt, Christopher B. Forsyth, Maliha Shaikh and Yueming Tang, of Rush University Medical Center; Martha Hotz Vitaterna and Kate Cavanaugh, of Northwestern; and Shiwen Song, of the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

Contact: Megan Fellman – Northwestern University
Source: Northwestern University press release
Image Source: The liver damage image is credited to the NIH and is in the public domain.
Original Research: Full open access research for “Disruption of the Circadian Clock in Mice Increases Intestinal Permeability and Promotes Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Pathology and Inflammation” by Keith C. Summa, Robin M. Voigt, Christopher B. Forsyth, Maliha Shaikh, Kate Cavanaugh, Yueming Tang, Martha Hotz Vitaterna, Shiwen Song, Fred W. Turek and Ali Keshavarzian in PLOS ONE. Published online June 18 2013 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067102

Emotions and Disease

The Balance of Passions

Hippokratous . . . Iatrike open to page 218 and 219. Each page is divided into two columns with the Greek version on the left column and the Latin version on the right column.
Hippocrates,
Hippokratous . . . Iatrike,
Basel, 1543.

This is a Renaissance edition of works by Hippocrates, with parallel text in Greek and Latin.

This story begins as did so many other components of our culture, in Greek and Roman antiquity where medicine first emerged as a secular activity independent of religion. There Hippocrates (ca. 460 B.C. — ca. 370 B.C.) and his followers combined naturalistic craft knowledge with ancient science and philosophy to produce the first systematic explanations of the behavior of the human body in health and illness. Distant ancestors of modern biomedical scientists began to explore the solid and fluid parts of the human organism for keys to unlock the hidden mechanisms of disease. They made the first attempts to understand emotions as mental phenomena which had surprising and complex connections to physiological order and pathological disorder.

Early Western physicians recognized that emotions were of essential significance; however their medical systems were actually weighted more heavily on the body side of the mind-body balance. The dominant theory of Hippocrates and his successors was that of the four “humors”: black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood. When these humors were in balance, health prevailed; when they were out of balance or vitiated in some way, disease took over. The goal of an individual’s personal hygiene was to keep the humors in balance, and the goal of medical therapy was to restore humoral equilibrium by adjusting diet, exercise, and the management of the body’s evacuations (e.g.: the blood, urine, feces, perspiration, etc.). 1 The bedside scene from Walter Ryff’s Spiegel und Regiment and the diagram from Johannes de Ketham’s Fasciculus Medicinae, although both from later periods, clearly illustrate these classical themes.

An English translation of Johannes de Ketham's Fasciculus Medicinae illustration of a urine wheel: a large circle surrounded by 21 thin-necked, urine-filled flasks. In the corners of the urine wheel, four small circles contain descriptions of the four temperaments: sanguineous, choleric, phlegmatic and melancholic.Johannes de Ketham's Fasciculus Medicinae open to show an illustration on bloodletting and urine flasks on the left page and text on the right page. The illustration on the left page shows a urine wheel: a large circle surrounded by 21 thin-necked, urine-filled flasks. In the corners of the urine wheel, four small circles contain descriptions of the four temperaments: sanguineous, choleric, phlegmatic and melancholic.
Johannes de Ketham Johannes de Ketham (fl. 1455-1470),
Fasciculus Medicinae, 
Vienna, 1495

Johannes de Ketham, a professor of medicine in Vienna, published Fasciculus Medicinae, which included illustrations on bloodletting and urine flasks showing the “resemblance of the elements and the bodily constitutions.” This an English translation of Latin text.

 

Emphasizing the humors gave classical medicine what modern philosophers call a “reductionist” bias–the humors were used to explain more complex phenomena like emotional states in much simpler physical terms. For example, when a patient was melancholy, physicians assumed that his or her complicated feelings of sadness and depression resulted from the physical excess of black bile. Likewise, an excess of yellow bile was thought to make a person angry and impulsive. In the Hippocratic treatise The Sacred Disease, the author explains that “those maddened through bile are noisy, evil-doers and restless, always doing something inopportune”2 this explanation assumes that emotions are the more complicated consequences of the simpler and prior humoral causes.

Even in the unmistakably reductionist Hippocratic writings, however, certain emotional states appear as causal elements. In one case, a woman began to exhibit fears, depression, incoherent rambling speech, and the uttering of obscenities after suffering from a “grief with a reason for it”; and another “without speaking a word . . . would fumble, pluck, scratch, pick hairs, weep and then laugh, but . . . not speak,” also “after a grief.” 3 In The Sacred Disease, epilepsy is said in certain circumstances to be “caused by fear of the mysterious.”4

Emotional factors played only a minor role in the subsequent development of classical medical thought because authors after Hippocrates continued to rely primarily on humoral-reductionism and did not actively pursue emotional causal elements. These medical authorities worked hard to clarify and codify the humoral ideas embedded in Hippocrates’s work. They also systematized a therapy based on “opposition,” whereby excess humors were depleted and “cold” medicines such as oil of roses countered “hot” diseases like fevers and vice versa. Some writers in late antiquity also added important anatomical features to their reductionist medical systems.5

The two page spread from Justus Cortnumm's De Morbo Attonito Liber Unus. The left page features the head and shoulders, right pose in oval of Justus Cortnumm. On the right page, Hippocrates (on the right) and Galen are standing beside each other; between them is a bush, where Hippocrates touches the bush it is in flower, whereas Galen's side is nothing but thorns.
Justus Cortnumm (ca. 1624-1675),
De Morbo Attonito Liber Unus,
Leipzig, 1677

For much of the medieval and Renaissance periods, Galen and Hippocrates were regarded as co-equal medical authorities, with Galen even assuming a superior position for certain medical teachers or commentators. In the seventeenth century, however, the more empirically oriented Hippocrates came to be regarded as superior to the more theoretical Galen. This distinction between the two men is depicted here on the title page by Hippocrates touching the rosebush on the side of the flowers and Galen touching the side of the thorns.

 

A physician is taking the pulse of a woman sitting up in bed; she appears to be looking and smiling at a young man standing to the right; another man is standing to the left of the physician.
Galen,
Opera ex Sexta Juntarum Editione,
Venice, 1586

Galen is making a diagnosis of love-sickness.

 

But another dimension to medical thought became increasingly prominent in later antiquity. This was the orientation towards emotions as causes strongly influenced by Galen (A.D. 131-201). Known for his prolific writings and his essential loyalty to humoralism, he was accepted in the medieval and renaissance periods as coequal with or even superior to Hippocrates. Deeply respected for his diagnostic skill, Galen was celebrated for his differential diagnoses, especially for those which distinguished between illnesses traceable to orgnaic causes and those which seemed to mimic them but were actually traceable to emotional causes instead. In one famouse case he treated a young woman who seemed to exhibit the signs of physical illness but who, upon closer examination, revealed no organic pathology. After eliminating any possible humoral explanation, Galen identified the real, emotional cause of her somatic symptoms: a hidden love interest.6 He used the sudden irregularity of her pulse as a crucial diagnostic clue.

 

… I came to the conclusion that she was suffering from a melancholy dependent on black bile, or else trouble about something she was unwilling to confess.

Galen
As quoted in Galen–On Mental Disorders, Stanley W. Jackson

 

Galen likewise contributed an important new interest in the balance not only of the humors but of what he called the “non-naturals,” among which he included the “passions or perturbations of the soul.”7 According to the doctrine of the non-naturals–which was incorporated in medieval medical books alongside the humors–it was important for physicians to help patients keep their emotions in balance, for the sake of their bodies as well as their mental states. The influence of strong emotions on physical health and illness thus became a central tenet of medical belief which grew progressively stronger in the medieval period. As rabbi, philosopher and physician Moses Maimonides expressed the point in the twelfth century, “It is known . . . that passions of the psyche produce changes in the body that are great, evident and manifest to all. On this account . . . the movements of the psyche . . . should be kept in balance . . . and no other regimen should be given precedence.”8

The engraved title page of Moses Maimonides (1135-1204), Tractatus Rabbi Moysi de Regimine Sanitatis ad Soldanum Regem. The title is given as Tracta tus Rabbi Moysi de regimine sanitatis ad soldanum Regem. There is a stamp of the Surgeon General's Office Library in the bottom of the page.
Moses Maimonides (1135-1204),
Tractatus Rabbi Moysi de Regimine Sanitatis ad Soldanum Regem,
Augsburg, 1518

 

The physician should make every effort that all the sick, and all the healthy, should be most cheerful of soul at all times, and that they should be relieved of the passions of the psyche that cause anxiety.

Moses Maimonides (1135-1204)
The Regimen of Health

Two pages from Gregor Reisch (d. 1525), Margarita Philosophica cum Additionibus Novis. The left page is Liber X, tracta II. The right page is an woodcut of a human head with lines connecting the senses of taste, hearing, sight, and smell to areas of the brain.
Gregor Reisch (d. 1525),
Margarita Philosophica cum Additionibus Novis,
Basel, 1517

Gregor Reisch included an often-reproduced woodcut profile of the head in his book Margarita Philosophica. The figure locates various faculties of the soul (cogitation, memory, etc.) in specific regions. Note that Imaginativa (imagination) is located directly over the eyes.

 

Ideas about the “balance of the passions” were popular in the Renaissance and early modern periods. One famous work showing how influential these ideas would become is Robert Burton’s The Anatomy of Melancholy which included the following observations about the possibly disastrous role of unchecked emotions: “the mind most effectually works upon the body, producing by his passions and perturbations miraculous alterations . . . cruel diseases and sometimes death itself.”9Also in this period, speculation about the role of the “imagination” added other elements to the non-physical causes of disease. Some authors suggested that the imagination affected the body directly by its immaterial agency, others that it operated indirectly by first arousing the emotions which, in turn, “are greatly alterative with respect to the body.”10 There was general agreement that emotionally-charged ideas could exert enormous effects, as in the case of the monstrous “frog baby” produced by vivid maternal imagination, reported by Paré.

Pages 660 and 661 of Ambroise Paré's The Workes. Page 660 has two illustrations of monsters. The left image is a monster born with four feet, eyes, mouth and nose like a calf, with a round and red excrescence of flesh on the forehead. It has a piece of flesh like a hood hung from his neck upon his back and has its thighs torn and cut. The right image is a figure of an infant with a face like a frog. On page 661 there is image of a child with his hands and feet standing crooked.
Ambroise Paré (1510?-1590),
The Workes,
London, 1649

Speculation about the influence of the “imagination” was intense during the Renaissance period. It was widely believed that vivid ideas could lead to various bodily consequences, including diseases and monstrous births. Paré, a famous early surgeon, reported on two cases, one of a child born with the body of a calf, and another that occurred in 1517, of a child “born having the face of a frog,” produced by the power of the mother’s imagination. The mother, advised by her neighbor to hold a live frog in her hand as a means to cure her fever, was still holding the frog that evening, when she and her husband conceived a child.

 

The printed pages 48 and 49 of William Falconer's A Dissertation on the Influence of the Passions Upon the Disorders of the Body, London, 1788.
William Falconer (1744-1824),
A Dissertation on the Influence of the Passions Upon the Disorders of the Body,
London, 1788

 

Intellectuals and lay people alike were strongly committed to these ideas in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. While certain philosophical fashions within the medical community changed to reflect the Scientific Revolution going on around it, much medical practice remained traditional and fundamentally unaltered. Consideration of the role of the imagination and of strong emotions in the onset and course of illnesses continued into the nineteenth century. Medical literature included extensive essays and specialized monographs on emotional states and their impact on somatic health and disease.11 One example is William Falconer’s A Dissertation on the Influence of the Passions Upon the Disorders of the Body.

At the zoo, a superstitious husband attempts to lead his pregnant wife and son away from the cages of the Great Apes.The husband is attempting to lead his pregnant wife away from the cage of the great apes at the zoo. He is afraid that by looking at the ape in her condition, she might give birth to a deformed baby. The longstanding belief that the vividly stimulated imagination of pregnant women could lead to “monstrous” births persisted in popular culture well into the nineteenth century.

Honoré Daumier (1808-1879)
Bobonne, Bobonne! tu me ferais un monstre comme ca,
ne le regarde pas tant!

 

In many ways, however, the close of the eighteenth century marked a new era. As part of the Scientific Revolution, anatomical investigation once undertaken in antiquity had revived and became a hotly pursued field of study. Andreas Vesalius in sixteenth century Padua and Thomas Willis in seventeenth century Oxford were just two of the many bold explorers who cut into the body, probed its structure, and displayed their findings in beautifully illustrated works. In the eighteenth century, physicians increasingly turned to anatomy as a foundation for pathology. As a result, disease processes were progressively “localized,” that is, said to reside primarily in the disruptions or “lesions” of the solid parts of the body rather than in the imbalance of humors. Post mortem dissection became an increasingly common medical practice.12

Andreas Vesalius standing, three quarter length; right face; before dissecting table with cadaver. Skull and instruments on another table; crucifix upon wall.Surgical Instruments and apparatus on an operating table.Illustration of dissecting instruments from Andreas Vesalius’s De Humani Corporis Fabrica. The De Fabrica, the first modern work of anatomy, was initially published in 1543. This plate is enlarged from the 1568 Venice edition.

Andreas Vesalius
Edouard Hamman (1819-1888)

What is particularly notable about this scene of Vesalius about to perform an autopsy is his gaze, directed away from the cadaver, and his hand resting on the left arm, almost as if taking a pulse. Like the Chartran portrayal of Laënnec, this nineteenth-century image strongly conveys the anatomical basis of the new medicine.

Page 139 of Andreas Vesalius' De Humani Corporis Fabrica featuring the illustrated woodcut of a full-length frontal view of a standing nude male. His skin is flayed, exposing his insides, and his head is facing the right.Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564),
De Humani Corporis Fabrica,
Venice, 1568

 

Thomas Willis's Cerebri Anatome (On the Anatomy of the Brain), open to show engravings of the human brain on the left page and of the sheep brain on the right page.
Thomas Willis (1621-1675),
The Remaining Medical Works of Thomas Willis,
London, 1679.

An outstanding example of seventeenth-century anatomical achievement was Thomas Willis’s Cerebri Anatome (On the Anatomy of the Brain), first published in 1664. Shown here are Willis’s engravings of the human brain (left page) and of the sheep brain (right page).

 

At the turn of the nineteenth century, diagnostic breakthroughs swiftly succeeded the maturation of gross pathological anatomy. R. T. H. Laënnec invented a primitive stethoscope (he called it a “cylinder”) to help him hear inside his patient’s body and thus imagine what the parts “looked” like because of the particular sounds they elicited. In the process of concentrating their attention on the anatomical abnormalities of the solid parts of the body during an illness and as a result of disease, Laënnec and other physicians of his time gained precision in their diagnoses but began to lose the immediacy and intimacy of verbal contact with their patients.13 Clearly captured in Chartran’s painting of Laënnec performing a physical examination is the growing communication gap between doctor and patient, each seemingly contained in his own separate world. This stands in sharp contrast to the scene typically depicted at the medieval bedside.

A wooden Laënnec-style stethoscope.Bedside scene showing Laennec seated with patient listening to the patient's breathing using his ear. In Laennec's left hand resting on the bed is his stethoscope; several others gathered around.Laënnec,
A L’Hopital Necker, Ausculte Un Phtisique
Théobald Chartran (1849-1907)

Laënnec-style Stethoscope

In 1819, Laënnec first described his powerful new diagnostic invention, the cylinder-like stethoscope. The physician placed one end of the instrument on the patient’s chest and his ear to the other, so he could listen to the sounds of disrupted anatomy within.

Courtesy Historical Collections, The National Museum of Health and Medicine, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, D.C.

Rene Laennec's De l'Auscultation Mediate, ou, Traite du Diagnostic des Maladies des Poumons et du Coeur open to the page with the fold-out plate. The plate is on the right and shows six diagrams of the stethoscope and two parts of the lung.René Théophile Hyacinthe Laënnec (1781-1826)
De l’Auscultation Médiate, ou, Traité du Diagnostic des Maladies des Poumons et du Coeur (On Mediate Auscultation, or, Treatise on the Diagnosis of the Diseases of the Lungs and Heart), Paris, 1819

The stethoscope is illustrated here in a fold-out plate with parts of the lung shown at the right.

 

The further development of microscopic anatomy by Rudolf Virchow and others in the nineteenth century led to greater knowledge of tissues and cells. This development, unfortunately, also fragmented the notion of organismic unity implicit in classical and early modern medical theory.14 Emotions became more and more separated from disease.

Head and shoulders, right profile of Rudolph L. K. Virchow as an elderly man.Rudolf Virchow's Die Cellularpathologie in ihrer Begrundung auf Physiologische und Pathologische Gewebelehre open to pages 234 and 235. On page 234 is an illustration of the microscopic structure of four different types of cells. Page 235 has text relating to the illustration on page 234.Rudolf Virchow,
Die Cellularpathologie in ihrer Begründung auf Physiologische und Pathologische Gewebelehre, Berlin, 1858

In Virchow’s most influential book, Die Cellularpathologie, he described and depicted the precise microscopic structure of cells–including nerve cells–but seemed to leave no place in the body’s operation for the influence of the emotions.

Rudolph Virchow (1821-1902) is regarded as perhaps the greatest medical scientist of the nineteenth century. He was a pioneer in the field of cellular pathology and pursued pathological anatomy at the tissue and cell level.

An illustration of the microscopic structure of four different types of cells of page 234 from Rudolf Virchow's Die Cellularpathologie in ihrer Begrundung auf Physiologische und Pathologische Gewebelehre.

 

By the mid-nineteenth century, however, a place was secured for emotions in connection with disease even as post mortem anatomy and cellular pathology advanced. Already in the eighteenth century William Cullen had noted that patients with certain major disorders–“insanity”, for example–did not always show the expected organic lesions upon post mortem dissection. He reasoned that, instead, such patients may have developed “a considerable and unusual excess in the excitement of the brain” and that this excitement could in turn have derived from “violent emotions or passions of the mind.”15 Cullen and Robert Whytt were two of the many physicians who turned to the nervous system to find a physiological connection between emotions and disease. These physicians hoped to find in nervous system physiology a compromise of sorts between traditional ideas linking emotions and disease and the new desire to extend the reach of localistic pathology. Since the nervous system was enormously complex and its functions were subtle and elusive, it could be the locus of “functional” disorders, which were characterized by disrupted activity but where no inflammation or “appreciable morbid change in the nervous structure” could be found. By the 1840s and 1850s, functional disorders of the nervous system (also called “neuroses”) and the emotional causes that precipitated them had become a major area of clinical study, as is clear in Austin Flint’s popular A Treatise on the Principles and Practice of Medicine.

William Cullen's First Lines of the Practice of Physic open to pages 140 and 141.
William Cullen (1710-1790),
First Lines of the Practice of Physic,
Edinburgh, 1784


…in many instances of insane persons, their brain had been examined after death, without showing that any organic lesions had before subsisted in the brain, or finding that any morbid state of the brain then appeared.

William Cullen
First Lines of the Practice of Physic, 1784

 

Austin Flint's A Treatise on the Principles and Practice of Medicine open to the table of contents pages xii and xiii. The table of contents lists the section three chapters VII through XIII and section four chapters I through VII.
Austin Flint (1812-1886),
A Treatise on the Principles and Practice of Medicine,
Philadelphia, 1868


…the neuroses are purely functional affections…. [They] occur also as symptoms of diseases involving either inflammation or lesions of structure.

Austin Flint
A Treatise on the Principles and Practice of Medicine,1868

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