Anti-aging and repairs DNA – Niacin in Avocado, peanuts and turkey

Anti-aging and repairs DNA – Niacin in Avocado, peanuts and turkey

avo peanut

Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and is, depending on the definition used, one of the 20 to 80 essential human nutrients. Together with nicotinamide it makes up the group known as vitamin B3 complex. It has the formula C6H5NO2 and belongs to the group of the pyridinecarboxylic acids.

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Medication and supplemental niacin are primarily used to treat high blood cholesterol and pellagra (niacin deficiency). Insufficient niacin in the diet can cause nausea, skin and mouth lesions, anemia, headaches, and tiredness. The lack of niacin may also be observed in pandemic deficiency disease, which is caused by a lack of five crucial vitamins (niacin, vitamin C, thiamin, vitamin D, and vitamin A) and is usually found in areas of widespread poverty and malnutrition. Niacin is provided in the diet from a variety of whole and processed foods, with highest contents in fortified packaged foods and meat from various animal sources. Some countries require its addition to grains.

This colorless, water-soluble solid is a derivative of pyridine, with a carboxyl group (COOH) at the 3-position. Other forms of vitamin B3 include the corresponding amide nicotinamide (“niacinamide”), where the carboxyl group has been replaced by a carboxamide group (CONH2), as well as more complex amides and a variety of esters. Nicotinic acid and niacinamide are convertible to each other with steady world demand rising from 8,500 tonnes per year in the 1980s to 40,000 in recent years.

Niacin cannot be directly converted to nicotinamide, but both compounds are precursors of the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) in vivo.[5] NAD converts to NADP by phosphorylation in the presence of the enzyme NAD+ kinase. NADP and NAD are coenzymes for many dehydrogenases, participating in many hydrogen transfer processes.[6] NAD is important in catabolism of fat, carbohydrate, protein, and alcohol, as well as cell signaling and DNA repair, and NADP mostly in anabolism reactions such as fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis.[6] High energy requirements (brain) or high turnover rate (gut, skin) organs are usually the most susceptible to their deficiency.

Niacin supplementation has not been found useful for decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in those already on a statin,[8] but appears to be effective in those not taking a statin.[9] Although niacin and nicotinamide are identical in their vitamin activity, nicotinamide does not have the same pharmacological effects (lipid modifying effects) as niacin. Nicotinamide does not reduce cholesterol or cause flushing.[10] As the precursor for NAD and NADP, niacin is also involved in DNA repair.[1

Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and is, depending on the definition used, one of the 20 to 80 essential human nutrients. Together with nicotinamide it makes up the group known as vitamin B3 complex.[2] It has the formula C6H5NO2 and belongs to the group of the pyridinecarboxylic acids.

Medication and supplemental niacin are primarily used to treat high blood cholesterol and pellagra (niacin deficiency). Insufficient niacin in the diet can cause nausea, skin and mouth lesions, anemia, headaches, and tiredness. The lack of niacin may also be observed in pandemic deficiency disease, which is caused by a lack of five crucial vitamins (niacin, vitamin C, thiamin, vitamin D, and vitamin A) and is usually found in areas of widespread poverty and malnutrition. Niacin is provided in the diet from a variety of whole and processed foods, with highest contents in fortified packaged foods and meat from various animal sources. Some countries require its addition to grains.[3]

This colorless, water-soluble solid is a derivative of pyridine, with a carboxyl group (COOH) at the 3-position. Other forms of vitamin B3 include the corresponding amide nicotinamide (“niacinamide”), where the carboxyl group has been replaced by a carboxamide group (CONH
2), as well as more complex amides and a variety of esters. Nicotinic acid and niacinamide are convertible to each other with steady world demand rising from 8,500 tonnes per year in the 1980s to 40,000 in recent years.[4]

Niacin cannot be directly converted to nicotinamide, but both compounds are precursors of the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) in vivo.[5] NAD converts to NADP by phosphorylation in the presence of the enzyme NAD+ kinase. NADP and NAD are coenzymes for many dehydrogenases, participating in many hydrogen transfer processes.[6] NAD is important in catabolism of fat, carbohydrate, protein, and alcohol, as well as cell signaling and DNA repair, and NADP mostly in anabolism reactions such as fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis.[6] High energy requirements (brain) or high turnover rate (gut, skin) organs are usually the most susceptible to their deficiency.[7]

Niacin supplementation has not been found useful for decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in those already on a statin,[8] but appears to be effective in those not taking a statin.[9] Although niacin and nicotinamide are identical in their vitamin activity, nicotinamide does not have the same pharmacological effects (lipid modifying effects) as niacin. Nicotinamide does not reduce cholesterol or cause flushing.[10] As the precursor for NAD and NADP, niacin is also involved in DNA repair.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niacin

Lesson we learn from our disabilities – never give up

At the abilities.com fair last weekend in San Mateo Event Center, there are many distributors of products to help disabled families.

One attendee reminded me of not giving up in every health issue we encounter in life.

She is in her 80s and both her daughter and grandson are battling a rare disease.

never give up.JPG

Many stopped at our booth, Nutrition – who is measuring your nutrition?

We provide nutrition tests to all using NIH created, Pharmanex scanner. See Dr Oz Pharmanex scanner in YouTube. Email motherhealth@gmail.com if you are a doctor, health care pro or consumer who wanted to help others achieve health with our nutrition protocols as certified by the scanner which are in PDRs and resets your gene expression to a younger you.

Both young (on tube feeding, severe) and old (teaching art) with cerebral palsy scored 20k in anti-oxidant levels from Pharmanex scanner.

Average score on nutrition test should be 50k. We can help you increase your anti-oxidant levels, email Connie at motherhealth@gmail.com

We help doctors and health care pro with nutrition protocols to bring your anti-oxidant levels above normal. Our anti-oxidants are our first line of defense against inflammation and cancer.

Pain Relief

Some attendees stopped by to get a sample of a cream with THC. Email motherhealth@gmail.com if you are interested on this cream for pain relief. We have to wait on Jan 2018 to sell this product online.

For pain relief, I use a base oil of coconut, fresh ginger, turmeric powder, MSM powder and essential oils.

Plant some herbs in your garden: sage, thyme, rosemary, spearmint and your favorite herbs.

One must also be healthy internally by consuming whole foods and quality supplementation at:

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Get a discount by joining us and entering sponsor ID:  USW9578356
Connie Dello Buono

https://www.nuskin.com/content/nuskin/en_US/products/shop/shop_all/oils/oils.html

essential oils

1. Lavender essential oil
The sweet-smelling lavender essential oil needs no introduction; it is the number one remedy for a migraine and tension headaches. It is soothing and relaxing and has a mild sedative effect which helps relieve stress and anxiety that could be causing the headache. Mere inhalation of the vapors is sufficient to bring about relief in most cases. Being a mild oil, one or two drops can be applied undiluted on the neck and forehead for quicker results.

The anti-inflammatory and analgesic action of lavender essential oil can relieve body aches resulting from sore muscles. Mix a few drops in a tablespoon of castor oil or coconut oil and massage into the affected area. Use this excellent sleep aid in a diffuser in the bedroom or add it to bath water before going to bed to sleep off your pains.

2. Chamomile essential oil
The Roman chamomile oil extracted from Anthemis nobilis and the German chamomile oil from Matricaria chamomilla have analgesic properties, and can be used to treat headaches and neuralgia as well as muscle and joint pains. Both of them have a carminative effect, and can relieve abdominal pain due to gas.

Roman chamomile oil is milder and soothing and is often used to treat abdominal discomfort and irritability in small children. However, the deep blue German chamomile oil is more effective in treating pain resulting from inflammatory conditions. It has excellent anti-inflammatory action owing to the compound chamazulene which gives it the characteristic color. It is very effective in treating bowel diseases, lower back pain in adults and PMS in women.

3. Peppermint essential oil
One of the earliest essential oils to be used medicinally, peppermint essential oil is obtained from a natural hybrid of spearmint and watermint. The highly refreshing smell of the oil comes from the active ingredient menthol which is the major component of the oil.

The antispasmodic effect of this oil has been put to good use in several medicinal preparations to relieve nausea, indigestion, and stomachache. It soothes the lining of the stomach and intestines and suppresses painful spasms. The analgesic action of peppermint oil is not limited to the antispasmodic effect on the digestive tract. When used topically, it relaxes muscles in the lower back, reduces tension headaches and pain due to fibromyalgia. It is a decongestant and helps relieve headaches due to sinus congestion.

4. Eucalyptus essential oil
This pungent warming oil is extracted from the bark and leaves of the eucalyptus tree. This powerful decongestant has anti-inflammatory properties that contribute to pain relief in case of sinus congestion and muscle injuries. Being a very strong oil, it should be diluted with coconut oil when applying on the skin, except when used to treat insect stings and bites.

5. Rosemary essential oil
Extracted from the shrub Rosmarinus officinalis, same as the culinary herb, the essential oil of rosemary is known as a memory-enhancer and appetite stimulant. But it is anti-inflammatory and analgesic too. Inhale the vapors to relieve a headache or apply the oil topically to reduce joint pains and muscle soreness. It is particularly useful in treating rheumatism.

6. Juniper essential oil
Extracted from the berries of the blue-green evergreen Juniperus communis, the essential oil is used to treat a number of painful conditions such as hemorrhoids, colitis, and dysmenorrhea. Sitting for 15 to 20 minutes in a hot bath to which a few drops of the oil are added helps relieve hemorrhoids. A few drops mixed with a spoonful of olive oil or mixed into an herbal tea can be taken internally to treat colitis and indigestion. Its carminative effect relieves pain due to gas accumulation. Juniper berry oil is used topically to treat rheumatic pain too.

7. Wintergreen essential oil
Wintergreen oil is obtained from a North American evergreen shrub Gaultheria procumbens growing close the ground. Its pain-relieving property was well known to Native Americans who had used it extensively in tribal medicine. Although the leaf extract had been earlier used internally to treat digestive and bladder problems, the essential oil is now limited to external use due to its toxicity and risk of causing intestinal hemorrhage.

Wintergreen oil is excellent for treating skeletal pains and neuralgia. It is commonly used to treat arthritis and muscle pain resulting from sports injuries. Always use it diluted with carrier oils when applying to the affected area. It can relieve a headache and sore throat too.

8. Cayenne essential oil
The hot and spicy essential oil extracted from the seeds of cayenne pepper is surprisingly effective in relieving the most severe types of pain such as that of shingles. Because of its potency, it has to be used in a much-diluted form. A little cayenne oil goes a long way. A single drop of this thick, viscous oil mixed with a light carrier oil like coconut oil makes it easier to apply. Use it topically to relieve arthritic and rheumatic pain and neuralgia.

9. Ginger essential oil
Fresh ginger and its extract are popular as digestive aids, but the essential oil is just as effective in treating a number of painful autoimmune conditions including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, lupus etc. The essential oil can be taken internally or used topically or inhaled. Unlike the analgesic drugs used to manage the above conditions, ginger oil therapy has been found to have no adverse side effects even when used for extended periods of time.

10. Sandalwood essential oil
This is one of the most expensive essential oils since the oil is obtained from the heartwood of the Sandalwood tree Santalum album. The tree should be at least 50 years or older to provide high-quality oil. However, its antispasmodic property and the anti-inflammatory action of sandalwood make it worth having in your medicine chest. It is a powerful pain reliever whether it is muscle pain, skeletal pain or neuralgia. Use a few drops in an infuser or take a daily dose of 3 drops of pure oil in a cup of water. This has been known to reduce pain due to endometriosis.

11. Clary sage essential oil
Clary sage oil derived from the herb Salvia sclarea is best known for its benefits to the eye, but it is an excellent pain killer too, especially in case of pain associated with menstruation and menopause. It relieves stress-induced headache when used in a diffuser and reduces cramps and painful stomach spasms when applied to the abdominal area, but it should not be taken internally. This oil should be used sparingly and cautiously.

12. Clove essential oil
Cloves are the unopened buds of the Syzygium aromaticum tree from the tropics. The oil extracted from cloves is highly spicy and pungent and gives a burning sensation when applied on the skin in the undiluted form. This is immediately followed by an anesthetic action which helps provide almost instantaneous relief from acute pain as in the case of a toothache. A few drops of clove oil can be mixed with a cup of warm water and used as a throat gargle to get relief from throat pain. Besides that, the antimicrobial action of the oil can help clear the infection too.

To get relief from muscle and joint pain and soreness resulting from overexertion, Clove oil mixed with jojoba oil or olive oil can be massaged into the affected area. Use just a drop of undiluted oil on insect bites for instant relief. To treat headaches, mix a few drops of clove oil in water or salt solution and apply to the forehead and neck.

13. Marjoram essential oil
Made from sweet marjoram, an herb closely related to oregano, this spicy, edible oil is analgesic and antispasmodic. Use it in an infuser to treat headaches during cold and fever. Diluted with olive oil and massaged into the affected area, it relieves muscular spasms resulting from overexertion of muscles in hands and legs. When taken internally, it can also reduce abdominal spasms associated with diarrhea. Marjoram oil is a good toothache remedy for spot application as well.

The mild sedative effect of sweet marjoram oil provides relief from chronic pain and is effective in treating conditions like osteoarthritis and rheumatism.

14. Yarrow essential oil
It is extracted from the yarrow plant Achillea millefolium commonly known as nosebleed plant because of its ability to stop bleeding from the nose as well as minor wounds. The essential oil is antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory, and contains salicylic acid which is behind the analgesic effect of aspirin.

15. Helichrysum essential oil
Distilled from the flowering plant Helichrysum italicum, this oil is a powerful anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic analgesic. When applied on bruised areas, it quickly takes away not only the pain but the visible discoloration of the skin. The bruises are known to disappear overnight. For instant relief from the pain and soreness resulting from sunburn, apply Helichrysum oil diluted with coconut oil.

Helichrysum oil is a staple in anti-rheumatic medications. It can relieve deep nerve pain and provide quick relief from painful conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome and sciatica.

Antioxidants and insulin sensitivity

80 scientists are part of a team that formulated and continue to find high quality ingredients (can reset gene expression to a younger you) in a quality supplementation at AGELOC product family :
ageloc youth
Researchers have shown that red wine and tea may both hold promise for regulating the blood sugar of people with type 2 diabetes.

Levels of blood glucose rise sharply in patients with type 2 diabetes immediately following a meal. Red wine and tea contain antioxidants that help to slow the passage of glucose through the small intestine and into the bloodstream, which can prevent the blood sugar spike.

Keeping blood sugar levels normal is one of the key challenges of managing diabetes; doing so can help prevent the disease from contributing to heart disease and high blood pressure as well as damaging the eyes, kidneys, nerves and blood vessels.

In the study, researchers tested how well wine and tea could inhibit the activity of a target enzyme called alpha-glucosidase, which is responsible for triggering the absorption of glucose by the small intestine.

Red wine came out on top, as it was able to inhibit the enzyme by nearly 100 percent, compared to white wine at 20 percent.

Out of the four types of tea tested — black, oolong, white and green — black tea was most effective, followed by white tea and oolong tea.

Dr. Mercola’s Comments:
Red wine and tea continue to make headlines as some of the most promising “functional foods” of the 21st century. But it takes a little bit of digging to get to the bottom of what’s really healthy, and not so healthy, about these two beverages.

Should You Drink Red Wine?

No doubt about it, red wine contains lots of antioxidants, namely polyphenols, which are known to fight free radicals and reduce your risk of a number of degenerative conditions from cancer and heart disease to neurodegenerative diseases.

And resveratrol, perhaps the most talked about antioxidant in red wine, may even extend your lifespan.

So should you have a glass now and then?

In my opinion, no. This is largely because, despite the other healthy properties in red wine, the alcohol itself is actually a neurotoxin, which means it can poison your brain. Additionally, it has the strong potential to seriously disrupt your delicate hormone balance. This may be why if you drink heavy amounts of beer and spirits you may double your risk of developing colorectal tumors.

You also need to be aware that consuming large amounts of wine will increase insulin levels and eventually have a negative impact on your health. This is especially important for people who already show signs of insulin resistance, such as high blood pressure, extra weight, high cholesterol, and, yes, diabetes.

This is contradictory to the study above, which found that wine actually benefits blood sugar. Well, keep in mind that this study only looked at wine’s ability to inhibit the activity of a single target enzyme, and not how it would impact your entire system.

Having said that, it is important to understand some important facts about resveratrol. Because this antioxidant is soluble in alcohol, you will get far more absorption if you consume it in an alcohol base as opposed to swallowing it from a pill. So while there are clearly distinct and negative consequences to consuming alcohol, these are partially compensated for by its ability to increase the absorption of resveratrol into your blood where it performs its magic.

Keep in mind, though, that if you decide to drink red wine, you need to check on the growing conditions of the grapes and how the wine is made. If the wine isn’t made with organic grapes, it may contain no resveratrol at all.

Should You Drink Tea?

Like wine, tea is packed with antioxidants that are great for your health. Research has indicated that tea could have beneficial effects including:

  • Improved mental alertness
  • Lower blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels
  • Reduced blood pressure
  • Lower risk of breast, colon, lung, ovarian and prostate cancers
  • Protection again type 2 diabetes

And one component of tea, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), could also help prevent psoriasis, prostate cancer and colon tumors. Several studies have also found that EGCG can improve exercise performance, increase fat oxidation and prevent obesity, as it’s known to have a regulatory effect on fat metabolism.

So should you make a cup of tea, or a few of them, part of your day?

Well, next to pure water, high-quality tea is one of the most nutritious beverages you can consume. Personally, I’ve begun to include matcha green tea from 100 percent, quality tea leaves as a regular part of my diet.

How Else Can You Regulate Your Blood Sugar?

Please don’t misconstrue — there are many ways to improve your health and your blood sugar levels that don’t involve drinking anything. Among the most powerful:

1. Find out your nutritional type. Nearly all type 2 diabetics need to swap out their grains and sugars for other foods, however, some of you will benefit from using protein for the substitution, while others will benefit from using more vegetable-only carbohydrates. Which one is determined by your nutritional type.

2. Exercise. Regular physical activity helps to stabilize your blood sugar and make your cells more responsive to insulin. So get moving!

3. Use cinnamon. If you enjoy this spice, feel free to sprinkle it on your food generously — it’s known to help control blood sugar levels. Though this doesn’t address the underlying causes of type 2 diabetes like the first two tips do, it’s still an inexpensive, and safe, tool to add to your collection.

Connie’s comments:

Greens, ginger, garlic, onions, massage, de-stressing, exercise, adequate sleep are all factors that can help regulate your sugar blood levels.

 

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Effects of antioxidant supplementation on insulin sensitivity, endothelial adhesion molecules, and oxidative stress in normal-weight and overweight young adults.

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine whether short-term antioxidant (AOX) supplementation affects insulin sensitivity, endothelial adhesion molecule levels, and oxidative stress in overweight young adults.

A randomized, double-blind, controlled study tested the effects of AOXs on measures of insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment [HOMA]) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index), endothelial adhesion molecules (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular adhesion molecule, and endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1), adiponectin, and oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxides) in overweight and normal-weight individuals (N = 48, 18-30 years).

Participants received either AOX (vitamin E, 800 IU; vitamin C, 500 mg; beta-carotene, 10 mg) or placebo for 8 weeks. The HOMA values were initially higher in the overweight subjects and were lowered with AOX by week 8 (15% reduction, P = .02).

Adiponectin increased in both AOX groups. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 decreased in overweight AOX-treated groups by 6% and 13%, respectively (P < .05).

Plasma lipid hydroperoxides were reduced by 0.31 and 0.70 nmol/mL in the normal-weight and overweight AOX-treated groups, respectively, by week 8 (P < .05). Antioxidant supplementation moderately lowers HOMA and endothelial adhesion molecule levels in overweight young adults.

A potential mechanism to explain this finding is the reduction in oxidative stress by AOX.

PMID:

 

19154960

 

PMCID:

 

PMC3325609

 

DOI:

 

10.1016/j.metabol.2008.09.022

Ketogenic Diet Improves Lifespan and Memory in Aging Mice

Ketogenic Diet Improves Lifespan and Memory in Aging Mice

Summary: Researchers report mice that were put on a ketogenic diet showed significant improvements in memory and were more likely to survive to older ages than those on different diets.

Source: Buck Institute.

Study on the effects of ketone bodies opens up new area of inquiry in aging research.

A ketogenic diet significantly improved memory in aging mice and increased the animal’s chances of surviving to old age. Results of the study from Eric Verdin’s lab at the Buck Institute for Research on Aging in Novato, CA are published in the September 5th issue of Cell Metabolism.

Eating a ketogenic diet – which is high fat, low protein, and low carbohydrates – ramps up the production of the ketone body beta-hydroxybutyrate acid (BHB). While small studies in humans with cognitive impairment have suggested that BHB could improve memory, senior scientist and Buck President and CEO, Eric Verdin MD, says this is the first study in aging mammals which details the positive effects of BHB on memory and lifespan. “This opens up a new field in aging research,” said Verdin. “We think the health benefits of BHB may go beyond memory and could affect tissues and organ systems.” Verdin added that the results also support efforts in his lab to translate the findings to the clinic. “We’re looking for drug targets. The ultimate goal is to find a way for humans to benefit from BHBs without having to go on a restrictive diet.”

The study was designed by lead scientist John Newman, MD, PhD, who is both a researcher in the Verdin lab and a geriatrician at University of California San Francisco. He wanted to study the long-term effects of a ketogenic diet in mice, while addressing one of the major issues that crop up in research involving diet – variability. “When studying a diet intervention, you have to pay attention to every detail,” he said. Newman carefully designed three diets that were matched in every way except fat and carbohydrate content: a normal high-carbohydrate diet, a zero-carbohydrate ketogenic diet, and a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that was not ketogenic. Mice were fed the ketogenic diet intermittently to prevent them from becoming obese, starting at one year old – middle age for mice.

The ketogenic diet-fed mice had a lower risk of dying as they aged from one to two years old, although their maximum lifespan was unchanged. Another group of mice underwent memory testing at both middle age (one year old) and old age (two years old). Mice that had been eating a ketogenic diet performed at least as well on memory tests at old age as they did at middle age, while mice eating the normal diet showed an expected age-associated decline. Mice who ate the ketogenic diet also explored more, and their improved memory was confirmed with another test a few months later. Newman noted that the mice were off the ketogenic diet and did not have any BHB in their blood during the testing period. “We were careful to have all of the mice eating a normal diet during the actual memory testing which suggests the effects of the ketogenic diet were lasting. Something changed in the brains of these mice to make them more resilient to the effects of age,” he said. “Determining what this is, is the next step in the work.”

graphic abstract.

Newman said gene expression could explain the cognitive improvement. “Looking at gene expression, the ketogenic diet suppressed the longevity-related TOR pathway and insulin signaling and up-regulated the fasting-related transcription factor PPAR-alpha, a master regulator that helps the body more efficiently metabolize fat.”

Verdin said the study will open the door to new therapies for the cognitive problems of aging. “As we gain a deeper understanding of what BHB does in our body and our brain, we can intelligently design therapies to capture individual benefits while minimizing harms.” The Verdin lab is currently exploring beneficial effects of a similar ketogenic diet in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease.

The research has many caveats for humans eager to utilize diet to improve their odds of maintaining cognitive ability — it involved a single strain and sex of mice living in an environment where it’s easy to control every aspect of the diet. Ketogenic diets are used clinically for life-threatening conditions like epilepsy, and most people should consult a health care professional before trying it on their own, said Verdin. “Exercise also creates ketone bodies – that may be one of the mechanisms why it shows such protective effects on brain function and on healthspan and lifespan,” he said.

ABOUT THIS NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH ARTICLE

Other Buck Institute collaborators include Anthony J. Covarrubias, Minghao Zhao, and Che-Ping Ng. Other collaborators include Xinxing Yu, UCSF Division of Geriatrics, San Francisco, CA; Philip Gut, Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, San Francisco, CA; and Yu Huang and Saptarsi Haldar from the Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, San Francisco, CA.

Funding: The work was supported by grants from National Institutes of Health, K08AG048354 and R24DK085610; Gladstone Institutes intramural funds, Buck Institute intramural funds, and funds from the Larry L. Hillblom Foundation, Glenn Foundation for Medical Research, the American Federal for Aging Research and the Buck Institute Impact Circle.

Source: Verena Müller – Buck Institute
Image Source: NeuroscienceNews.com image is credited to Newman et al./Cell Metabolism.
Original Research: Full open access research for “Ketogenic Diet Reduces Midlife Mortality and Improves Memory in Aging Mice” by John C. Newman, Anthony J. Covarrubias, Minghao Zhao, Xinxing Yu, Philip Gut, Che-Ping Ng, Yu Huang, Saptarsi Haldar, Eand ric Verdin in Cell Metabolism. Published online September 5 2017 doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2017.08.004

CITE THIS NEUROSCIENCENEWS.COM ARTICLE
Buck Institute “Ketogenic Diet Improves Lifespan and Memory in Aging Mice.” NeuroscienceNews. NeuroscienceNews, 5 September 2017.
<http://neurosciencenews.com/ketogenic-diet-aging-7419/&gt;.

Abstract

Ketogenic Diet Reduces Midlife Mortality and Improves Memory in Aging Mice

Highlights

•Feeding isoprotein ketogenic diet to mice every other week (Cyclic KD) avoids obesity
•Cyclic KD reduces midlife mortality with no change in maximum lifespan
•Cyclic KD prevents memory decline with modest other healthspan effects
•Gene expression of KD is similar to high-fat diet, except for activation of PPARα targets

Summary
Ketogenic diets recapitulate certain metabolic aspects of dietary restriction such as reliance on fatty acid metabolism and production of ketone bodies. We investigated whether an isoprotein ketogenic diet (KD) might, like dietary restriction, affect longevity and healthspan in C57BL/6 male mice. We find that Cyclic KD, KD alternated weekly with the Control diet to prevent obesity, reduces midlife mortality but does not affect maximum lifespan. A non-ketogenic high-fat diet (HF) fed similarly may have an intermediate effect on mortality. Cyclic KD improves memory performance in old age, while modestly improving composite healthspan measures. Gene expression analysis identifies downregulation of insulin, protein synthesis, and fatty acid synthesis pathways as mechanisms common to KD and HF. However, upregulation of PPARα target genes is unique to KD, consistent across tissues, and preserved in old age. In all, we show that a non-obesogenic ketogenic diet improves survival, memory, and healthspan in aging mice.

“Ketogenic Diet Reduces Midlife Mortality and Improves Memory in Aging Mice” by John C. Newman, Anthony J. Covarrubias, Minghao Zhao, Xinxing Yu, Philip Gut, Che-Ping Ng, Yu Huang, Saptarsi Haldar, Eand ric Verdin in Cell Metabolism. Published online September 5 2017 doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2017.08.004

Slow the aging process by lengthening your telomeres

  • Telomeres, the tiny units of DNA at the very end of each chromosome, shorten over time because they cannot fully replicate each time the cell divides. Hence, as you get older, your telomeres get shorter and shorter. But a growing body of research is showing that certain nutrients play a huge role in protecting, or even increasing, telomere length, thereby affecting longevity.
  • 12 key nutrients known to positively affect telomere length and promote longevity are reviewed.
  • Two additional lifestyle factors—exercise, and intermittent fasting—are also discussed, as they too can help protect against telomere shortening.

Nutritionists have long been interested in the dynamics of telomere length in the body, and how telomeres figure in to human health and life expectancy. Telomeres were first discovered in 1973 by Alexey Olovnikov.

He found that the tiny units of DNA at the very end of each chromosome—the telomere—shorten with time because they cannot replicate completely each time the cell divides and they may be the most powerful biological clock that has yet to be identified.

Hence, as you get older, your telomeres get shorter and shorter. Eventually, DNA replication and cell division ceases completely, at which point you die. However, a growing body of research is showing that certain nutrients play a huge role in protecting telomere length; greatly affecting how long you live.

One Way Nutrition Affects Longevity

For example, in one recent studyi, scientists found that the B vitamin folate plays an important part in maintenance of DNA integrity and DNA methylation, which in turn influences telomere length.

Researchers also found that women who use vitamin B12 supplements have longer telomeres than those who don’t. Vitamin D3, zinc, iron, omega-3 fatty acids, and vitamins C and E also influence telomere length. This supports the findings of an earlier study from 2009, which provided the first epidemiologic evidence that the use of multivitamins by women is associated with longer telomeres.ii According to the authors:

“Compared with nonusers, the relative telomere length of leukocyte DNA was on average 5.1% longer among daily multivitamin users. In the analysis of micronutrients, higher intakes of vitamins C and E from foods were each associated with longer telomeres, even after adjustment for multivitamin use.”

The mechanism by which nutrients appear to affect telomere length is by influencing the activity of telomerase, an enzyme that adds the telomeric repeats to the ends of your DNA. Thousands of studies have been published on telomerase, and they are well-known to maintain genomic stability, prevent the inappropriate activation of DNA damage pathways, and regulate cellular aging.

In 1984, Elizabeth Blackburn PhD, professor of biochemistry and biophysics at UCSF, discovered that the enzyme telomerase actually has the ability to lengthen the telomere by synthesizing DNA from an RNA primer. She, along with Carol Greider and Jack Szostak were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2009 “for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase.”

The Science of Growing Younger

I believe the science of telomeres offers the most exciting and viable possibility for extreme life extension—the kind of anti-aging strategy that can actually allow you to regenerate and in effect “grow younger.” Naturally, researchers are hard at work devising pharmaceutical strategies to accomplish this, but there’s solid evidence that simple lifestyle strategies and nutritional intervention can do this too. This is great news, as short telomeres are a risk factor not just for death itself, but for many diseases as well.

For example, telomere shortening has been linked to the diseases listed below. But animal studies have also shown that these types of health problems can be reversed by restoring telomerase functioning:

Decreased immune response against infections Type 2 diabetes Atherosclerotic lesions
Neurodegenerative diseases Testicular, splenic, intestinal atrophy DNA damage

Top 12 Key Nutrients for Life Extension

The featured study found the following nutrients to have a beneficial impact on telomere length:

Vitamin B12 Zinc Vitamin D
Omega-3 Vitamin C Vitamin E

Below, I will review a few of those, plus several additional recommendations for what I believe are among the most important nutrients to maintain and promote telomere lengthening.

Naturally, any attempt at a list like this is bound to fail to some degree as we really need a balance of a wide variety of nutrients. However, I believe it’s possible to make some general recommendations based on the fact that most people are sorely deficient in many of these key nutrients that we know are important for optimal health. Others, such as astaxanthin and curcumin, just have such robust scientific support that it would seem foolish to ignore them when the benefits are so profound. With that said, here are my recommendations for the top 12 anti-aging nutrients, followed by two bonus strategies that do not involve taking supplements that can also help radically increase your lifespan by protecting your telomeres.

I have listed the 12 nutrients below in the order that I believe they have in importance. I personally take the first six every day but the vitamin D is through sun exposure, not through an oral supplement.

1. Vitamin D

In one study of more than 2,000 women, those with higher vitamin D levels were found to have fewer aging-related changes in their DNA, as well as lowered inflammatory responsesiii. Women with higher levels of vitamin D are more likely to have longer telomeres, and vice versa. This means that people with higher levels of vitamin D may actually age more slowly than people with lower levels of vitamin D.

Your leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a predictor for aging related diseases. As you age, your LTL’s become shorter, but, if you suffer from chronic inflammation, your telomeres decrease in length much faster, because your body’s inflammatory response accelerates leukocyte turnover. Your vitamin D concentrations also decrease with age, whereas your C-reactive protein (a mediator of inflammation) increases. This inverse double-whammy increases your overall risk of developing autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis.

The good news is that vitamin D is a potent inhibitor of your body’s inflammatory response, and by reducing inflammation, you diminish your turnover of leukocytes, effectively creating a positive chain reaction that can help protect you against a variety of diseases. In essence, it protects your body from the deterioration of aging. Researchers have found that subsets of leukocytes have receptors for the active form of vitamin D (D3), which allows the vitamin to have a direct effect on these cells. This may also explain the specific connection between vitamin D and autoimmune disease.

The absolute best way to optimize your vitamin D levels would be through safe sun exposure. I am fully aware that many will not be able to implement this recommendation due to lifestyle constraints, but I feel I would be reprehensibly negligent if I did not emphasize how superior photo vitamin D is compared to oral. So for those who are able to, I have provided the following video that helps you find the times exposing your skin to the sun will actually produce vitamin D in your location.

 

2. Astaxanthin (derived from the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis)

In the 2009 study on multivitamin use and telomere length, longer telomeres were also associated with the use of antioxidant formulasiv. According to the authors, telomeres are particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress. Additionally, inflammation induces oxidative stress and lowers the activity of telomerase (again, that’s the enzyme responsible for maintaining your telomeres).

Astaxanthin has emerged as one of the most potent and beneficial antioxidants currently known, with potent anti-inflammatory and DNA-protective capabilities. Research has even shown that it can protect against DNA damage induced by gamma radiationv. It has a number of unique features that make it stand out from the crowd.

For example, it is by far the most powerful carotenoid antioxidant when it comes to free radical scavenging: astaxanthin is 65 times more powerful than vitamin C, 54 times more powerful than beta-carotene, and 14 times more powerful than vitamin Evi. It’s also far more effective than other carotenoids at “singlet oxygen quenching,” which is a particular type of oxidation. It is 550 times more powerful than vitamin E, and 11 times more powerful than beta-carotene at neutralizing singlet oxygen.

Astaxanthin crosses both your blood-brain barrier AND your blood-retinal barrier (beta carotene and lycopene do not), which brings antioxidant and anti-inflammatory protection to your eyes, brain and central nervous system.

Another feature that separates astaxanthin from other carotenoids is that it cannot function as a pro-oxidant. Many antioxidants will act as pro-oxidants (meaning they start to cause rather than combat oxidation) when present in your tissues in sufficient concentrations. This is why you don’t want to go overboard taking too many antioxidant supplements like beta-carotene, for example. Astaxanthin, on the other hand, does not function as a pro-oxidant, even when present in high amounts, which makes it highly beneficial.

Lastly, one of its most profound features is its unique ability to protect the entire cell from damage—both the water-soluble part and the fat-soluble portion of the cell. Other antioxidants affect just one or the other. This is due to astaxanthin’s unique physical characteristics that allow it to reside within the cell membrane will also protecting the inside of the cell. To learn more about astaxanthin, please listen to the following interview with Dr. Robert Corish.

3. Ubiquinol (CoQ10)

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is the fifth most popular supplement in the United States, taken by about 53 percent of Americans, according to a 2010 survey by ConsumerLab.comvii. This is a good thing as one in every four Americans over 45 is taking a statin and every single one of these individuals needs to be taking it.

CoQ10 is used by every cell in your body. In fact, it is so important for your body’s daily functions that it is also known as “ubiquinone” because it’s ‘ubiquitous’ in the human body.

What you may not know, however, is that to benefit from the form of the nutrient needed to produce cellular energy and help you reduce the typical signs of aging, your body must convert the ubiquinone to the reduced form, called ubiquinol — and research is showing that this reduced form may actually be superior for your health in a number of ways. If you’re under 25 years old your body is capable of converting CoQ10 from the oxidized to the reduced form. However, if you’re older, your body becomes more and more challenged to convert the oxidized CoQ10 to ubiquinol.

Premature aging is one primary side effect of having too little CoQ10 because this essential vitamin recycles other antioxidants, such as vitamin C and E. CoQ10 deficiency also accelerates DNA damage, and because CoQ10 is beneficial to heart health and muscle function this depletion leads to fatigue, muscle weakness, soreness and eventually heart failure.

In a previous interview with Dr. Stephen Sinatra, he recounts an experiment from the mid-90’s on aging rats. The average lifespan of a rat is two years. Rats given CoQ10, at the end of their life, had more energy, better coats, and better appetites, compared to the rats that did not get CoQ10. The supplement basically had a potent anti-aging effect, in the sense it maintained youthfulness until the very end of their life. In terms of life extension, the effect was minimal.

Dr. Sinatra also conducted his own research and found that CoQ10 given to both younger and older mice resulted in increased energy and vigor. Older mice traveled through mazes quicker, they had better memory, and had more locomotor activity than those who did not get CoQ10. So CoQ10 definitely appears to improve the quality of life, even if it may not significantly increase longevity per say. For more information and dosage recommendations, please see this previous CoQ10 article.

4. Fermented Foods / Probiotics

It’s quite clear that eating a diet consisting of high amounts of processed foods will shorten your life, yet 90 percent of the money Americans spend on food is spent on processed food, and the number one source of calories in the US comes from high fructose corn syrup – a staple ingredient in nearly all processed foods, from frozen dinners, to condiments, snacks, and soda. Researchers have even discovered that genetic mutations and malfunctions that cause disease are created in future generations when highly processed and artificial foods are consumed!

Part of the problem is that these processed, sugar- and chemical-laden foods effectively destroy your intestinal microflora. Your gut flora has incredible power over your immune system, which, of course, is your body’s natural defense system. Antibiotics, stress, artificial sweeteners, chlorinated water and many other factors can also reduce the amount of probiotics (beneficial bacteria) in your gut, which can predispose you to illness and premature aging. Ideally, you’ll want to make traditionally cultured and fermented foods a staple in your daily diet.

You can use a probiotic supplement, but getting your probiotics from food is definitely better as you can consume far more beneficial bacteria, in many cases up to 100X more. Fermented vegetables are an excellent alternative as they are both delicious and simple to make. In the following video, Caroline Barringer discusses the process of fermenting your own vegetables in some detail, so if you’re up for fermenting some of your own foods, please listen to this interview.

5. Krill Oil

According to Dr. William Harris, an expert on omega-3 fats, those who have an omega-3 index of less than four percent age much faster than those with indexes above eight percent. Therefore, your omega-3 index may also be an effective marker of your rate of aging. According to Dr. Harris’ research, omega-3 fats appear to play a role in activating telomerase, which, again, has been shown to be able to actually reverse telomere shortening.

Although this research is preliminary, I would suggest that optimizing your omega-3 levels above eight percent would be a good strategy if you’re interested in delaying aging. (Your doctor can order the omega-3 index test from a lab called Health Diagnostic Laboratory in Richmond, Virginia.) After all, you have nothing to lose and a lot to gain by doing so, since omega-3 has proven to be extremely important for your health in so many respects.

My favorite animal-based omega-3 is krill oil, as it has a number of benefits not found in other omega-3 supplements such as fish oil. Aside from higher potential for contamination, fish oil supplements also have a higher risk of suffering oxidation damage and becoming rancid. Dr. Rudi Moerck has discussed these risks at great length in a previous interview. Krill oil also contains naturally-occurring astaxanthin, which makes it nearly 200 times more resistant to oxidative damage compared to fish oil.

Additionally, according to Dr. Harris’ research, krill oil is also more potent gram for gram, as its absorption rate is much higher than fish oil. You get somewhere between 25 to 50 percent more omega-3 per milligram when you take krill oil compared to fish oil, hence you don’t need to take as much.

6. Vitamin K2

Vitamin K may very well be “the next vitamin D” as research continues to illuminate a growing number of benefits to your health. While most people get enough vitamin K from their diets to maintain adequate blood clotting, they’re NOT enough to offer protection against more serious health problems. For example, research over the past few years suggest that vitamin K2 can provide substantial protection from prostate cancerviii, which is one of the leading causes of cancer among men in the United States. And research results are similarly encouraging for the benefits of vitamin K to your cardiac health:

In 2004, the Rotterdam Study, which was the first study demonstrating the beneficial effect of vitamin K2, showed that people who consume 45 mcg of K2 daily live seven years longer than people getting 12 mcg per dayix.

In a subsequent study called the Prospect Studyx, 16,000 people were followed for 10 years. Researchers found that each additional 10 mcg of K2 in the diet results in 9 percent fewer cardiac events.

K2 is present in fermented foods, particularly cheese and the Japanese food natto, which is by far the richest source of K2.

7. Magnesium

According to the featured researchxi, magnesium also plays an important role in DNA replication, repair, and RNA synthesis, and dietary magnesium has been shown to positively correlate with increased telomere length in women. Other research has shown that long term deficiency leads to telomere shortening in rats and cell cultures. It appears the lack of magnesium ions has a negative influence on genome integrity. Insufficient amounts of magnesium also reduce your body’s ability to repair damaged DNA, and can induce chromosomal abnormalities. According to the authors, it’s reasonable to hypothesize that “magnesium influences telomere length by affecting DNA integrity and repair, in addition to its potential role in oxidative stress and inflammation.”

8. Polyphenols

Polyphenols are potent antioxidant compounds in plant foods, many of which have been linked to anti-aging benefits and disease reduction. Here are but a few examples of these potent antioxidant compounds:

    • Grapes (resveratrol) — Resveratrol deeply penetrates the center of your cell’s nucleus, giving your DNA time to repair free radical damage. Research dating back to 2003 showed that resveratrol, a powerful polyphenol and anti-fungal chemical, was able to increase the lifespan of yeast cells.xii

The findings showed that resveratrol could activate a gene called sirtuin1, which is also activated during calorie restriction in various species. Since then studies in nematode worms, fruit flies, fish, mice, and human cells have linked resveratrol to longer lives.

Resveratrol is found in grapes, and there are numerous products on the market containing resveratrol. I recommend looking for one made from Muscadine grapes, and that uses WHOLE grape skins and seeds, as this is where many of the benefits are concentrated.

    • Cacao — Quite a few studies have confirmed the potent antioxidant properties, and subsequent health benefits, of raw cocoa powder. Dark, organic, unprocessed chocolate has been found to benefit your glucose metabolism (diabetic control), blood pressure, and cardiovascular health.
    • Green tea — Polyphenols in tea, which include EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate) and many others, have been found to offer protection against many types of cancer. The polyphenols in green tea may constitute up to 30 percent of the dry leaf weight, so, when you drink a cup of green tea, you’re drinking a fairly potent solution of healthy tea polyphenols.

Green tea is the least processed kind of tea, so it also contains the highest amounts of EGCG of all tea varieties. Keep in mind, however, that many green teas have been oxidized, and this process may take away many of its valuable properties. The easiest sign to look for when evaluating a green tea’s quality is its color: if your green tea is brown rather than green, it’s likely been oxidized.

My personal favorite is matcha green tea because it contains the entire ground tea leaf, and can contain over 100 times the EGCG provided from regular brewed green tea.

9. Folate (aka Vitamin B9, or Folic Acid)

According to the featured study in the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, plasma concentrations of the B vitamin folate correspond to telomere length in both men and women. Folate plays an important role in the maintenance of DNA integrity and DNA methylation, both of which influence the length of your telomeresxiii.

It is useful for preventing depression, seizure disorders and brain atrophy. In fact, folate deficiency can lead to elevated homocysteine levels, which can be a major contributor to heart disease and Alzheimer’s disease. One unfortunate and preventable reason why some believe folate numbers are slipping is the increased prevalence of obesity, which negatively affects the way most people metabolize this important vitamin. The ideal way to raise your folate levels is to eat plenty of fresh, raw, organic leafy green vegetables, and beans.

Please note that it is the natural folate from food that has been found to be beneficial. This may not be true for the supplement folic acid.

10. Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is fittingly known as “the energy vitamin,” and your body requires it for a number of vital functions. Among them: energy production, blood formation, DNA synthesis, and myelin formation. (Myelin is insulation that protects your nerve endings and allows them to communicate with one another.) Unfortunately, research suggests about 25 percent of American adults are deficient in this vitally important nutrient, and nearly half the population has suboptimal blood levels.

Vitamin B12 is found almost exclusively in animal tissues, including foods like beef and beef liver, lamb, snapper, venison, salmon, shrimp, scallops, poultry and eggs. It’s not readily available in plants, so if you do not eat meat or animal products you are at risk of deficiency. The few plant foods that are sources of B12 are actually B12 analogs. An analog is a substance that blocks the uptake of true B12, so your body’s need for the nutrient actually increases.

If you aren’t getting sufficient B12 in your diet, I recommend you begin supplementation immediately with this vital nutrient with either an under-the-tongue fine mist spray or vitamin B12 injections. Ensuring your body has adequate B12 can vastly improve the quality of your life and prevent debilitating, even life-threatening diseases which result from a deficiency of this all-important nutrient.

11. Curcumin (Turmeric)

Curcumin — the active ingredient in the spice turmeric—acts both as an immune booster and potent anti-inflammatory. But perhaps its greatest value lies in its anti-cancer potential, and it has the most evidence based literature backing up its anti-cancer claims of any other nutrient. It affects over 100 different pathways once it gets into a cell—among them, a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers.

The spice actually stops laboratory strains of melanoma from proliferating and pushes the cancer cells to commit suicide by shutting down nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB), a powerful protein known to induce abnormal inflammatory response that leads to an assortment of disorders such as arthritis and cancer.

To get the full benefits that curcumin has to offer, you will want to look for a turmeric extract with at least 95 percent curcuminoids that contains only 100 percent certified organic ingredients. The formula should be free of fillers, additives and excipients (a substance added to the supplement as a processing or stability aid), and the manufacturer should use safe production practices at all stages: planting, cultivation, selective harvesting, and then producing and packaging the final product. This previous article can provide you further details on how to use curcumin.

12. Vitamin A

According to the featured study in the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, telomere length is positively associated with dietary intake of vitamin A in women who do not take multivitaminsxiv. It plays an important role in your immune response, and if you’re deficient, you become predisposed to infections that can promote telomere shortening. However, vitamin A does not appear to have a dose-dependent effect on telomere length, so you don’t need high amounts.

Two Additional Lifestyle Strategies that Affect Telomere Length

While a nutritious diet accounts for about 80 percent of the benefits derived from a healthy lifestyle, exercise cannot be ignored, and there’s evidence suggesting that exercise protects against telomere shortening as well. Yet another lifestyle strategy that can have a beneficial impact is intermittent fasting.

    • Exercise — One recent study on post-menopausal women suffering from chronic stress found that “vigorous physical activity appears to protect those experiencing high stress by buffering its relationship with telomere length (TL).” xv In fact, among the women who did not exercise, each unit increase in the Perceived Stress Scale was related to a 15-fold increase in the odds of having short telomeres. Those who did exercise regularly showed no correlation between telomere length and perceived stress!

High-intensity exercise appears to be the most effective all-natural approach to slow down the aging process by reducing telomere shortening. In fact, research has shown there’s a direct association between reduced telomere shortening in your later years and high-intensity-type exercisesxvi: Greta Blackburn’s book The Immortality Edge: Realize the Secrets of Your Telomeres for a Longer, Healthier Lifexvii further details the importance of high-intensity exercise to prevent telomere shortening.

    • Intermittent Fasting — Previous research has shown that you can extend your lifespan by reducing your caloric intake, and I’ve written about this technique in the past. The problem is that most people do not understand how to properly cut calories, because in order to remain healthy, you have to cut out the right kind of calories—namely carbohydrates. Research by Professor Cynthia Kenyon has shown that avoiding carbs will activate genes that govern youthfulness and longevity.

But the health benefits of calorie restriction can also be achieved by intermittent fasting (keep in mind you still need to cut out sugars and grains). For more detailed recommendations and guidance on intermittent fasting, or scheduled eating, please see this recent article that greatly expands on this complex topic, and highlights the precautions, as it certainly isn’t for everyone.


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